View Full Version : On this day in Military History

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04-18-2010, 05:17 PM
In 1783 Fighting on the American Mainland ceases , the American Revolution is over.

In 1797 the battle of Neuwied- French Vicotry against Austria

In 1848 the US Victory at Cerro Gordo in the Mexican war

In 1915 a French pilot named Roland Garros glides to a landing after having shot his prop off and is captured by the Germans.

In 1942 off the coast of Japan 16 B-25B medium Bombers took off from the deck of the USS Hornet to raid targets in Japan.

In 1943 Operation Vengeance- Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto is ambushed and shot down by USAAF P-38s over Bougainville

In 1945, Correspondent Ernie Pyle was Killed by Japanese Machinegun fire on the island of Ie Shima off the coast of Okinawa

In 1945 1,000 RAF Bombers raid Heligoland Germany

04-18-2010, 05:35 PM
intruguing stuff LD thanks! :grin:

04-18-2010, 07:02 PM
Friday was the 65th anniversary of the start of the Battle of Berlin as well.
Spent the day in Treptow Park.

04-18-2010, 08:02 PM
39 years ago, the last elements of the invading forces participating in the failed Bay of Pigs operation surrendered to Cuban Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias (FAR).

04-19-2010, 04:53 AM
Cool and interesting post, and I've just discovered the history section of this forum...so awesome! :)

04-19-2010, 06:34 AM
Lord Byron is welcomed by the people of Missolonghi

Lord Byron dies from a fever contracted while in the Greek town of Missolonghi, in its second siege by the Turks, during the Greek War of Independence
Lord Byron on his death bed

1941: While Greek troops continue the fight to cover the British & Commonwealth retreat from the Greek mainland (following the German breaking through the Greek & Commonwealth defensive positions in the area of Kleidion), Bulgarian troops enter Greece. Most of the northeastern part of the country comes under Bulgarian occupation and is annexed to Bulgaria

04-20-2010, 08:22 AM
1941: The Greek Destroyer "Psara IV" (D-98) is sank on Easterday, during an attack by German dive bombers in the Golf of Megara, Attica, where she was anchored with the rest of the fleet. Total losses: 37 Sailors and Petty Officers KIA.

1941: On Easterday, Lt. General Georgios Tsolakoglou, CO of the Greek forces in Albania during the German invasion, signs with the German representative, General Josef "Sepp" Dietrich, CO of the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler, the capitulation of the Greek Army, at the village of Votonosi, Epirus.

1943: At Lykokhoros, Parnassis, Colonel Demetrios Psarros names the armed wing of his resistance group, National and Social Solidarity (EKKA), "5/42 Evzone Regiment". The core of the Regiment is a group consisting of veteran troops, fighters of the Albanian front (against the Italians) & the Macedonian front (against the Germans). During the ceremony, the Greek flag is raised and the Officers, NCO & soldiers of the Regiment, give the military oath

04-21-2010, 07:41 AM
1905: Armed guerilla bands under 2nd Lt Georgios Katechakes (aka Ruvas) and 1st Lt Petros Manos (aka Vergos), cantoned near the town of Kozani, Macedonia, repealed an attack conducted by an overwhelming Turkish force. 2nd Lt Spyridon Zacharopoulos (aka Nystas) with his men, attack the enemy's rear side causing disarray and break them into a rout

1941: The Greek Hospital Ship "Hellenis" is sank during an attack by German dive bombers in the Golf of Corinth, where she was anchored, full of war-wounded.

1941: The Greek Hospital Ship "Hesperia" is sank during an attack by German dive bombers, near the Missolonghi Lagoon, where she was anchored.

1967: Just before dawn on Friday morning, a group of right-wing army officers led by Brigadier Stylianos Pattakos and Colonels Georgios Papadopoulos and Nikolaos Makarezos seized power in a coup d'etat. A series of right-wing military governments rule Greece from 1967 to 1974.
The Junta triumvirate: Pattakos, Papadopoulos, Makarezos

April 21, 1967

The Greek CoA under the military regime of '67-'74

04-21-2010, 03:02 PM
Fantastic thread. First time being here and I like it. Andrew

04-22-2010, 05:11 AM
Would like to have a daily of this

*hint hint*

04-22-2010, 05:14 AM
Great idea for a thread.

22 April
1794 - bloodless Vilnius - Russian forces expelled from the city as part of Kościuszko Uprising
1831 - November Uprising - failed assault on Russian forces at Mariampol
1915 - gas attack at Ypres
1920 - Polish Army Museum established in Warsaw
1008 - F117 retired from service

04-22-2010, 05:59 AM
1821: On April 1st, just 6 days after the outbreak of the Greek Revolution for Independence, two most competent Turkish commanders from Thessaly, Omer Vryoni and Kjose Mehmet, with a force of 8,000 men strong, move from Thessaly to the South, with orders to put down the revolt in central Greece and then proceed to the Peloponnese and lift the siege at Tripolis. The Greeks realized that it was imperative that the Ottoman force be delayed as long as possible so that the Greeks of the Peloponnese fortify their positions. They decided to send an expeditionary force North, to fight the Ottomans at hopeless odds, and to sacrifice themselves in order to improve the chances of ultimate victory. They decided to take this stand at Alamana, a few hundred yards away from the ancient site of the Thermopylae battle. The Greek force of 1,500 men strong, was split into three sections. Thus, on April 22, 1821, Dyovouniotes with his men, was to defend the bridge at Gorgopotamos, Panourgias with his men the heights of Chalkomata, and Athanasios Diakos with his force the main bridge at Alamana. During a fierce battle, Dyovouniotes' and Panourgias' sections are routed, leaving Diakos with just 48 men to defend the bridge. They put up a desperate hand-to-hand struggle for a number of hours before being overwhelmed. Diakos was captured alive and he was impaled and roasted alive οn a spit. He was 33.
The statue of Athanasios Diakos at his birthplace; the village is named after him

Athanasios Diakos

The monument of Athanasios Diakos at Alamana and the statue of Leonidas at Thermopylae, today. Separated by a gap of a few hundred yards & 23 centuries, both men are united in their love for freedom

WWI-1917: The III/1 Btn of the 1st Serres Rgt, of the Serres Division, under Captain (Infantry) Georgios Kondyles, occupies the heavily fortified Height "Semaine de Faire", 3 km/1.8 miles S of the town of Idomen, despite obstinate resistance by the Bulgarian troops. The Bulgarians react by launching a counter-attack, repealed by the Greeks. On the next day, after heavy preparatory artillery fire, a new attack is launched against the Greek troops, conducted by a strong Bulgarian force of at least two battalions, which is repealed thanks to the heroic resistance of 2nd Lt Eustathios Doganes' section. Doganes is KIA. A third consecutive Bulgarian attack is also repealed. Total Greek losses: 17 Officers & OR, KIA; 52 WIA

Georgios Kondyles (in this photo he carries the rank of Colonel)

1941: The Greek Destroyer "Hydra IV" (D-97) is sank during an attack by German dive bombers, near the island of Aegina. Total losses: 39 Officers, Petty Officers and men are killed or drowned (her CO, Commander Theodoros Pezopoulos included)
The Destroyer "Hydra"

1941: The Greek Hospital Ship "Socrates" is sank by German dive bombers, in the bay of Anticyra, where she was anchored.

04-23-2010, 12:34 AM
On this day, April 23rd.

The Battle of Clontarf:
It was between the forces of Brian Boru and the forces led by the King of Leinster, Máel Mórda mac Murchada: composed mainly of his own men, Viking mercenaries from Dublin and the Orkney Islands led by his cousin Sigtrygg, as well as the one rebellious king from the province of Ulster. It ended in a rout of the Máel Mórda's forces, along with the death of Brian, who was killed by a few Norsemen who were fleeing the battle and stumbled upon his tent. After the battle, Ireland returned to a fractious status quo between the many small, separate kingdoms that had existed for some time.

The Greek government and King George II evacuate Athens before the invading Wehrmacht.
Baedeker Blitz – German bombers hit Exeter, Bath and York in retaliation for the British raid on Lübeck.

1948 Arab-Israeli War
Haifa is captured from Arab forces.

Chinese Civil War
The Peoples Liberation Army Navy is formed.

04-23-2010, 04:47 AM
303: Roman soldier George, is executed for his Christian faith. He is venerated as a Christian martyr & Saint by the Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Anglicans & Oriental Orthodox. He is the patron Saint of the Greek Army
Greek Army battalions & regiments have a single colour or war flag. This is blue, with a white cross and features St George slaying the Dragon in the centre. Battle honours are sometimes added to the flag; the regiment's identity is inscribed on the flagstaff

The historical colours of the 1st Rgt of the II Infantry Division, in the 1st Balkan War (1912)

1827: He succumbs to his wounds, on his name day (St George's day), April 23, 1827, after being fatally wounded by a rifle shot, in the battle of Athens, the military commander, and hero of the Greek War of Independence, General Georgios Karaiskakes
General Georgios Karaiskakes

1897: Greek forces under Brigadier Constantine Smolenski, offer stiff resistance to fierce attacks launched by the Turks in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897, at Pharsala, Thessaly
Brigadier Constantine Smolenski

1941: Greek battleships, "Thyella", "Axios", "Pleias", "Nestos", "Aliacmon" and "Alcyone" are sank during an attack by German dive bombers, in the Saronic Gulf where they were anchored.

1941: Greek Torpedo boat, "Kios", is sank during an attack by German dive bombers, in the bay of Vouliagmeni where she was anchored.

1941: Greek Minesweeper, "Korgialenios", is sank during an attack by German dive bombers near the island of Corfu.

The Greek government and King George II evacuate Athens before the invading Wehrmacht
King George II of the Hellenes

Prime Minister Emmanuel Tsouderos

04-23-2010, 05:24 AM
The Battle of Kapyong,


Office of the Commanding General
APO 301

number 453

23rd June 1951

Section 1

BATTLE HONOURS-By direction of the President, under the provisions of Executive Order 9396 (Sec I, WD Bul. 22, 1943) Superceding Executive Order 9075 (SecIII, WD Bul. 16, 1942) and pursuant to authority in AR 260-15, the following units are cited as public evidence of deserved honour and distinction.
are cited for extraordinary heroism and outstanding performance of combat duties in action against the armed enemy near Kapyong, Korea, on the 24 and 25 April 1951. The enemy had broken through the main line of resistance and penetrated to the area north of Kapyong. The units listed above were deployed to stem the assault. The 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, moved to the right flank of the sector and took up defensive positions north of the Pukham River. The 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, defended in the vicinity of Hill 677 on the left flank. Company A, 72nd Heavy Tank Battalion, supported all units to the full extent of its capacity and, in addition, kept the main roads open and assisted in evacuating the wounded. Troops from a retreating division passed through the sector which enabled enemy troops to infiltrate with the withdrawing forces. The enemy attacked savagely under the clangor of bugles and trumpets. The forward elements were completely surrounded going through the first day and into the second. Again and again the enemy threw waves of troops at the gallant defenders, and many times succeeded in penetrating the outer defences, but each time the courageous, indomitable, and determined soldiers repulsed the fanatical attacks. Ammunition ran low and there was no time for food. Critical supplies were dropped by air to the encircled troops, and they stood their ground in resolute defiance of the enemy. With serene and indefatigable persistence, the gallant soldiers held their defensive positions and took heavy tolls of the enemy. In some instances when the enemy penetrated the defences, the commanders directed friendly artillery fire on their own positions in repelling the thrusts. Toward the close of 25 April, the enemy break-through had been stopped. The seriousness of the break-through on the central front had been changed from defeat to victory by the gallant stand of these heroic and courageous soldiers. The 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment; 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry; and Company A, 72nd Heavy Tank Battalion, displayed such gallantry, determination, and espirit de corps in accomplishing their missions under extremely difficult and hazardous conditions as to set them apart and above other units participating in the campaign, and by their achievements they brought distinguished credit on themselves, their homelands, and all freedom-loving nations

Leven C. Allen
Major General US Army
Chief of Staff

04-23-2010, 05:27 AM
Awesome thread! + Kudos for this.

04-24-2010, 05:21 AM
1184 BC: The Greeks capture the city of Troy.

1897: Turkish troops under Ethem Pasha drive off the Greeks holding the defence line Pharsala-Velestino, and capture the town of Velestino, in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897

1941: 1st and 2nd year Cadets of the Army Academy, 300-strong, steal the Academy Colour and board small ships and trawlers for Crete
The 1941 Academy Colour at the Army Academy Museum

1941: Greek warships, "Doris", "Cydoniae", "Arethousa", "Aegle", "Chios" and "Pergamos" are sank, by German dive bombers.

1941: During an attack by German planes on the Salamis Naval Base of the Royal Hellenic Navy, the historic Battleship of the Great War, "Kilkis" (former BB-23, USS Mississippi), is sank.

1941: Greek Patrol boat "A4" is sank during a German air raid, near the island of Euboea.

1941: The 6-day Naval Operation "Demon", for the British evacuation of Greece, begins. Royal Navy and Royal Hellenic Navy ships, transport British & Commonwealth troops (62,562 men and women) from the Greek mainland to Crete and Alexandria, Egypt. 27,000 troops were transported to Crete, 23,000 to Egypt.

1944: Following a clash with guerillas, German troops enter the town of Pyrgos, prefecture of Kozani, Macedonia and kill 318 of its inhabitants. 180 of them were inside a barn hiding. The Germans set fire to the barn and burned them alive

04-24-2010, 11:13 PM
Gallipoli landing, 25th of April 1915.

A brief description of the landing

An excerpt from Denis Winter's book,
25 April 1915 - The Inevitable Tragedy,
University of Queensland Press, 1994.

The landing scheme was a simple one, in outline at least. The 3rd Brigade's 4000 men would land as a covering force to secure a beachhead for two Australasian divisions made up of six brigades. Those 4000 would go in two waves. The first, consisting of 1500 men, were to start from three battleships – Queen, Prince of Wales and London – then be distributed between twelve tows, each made up of a steamboat, a cutter (30 men), a lifeboat (28 men) and either a launch (98 men) or a pinnace (60 men). The remaining 2500, the second wave, were to land from seven destroyers shortly afterwards. Those destroyers would wait near the island of Imbros and join the battleships, one and a half miles (about 2 km) from the mainland, at 4.15 am. The first wave was scheduled to land a few minutes earlier, and the destroyers would then sail in, full speed ahead, adding a number of lifeboats borrowed from transport vessels to the tows that had been used by the first wave. Once the whole 3rd Brigade was ashore, the rest of the 1st Division would arrive on transports, grouped in fours and coming in at regular intervals.
Such, at least, was the plan, and its first stage was negotiated without difficulty. Troops on the battleships were woken at 1 am, given a hot meal and a drink while the tows were being got ready, and by 1.30 am were ready for mustering into companies. This operation was carried out with impressive efficiency: no one spoke; orders were given in whispers. The only sounds were shuffling boots and muttered curses as men slipped on the ladders leading down to the boats. But for many, the tension of that still night magnified the sounds.

Click link for rest of the article. http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/1landing/bgrnd.html

They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old:
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn
At the going down of the sun and in the morning
We will remember them.

Lest we forget.

04-25-2010, 05:10 AM
1941: German Operation "Hannibal": Fallschirmjäger seize Corinth and cross the Corinth Canal to the Peloponnese.

1941: The remaining ships of the Greek Fleet, with the historic Battleship "Georgios Averoff" at the lead, the Destroyers "Queen Olga", "Spetsae", "Kountouriotes", "Aetos", "Ierax", "Panther"; the Torpedo boats "Aspis", "Nike", "Sphendone"; the Submarines "Nereus", "Triton", "Glaukos", "Katsones", "Papanikoles" and the Auxiliary Vessel "Hephaestus", begin the gradual retreat initially to Souda bay, Crete and afterwards to Alexandria, Egypt.

1941: The Greek Hospital-ship, "Polikos", is sank during a German air raid, near the island of Poros.

04-26-2010, 04:54 AM
1825: The Greek Brig "Ares" breaks through, after a short skirmish, the Turkish sea blockade at Navarino (32 ships of the combined Turco-Egyptian fleet, cut off all maritime transport from and to the maritime town of Navarino), and escapes
The Brig "Ares" in 1899. She was sunk in 1921

1897: The Greco-Turkish War takes a negative turn for Greece. This leads the Greek government to order the recall of the Greek Army from the island of Crete and the acceptance of it as an Ottoman dominion

1912: The Italians, with the help of the local Greek population, capture the island of Rhodes and drive the Turks off. Italians at first treated the local populace well, and hopes of a speedy union with Greece flourished. However, the raise of Fascism in Italy, led to a strict policy of Italification (forced Italification of names, suppression of Greek language, harassment of Orthodox clerics). Finally, Italy denies Rhodes (and the rest of the occupied Dodekanese islands) the right to self-determination. This was the signal for the beginning of armed resistance.

1941: The Greek commercial ship "Zakynthos" was sunk near Monemvasia, during a German air raid. She carried 50 million drachmas, in bank notes, destined to reach Crete (provisional seat of the Greek government).

04-27-2010, 07:04 AM
1941: The Greek Submarine "Papanikoles" (Y-2) sinks a 8,000-ton Italian Freighter near the island of Rhodes
The Papanikoles in the 1930's

1941:At 10:00 am, the German army enters Athens, signaling the end of Greek resistance. All mainland Greece and all the Greek Aegean islands except Crete are under triple axis occupation

1941: Constantine Koukides, the Evzone on flag guard duty at the Athens Acropolis, when the German officer, Hauptmann (Cpt) Jacobi of the 6. Gebirgsjäger Division, ordered him to surrender, give up the Greek flag and raise the Nazi swastika flag in its place, he chose to stay loyal to his duty by hauling the flag down, wrapping it around his body and jumping down the Acropolis rock to his death
The Germans ascended the Acropolis to raise their flag
The plaque in memory of Koukides at the Acropolis

04-28-2010, 08:09 AM
1906: During the Greek Struggle for Macedonia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_Struggle_for_Macedonia), 2nd Lt (Cavalry) Christos Prandunas (aka Kapsales), with his armed band, fall into a Bulgarian ambush. Lt Prandunas is killed
2nd Lieutenant Prandunas

1941: The Greek Patrol boat "A3" is sunk, during a German air raid, in the Gulf of Patras

Maine Finn
04-28-2010, 09:51 AM
28 April.

0357 - Constantius II visited Rome for the first time.

1282 - Villagers in Palermo led a revolt against French rule in Sicily.

1635 - Virginia Governor John Harvey was accused of treason and removed from office.

1686 - The first volume of Isaac Newton's "Principia Mathamatic" was published.

1788 - Maryland became the seventh state to ratify the U.S. constitution.

1789 - A mutiny on the British ship Bounty took place when a rebel crew took the ship and set sail to Pitcairn Island. The mutineers left Captain W. Bligh and 18 sailors adrift.

1818 - U.S. President James Monroe proclaimed naval disarmament on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain.

1932 - The yellow fever vaccine for humans was announced.

1953 - French troops evacuated northern Laos.

1967 - Muhammad Ali refused induction into the U.S. Army and was *****ped of boxing title. He sited religious grounds for his refusal.

04-29-2010, 04:24 AM
1091: The Battle of Levounion (outside Constantinople), takes place. An invading force of 80,000 Pechenegs, is heavily defeated by the combined forces of the Byzantine Empire under Emperor Alexios I Comnenus (20,000) and his Cuman (40,000), Wallachian (5,000) & Flemish (500) allies
Emperor Alexios I Comnenus

bd popeye
04-29-2010, 05:06 PM
For history's sake..

35 years ago Operation Frequent Wind took place on 29th April 1975. For those of you historically impaired Operation Frequent Wind was the evacuation of Americans, Vietnamese and third country nationals by helicopter to the US 7th fleet in the Gulf of Tonkin from South Vietnam on 29 April 1975.

Operation Frequent Wind

Operation Frequent Wind, the evacuation of Vietnam in April 1975, moved over 50,000 people. The initial decision to depart Saigon was made to evacuate the Defense Attaché's office by fixed-wing aircraft. This fixed-wing evacuation was determined impossible when hostile artillery and rocket fire closed the air base at Tan Son Nhut. The decision to evacuate the entire US presence by helicopter under Operation Frequent Wind was made late morning, 29 April 1975, Saigon time. Due to the delayed timing of the order, the capability for rapid response to such an order was imperative. The deteriorating situation at the Defense Attaché location required the Embassy to become a major site.
The evacuation of the Defense Attaché people proceeded smoothly. Total casualties were relatively light: two USMC Embassy Security Guards killed in an attack by ground fire, and two USMC CH-46 search and rescue helicopter aircrews presumed dead following a crash at sea. Total evacuation helicopter sorties from the US Defense Attaché compound numbered 122. The sorties from the US Embassy numbered 72. The evacuation of 7,806 US citizens and foreign nationals from these two places by the US Air Force and Marine Corps helicopters was supported by a major air effort by the Air Force and Navy. This effort consisted of: 444 USAF/USMC helicopter sorties; 204 TACAIR sorties; 24 AH-1J (Cobra) combat escort sorties; 8 AC-130 gunship sorties; 5 EC-130 (ABCCC) sorties; 44 KC-135 tanker sorties; and 2 HC-130 search and rescue support sorties.

The 9th Marine Amphibious Brigade, a task force of the III MEF successfully extracted by helicopter more than 7,000 Americans and Vietnamese from Saigon, Vietnam, in Operation Frequent Wind. In conjunction with this operation, Marine detachments from III MEF provided security of U.S. ships engaged in carrying Vietnamese refugees to Subic Bay RP & Guam.
USMC helos were deployed on USN ships, Hanco*k, Okinawa & LPD/LSDs. The Midway carried eight USAF H-53s instead of USMC helos.


By the way..I was there....

I, Big Daddy Popeye was there..35 years ago. I was stationed onboard the USS Hanco*k CVA-19. An old WWll Essex class CV.

This is what occurred on the flight deck of the USS ******* CVA-19 during Operation Frequent Wind. I was assigned to "G" Division flight deck crew. "G" division is comprised of Avation Ordanceman. We handle Aviation ammo. This story is written as best as I can remember...

29 April 1975 of that day my friend one Mr Jimmy Bishop said.."Was that ever one of the sadist days of my life.. Remember seeing{on Tv}
them shove UH-1B's over the side of one of the carriers because they
were running out of room to operate.I was having a cold brewski at
this little Irish Pub named McGoo's in Virgina Beach...seems like yesterday"

About 0530 on board the USS Hanco*k CVA-19 on 29 April 1975 AO2 Harry Depaw awoke me and told me it's time to get to work. Oh joy,oh joy!! Another day of loading .50 cal ammo and waiting. It had been more than 10 days since we left Singapore. All old Hanna was doing was cutting doughnuts in the Tonkin Gulf and waiting for Saigon to fall.

Meanwhile in Saigon US Ambassador Martin knew the end was near.The North Vietnamese forces were getting closer to Saigon. It was just a matter of time before he would have to tell Washington to order the evacuation of Saigon. That occurred at 1000 that morning when he called Sec. Of state Henry Kessinger..

Deep Purple !! Deep Purple!! Was called away on the USS Hanco*k CVA-19 at about 1100. ..Operation Frequent wind was under way! Fightin' Hanna would answer the call one more time.

My job was to load up the USMC helos with .50 cal ammo. Then I was to man the deck edge bomb elevator forward of the island and place evacuee luggage on it after it had been inspected. Well WE all did more than that that day.

The sky was soon filled with USMC helos, some filled with "Grunt" Marines to secure & establish landing zones in designated areas "in country". I will not ever forget the sight of all those ships..48..and all those helos.

Jimmy mentioned seeing helo's being pushed overboard. That was on the USS Hanco*k CVA-19 and the USS Midway CVA-41. We had to push 19 of the Republic of South Vietnam(RVN) helo's overboard. 2 Chinook's and 17 Huey's. They were clogging the deck. Plus they had no landing gear{wheels}. Just skids. When the first RVN Huey's landed they were dragged to the bow and spotted there. As more and more helos arrived it became apparent that we could not keep the RVN helos and recover our own USMC helos. So when a RVN CH-47 Chinook landed with its non-folding blades we pushed it off the fantail. It ripped the safety netting off the round down on the fantail. It made a big splash when it hit the water. That helo's starboard engine was on fire. When that helo was circling ole Hanna' there was a 50 cal machine gun that was manned and ready pointing out of the starboard forward door. Smoke was bellowing out of that starboard engine. Capt. "Field Day" Fred Fellows called the ship to GQ over that.

I once read another internet account that claimed that these helos were salvaged first for parts. This is not true. We did not have the time. We simply pushed many of the RVN helos into the Tonkin Gulf. Period. Another account claims a Cessna landed on the *******. Not true. The Cessna actually landed on the USS Midway CVA-41. I know. I was on that flight deck for 29 straight hours.

But when the nice pretty silver and blue Air America Huey's started coming aboard they were dragged to the bow and spotted there. A lot of those Air America pilots were drunk. It is a wonder that none of their helos crashed. We could not souvenir hunt in those birds like we did the RVN helos that we did keep.

When the RVN officers & families & Civilians etc starting really arriving in droves. Many were ARMED. You name it.. they had it!! A lot of 45's,38's,9mm,22's.. sawed offed Remington shot guns. I saw a so sweet .357 Colt Python with a six in barrel. I saw a lot Of knives. The Jar heads..OOPPSS I mean the Marines were in charge of searching the evacuees. They had this box to put the weapons in. Well you know Marines & sailors. Some marine "Confiscated" that Colt Python. Most of the weapons were thrown overboard.{Sic} I did not get any weapons because I was being stationed in Cubi Pt. And did not want to take a chance on getting busted. Most of the RVN military,civilians and American evacuees had large sum of cash and gold. After the evacuees were searched they were sent down to the Hangar deck were they were deloused and quartered. Some were placed in vacated berthing spaces.

Later that evening after the dust had settled a USMC CH-46 flying plane guard crashed just off the port side of the Hanco*k. Two crewman were lost. A Memorial service was held for the lost crewman on our way back to Subic.

All in all we wound up with over 2000 evacuees on the Hanco*k. One child was born to a Vietnamese woman on the Hanco*k. What was he named? John Hanco*k...

One of the things that bothered me about the news reports of that time the media made it sound like it was total chaos. That is a lie from the pit of hell. Operation Frequent Wind was long planned out and was excuted in an most outstanding manner by all.

If you have some time read the accounts below.



As I mentioned eight USAF CH-53's were deployed on Midway. Here's a zoomies account of the action.

About a week after Eagle Pull we departed NKP for U-tapao, AB, Thailand we didn't know what was going on until we got to U-tapao. Of course we heard of the events in Viet Nam from our Armed Forces Radio. At any rate we got the aircraft bedded down at U-tapao and we got the word of where we were headed, the aircraft carrier group off the coast of Viet Nam. Just about everyone made a trip to the class 6 store to stock up for the TDY.

We left U-tapao the next morning this must have been around the 18th of April 75, We flew direct to the USS Midway seems to me it took about 8 hours of flying time. We of the 56 SOW had 650 gallon drop tanks versus the 450 on the 40th aircraft so they had to refuel in flight to the Midway.

I flew on the CH-53 with the CO of the 21st Lt. Col John Denham (who incidentally was the wing Stan Eval pilot when I was in 43's at Zaragoza Spain and Bitburg Germany, got a couple check rides with him). When we got on the Midway we found out the Navy was a whole different world than that of the Air Force. They treated us well and we were all assigned to different organizations on the ship that were compatible with our AFSCs.

However we did screw up there whole operation and about ran them out of fresh water the first day we were there. When they had a drill we mostly went the wrong way through the passages and up and down the ladders. It was a great experience and I think just about everyone appreciated the AF a little more after our stay there.

I think we were out there about 12 days before the American ambassador gave us the ok to launch into Viet Nam. Until that day we had a few training flights but mostly sat around after inspecting and re-inspecting and running up the aircraft every few days. Oh the Navy liked us to move the helicopters a lot. We would tow them to the bow, then to the canted deck, then the fantail, then start over again.

And any time there was a black cloud out there in the Gulf they would sail the ship right under it and we would all get wet. We first took 6 CH-53's from the 21st and 4 HH-53's from the 40th. After the 56th got two more aircraft operational they came to the Midway and 2 of the HHs went back to Thailand. The Admiral made the decision after he found out how much more the CH could carry, after all we didn't have PJ's and all their luggage.

I think we stared Frequent Wind on around the 29th, Saigon fell on the 30th. We carried over 2000 people out and my aircraft, with Maj. Carson flying it, flew 20 hours straight. We did hot refueling and running crew changes. One time it landed with 91 or 92 people on it. We didn’t have troop seats and everyone was standing.

We even carried the last of the Marines out, they even had the Embassy shield off the Embassy. Told us they shredded over 6 million in US currency. The civilians were handing out Dong (Vietnam currency) as it was now worthless.

It was a time to be proud to be part of this but at the same time it was sad seeing all these people fleeing for their lives with little or nothing. After the evacuation was over we put all our aircraft towards the bow and the Hueys and Chinooks started coming in. You could not believe it, there were helicopters everywhere.

General Key landed there and one of his Generals walked up to me and asked Air Force? U S Air Force? as I was wearing Jungle fatigues. He just couldn't believe the Air Force was out there.

We even had a Vietnamese 0-2 land on the deck with pilot, wife and 3 or 4 kids in it. It is now at the Pensacola Naval museum. The Midway is a floating Museum in San Diego now and I need to go see her.

The ship sailed to off the coast of Thailand and all told we were on it 18 days. We flew into U-tapao once again and could see the ship sitting off the coast, it was big.

There were planes everywhere at U-tapao, from Viet Nam they flew anything out they could get their hands on. They were on the ramps, in the grass everywhere, have never seen anything like it, C-46, C-47, C-119, C-123’s, commercial aircraft, T-37 and T-38's and many more. There were a lot of Hueys and as soon as a Huey landed painters were out there painting Thai markings on them and flying them out to other bases.

We got the job of slinging T-37 and 38's to the Midway to return to US. After we dropped two in the Gulf they trucked them to Sattihip and hoisted them aboard with cranes. We punched one when the 53 blew a damper and one had the sling break. This was really neat being part of history. Every once in a while I see videos of our helicopters on TV.

The Mayaguez was next. It is hard to believe these same helicopters now called Pave Low are still flying, 32 years later. I hope every one of them gets a reprieve and a home in a museum with the honor they deserve. (Jim Duffy)

Big Daddy Popeye US Navy/retired August '71 - August'91
USS Hanco*k CVA-19 August '74 - August '75

04-30-2010, 04:48 AM
1825: The naval battle of Methone (SW Peloponnese) takes place. The Greek fleet under Andreas Miaoules & Antonios Kriezes, sinks 10 ships of the combined Turco-Egyptian fleet.
Antonios Kriezes

Andreas Miaoules

1897: The Thessalian front (Greco-Turkish war of 1897) collapses. The Greek forces begin their gradual retreat

1945: Adolf Hitler commits suicide by gunshot and cyanide poisoning.

04-30-2010, 09:00 AM
April 30, 1863: Battle of Camarone

Fix bayonets, and prepare to charge

"They were here less than sixty opposed to a whole army. Its mass crushed them. Life rather than bravery gave up these French soldiers at Camerone on 30 April 1863. In memory of them, the fatherland has erected this monument".

04-30-2010, 09:24 AM
Saigon’s Fall, 35 Years Later (http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/30/opinion/30dinh.html)

05-01-2010, 05:39 AM
WWI-1917: The men of the II/1 Battalion (under Cpt Gregorios Iulianos) of the 1st Serres Rgt of the Serres Division advance to occupy the fortified by the Bulgarians, Raviné Ηeight (E of Skra-di-Legen). The operation is planned by the CO of the Rgt, Lt. Col (Infantry) Nikolaos Zaphiriou and despite the obstinate Bulgarian resistance, it is successful for the Greeks (and allies of the Salonika Front). Greek losses accounted for 5 Officers, 51 OR, KIA; 9 Officers, 225 OR, WIA
exhausted Bulgarian POW after the battle of Skra di Legen

05-02-2010, 05:08 AM
1897: The Greek forces of the Epirus front (Greco-Turkish War of 1897), occupying the area of Grimbovon, are forced to retreat to Arta after fierce Turkish attacks (under Osman Pasha)

1919: Elements of the Greek I Division (4th, 5th Infantry Rgt, 1/38 Evzone Rgt) land at the Turkish port city of Smyrna/Izmir, following the article 7 of the Armistice of Mudros, which allowed the Allies (winners of the Great War) "to occupy any strategic points in the event of any situation arising which threatens the security of Allies."
Greek troops at Smyrna

1945: 220 Commandos of the Sacred Band under Lt. Col. Photios Messenopulos occupy the island of Rhodes. 31 Germans & 23 Italians surrender to the Greek troops.

1945: German forces in Berlin surrender. The Battle of Berlin ends on May 2. On this date, General of the Artillery Helmuth Weidling, the commander of the Berlin Defense Area, unconditionally surrendered the City to General Vasily Chuikov of the Soviet Army. On the same day the officers commanding the two armies of Army Group Vistula north of Berlin, (General Kurt von Tippelskirch commander of the German Twenty-First Army and General Hasso von Manteuffel commander of Third Panzer Army) surrendered to the Western Allies.
Gen Vasily Chuikov (left) Gen Helmuth Weidling (right)

05-03-2010, 04:43 AM
1808: On May, 3, following the Spanish "Dos de Mayo" (Second of May) uprising against the French Napoleonic rule, a series of French retaliatory actions take place in Madrid, Spain:
Hundreds of Spaniards were rounded up and shot, at a number of locations around the city. As a result of the massacre, the Spaniards formed irregular civillian bands and engaged in a five-year Peninsular War, the first to be called guerrilla war. These irregular Spanish forces considerably aided the Spanish, Portuguese, and British armies jointly led by the 1st Duke of Wellington, who first landed in Portugal in August 1808.
In 1814 the famous Spanish painter Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes, immortalized in his painting "El tres de mayo de 1808 en Madrid" the Spanish uprising and made the rioters symbols of heroism and patriotism:
http://img7.imageshack.us/img7/9724/3rdofmay2500x1941.thdotjpg (http://img7.imageshack.us/i/3rdofmay2500x1941dotjpg/)

05-03-2010, 02:13 PM
May 3, 1939
Stalin made overtures to Nazi Germany, and dismissed his Jewish Foreign Minister Maxim Litvinov (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxim_Litvinov).
(Very important pre war event)

05-04-2010, 03:37 AM
1945: On May 4, 1945, the British Field Marshal Montgomery took the unconditional military surrender from General Admiral Hans-Georg von Friedeburg, and General Hans Kinzel, of all German forces "in Holland, in northwest Germany including the Frisian Islands and Heligoland and all other islands, in Schleswig-Holstein, and in Denmark."

1945: German toops in Norway surrender.

1945: German forces in Bavaria surrender to the American General Jacob L. Devers, commander of the American 6th Army Group.

General Admiral Hans-Georg von Friedeburg and Field Marshal Sir Bernard Law Montgomery at the British camp on Luneburg Heath to sign the Instrument of Surrender of the German armed forces in Holland

05-05-2010, 05:22 AM
1897: Strong Turkish forces under Ethem Pasha launch attacks against the Greek Ι & ΙΙ Division (Greco-Turkish War of 1897), forcing them into retreat towards the mountain of Othrys.

1905: During the Greek Struggle for Macedonia, armed bands under 1st Lt Constantine Mazarakes-Aenian & Emmanuel Katsigares, cantoned near the roots of Vermion mountain, Macedonia, are attacked by a battalion sized Turkish element. Only after a 24-hour fight, the Greeks managed to retreat and evade annihilation
Lt Mazarakes-Aenian with his men

1941: Major General Bernard Freyberg, is appointed by General Wavell to command approximately 40,000 British, New Zealand, Australian and Greek troops which are stationed on Crete. While a strong force on paper, these troops have virtually no artillery or tanks and are very disorganised after their hurried evacuation from Greece.
Maj Gen Freyberg

1945: On May 5, 1945, the Prague uprising started by the Czech resistance. The following day the Soviets launch the Prague Offensive. In Dresden, Gauleiter Martin Mutschmann let it be known that a large-scale German offensive on the Eastern Front was about to be launched. Within two days, Mutschmann abandoned the city and was captured by Soviet troops while trying to escape.
The Prague uprising

05-05-2010, 12:55 PM
Today was the forth day after the 2nd Battle of Ap Cao Bang village, RVN...the worst fking day of my life.

05-05-2010, 01:56 PM
Cinco de Mayo, 1862
The Battle of Puebla (http://mexidata.info/id1346.html)

05-05-2010, 02:07 PM
Today was the forth day after the 2nd Battle of Ap Cao Bang village, RVN...the worst fking day of my life.

Sounds like an interesting story, MM...

05-06-2010, 05:03 AM
1821: Psarian revolutionaries land on the island of Imbros (now Gökçeada) and after a short skirmish capture the Turkish fortress on the island

1897: A cessation of hostilities between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Greece (Greco-Turkish war of 1897) is agreed. Negotiations for a lasting peace begin between the parties with the participation of Great European powers.

1944: Strong Bulgarian regular forces attempt to clear the area north of the town of Drama, Macedonia, of Greek insurgents. After a 10-day battle with the insurgents, the Bulgarians withdraw. Total Bulgarian losses: 42 Officers, 702 OR, killed & wounded

1945: The Prague Offensive, the last major battle of WWII in Europe, begins

John R.
05-06-2010, 07:32 PM
Wasn't the last major battle of WW2 the battle of Okinawa?

05-07-2010, 05:47 AM
1906: One of the most important battles of the Greek struggle for Macedonia takes place: 2nd Lt Antonios Vlakhakes' (aka Litsas) armed band attack Bulgarian bands cantoned around the towns of Kastanophyton & Petropulakes, Kastoria prefecture, Macedonia. The battle lasts for 8 hours and both sides suffer severe casualties. Suddenly a Turkish battalion attacks the Greeks on the rear inflicting them severe losses: Lt Vlakhakes, his XO Leonidas Petropulakes and 22 of his men are KIA
Lt Vlakhakes (center) with the Maniot brothers Leonidas (left) and Panagiotes Petropulakes

1945: General Alfred Jodl signs the instruments of unconditional surrender as representative for Karl Dönitz at Reims, France. Jodl recieves permission to make a statement: "With this signature the German people and the German Armed Forces are, for better or worse, delivered into the hands of the victors...In this hour I can only express the hope that the victor will treat them with generosity." Germany's participation in the war ends.

1945: On the Dodecanese island of Symi, the CO of the Greek Destroyer RHNS "Crete", Commander Ioannes Theophanides on behalf of the Greek government, the British CO of the RN Destroyer HMS "Exmoor" (transferred to the Royal Danish Navy in 1952 as HDMS Valdemar Sejr) on behalf of the British government and the German Major General Wagner, Commander of German forces in the Dodecanese sign the instruments for the unconditional surrender of the German forces stationed there. On the next day the Greek Destroyer RHNS "Crete" enters first, the port of Rhodes, while German troops line up ashore, presenting arms and the German flag is hauled down
Major General Wagner, Commander of German forces in the Dodecanese, and two of his staff officers on a motor launch come alongside the destroyer HMS "Kimberley" after the unconditional surrender of German forces in the region was signed

1954: The Battle of Dien Bien Phu ends in a French defeat

Wasn't the last major battle of WW2 the battle of Okinawa?

Yes, you're right, I obviously missed the "in Europe" part; I have just edited my post, thanks

05-07-2010, 08:55 AM
May 7

1915- Lusitania was sunk by a german U-Boat off the coast of Ireland with the loss of 1200 people.

05-08-2010, 05:29 AM
1821: After the Greek defeat in the Battle of Alamana (http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.php?177957-On-this-day-in-Military-History&p=4903230&viewfull=1#post4903230) a Turkish force of 9,000-strong under Omer Vrioni, headed south to the Peloponnese peninsula to suppress the Greek revolution. Greek revolutionary Odysseus Andrutsos (or Androutsos) with a band of 120 men took up a defensive position at an inn near the town of Gravia, Phocis, central Greece, closing the road to Peloponnese. Vrioni attacked the inn but was repulsed with heavy casualties (over 400 dead). Finally, he was forced to ask for reinforcements and artillery but the Greeks managed to slip out before the reinforcements arrived. Andrutsos lost two men in the battle and earned the title of Commander in Chief of the Greek forces in Central Greece
The Gravia inn today

1897: An armistice is signed between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Greece that ends the Greco- Turkish War of 1897. Greece is defeated

1907: 2nd Lt Zacharias Papadias (aka Fufas) with his armed band attack a Bulgarian band cantoned near the town of Palaeochorion. In the battle that follows, 2nd Lt Papadias is killed
2nd Lt Papadias

1945: The WWII Allies, formally accept the unconditional surrender of the armed forces of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitler's Third Reich, making May 8, the Victory in Europe Day (VE day)




Uploaded with ImageShack.us (http://imageshack.us)

05-09-2010, 04:32 AM
1919: Greek Army (5th Infantry Rgt) occupies the Menenen district of Smyrna/Izmir Province in Turkey
Greek troops in Smyrna

1941: German submarine U-110 is captured by the Royal Navy. On board is the latest Enigma cryptography machine which Allied cryptographers later use to break coded German messages.
U-110 is captured by HMS "Bulldog", "Broadway" and "Arbretia"

1945: Ratification in Berlin-Karlshorst of the German unconditional surrender of May 8 in Rheims, France, with the signatures of Marshal Georgy Zhukov for the Soviet Union, and for the Western Headquarters Sir Arthur Tedder, British Air Marshal and Eisenhower’s deputy, and for the German side of Colonel-General Hans-Jürgen Stumpff as the representative of the Luftwaffe, Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel as the Chief of Staff of OKW, and Admiral Hans-Georg von Friedeburg as Commander-in-Chief of the Kriegsmarine
Field Marshal Keitel signing the ratified surrender terms for the German military

1945: Victory Day (День Победы), celebration of the Soviet Union victory over Nazi Germany

1955: Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) becomes a full member of NATO
W. Germany (Chancellor Konrad Adenauer) takes its seat at the NATO Council table

bd popeye
05-09-2010, 09:06 AM
On 05 May 1942 the USS Wasp (CV-7) launched British Spitfires in the defense of Malta.



In April 1942, I was an ensign on the aircraft carrier USS Wasp off the coast of Great Britain when, at the request of the British government, we received orders to ferry British Spitfires to the island of Malta. At that time during World War II, the British were being dominated in the skies over Europe by the German Luftwaffe and the Spitfires were needed badly in Malta.

When we entered the Firth of Clyde in Scotland to pick up the Spitfires at King George Dock in Glasgow, rousing cheers greeted us from shore. "The Yanks Are Coming . . . The Yanks Are Here!" It was a wonderful sight to behold for all of us.

After loading 47 British Spitfires aboard on 13 April, we took off into the Atlantic at a speed of 25 knots, ringed all the while by destroyers for protection. The Wasp's convoy down to British Gibraltar included both destroyers and cruisers to protect us from possible attack by German U-boats prowling the Atlantic. Just w-h-o-o-s-h we went past the Bay of Biscay which was the "country road," really, for U-boats heading west.

At Gibraltar we picked up a couple of British destroyers (with anti-aircraft guns all over them just like a cruiser) and headed for Malta. About 150 miles away, confident of success, we launched the Spitfires from the deck of the Wasp so they could fly the rest of the way. It would have been far too risky for us to take them all the way to Malta.

Tragically, when the Spitfires reached Malta and had either landed, or were in the process of landing, German and Italian planes were waiting for them. To our dismay, we learned later that Axis intelligence had discovered our plans. They destroyed at least 30-35 of the Spitfires either in the air or on the ground in a devastating attack.

Our mission had been in vain. Or had it? . . . .

During our return trip to Britain, Prime Minister Winston Churchill contacted President Franklin D. Roosevelt to request that the Wasp make a second trip to Malta. President Roosevelt agreed at once. So perhaps we would succeed after all. . . .

The calendar had now turned into May when we returned to Scotland and hoisted aboard another complement of Spitfires. Heading toward Malta on our second attempt, a flash from British Gibraltar came saying that we were lined up to go through Gibraltar – through the pass. But once we were into the throat of it, the Wasp received word that "Five or six unidentified objects have been spotted heading west. (Towards our convoy.) Be alert."

JWB Essay/navyhistory.com/2

It was obviously a "wolfpack" of German U-boats.

With that, the senior British officer immediately ordered the convoy to reverse course. Emergency turns, full speed out. We went far out into the Atlantic Ocean and headed south in a big, sweeping arc out of harm’s way – we hoped.

After a very tense night aboard ship, the next day –9 May– we reached British Gibraltar naval base without a bit of trouble. The British had sent their destroyers out to clear a path for us. So we all thought that this time would be it. Primed to rise to the occasion, we were acutely aware of the importance of our mission and what was at stake. We were determined to succeed and knew the very real danger that we had faced the night before from those German U-boats.

Benefiting from our "learning curve" after the Wasp’s first unsuccessful trip to Malta, this time we attached "belly tanks" to the Spitfires so they could fly on to Malta using that fuel and have a full tank in reserve just in case they encountered German and Italian fighter planes again. Which is precisely what happened.

But this time the Spitfires were ready. Turning the tables, they released the belly tanks and engaged the enemy with a full complement of fuel. Utilizing all their skill, the brave Royal Air Force pilots won the air war as they blew the Axis planes out of the sky!

With the Spitfires now safely on the ground in Malta, the Wasp turned and headed north back to Britain. The entire ship felt a great sense of pride – not only for a job well done but because we had done our duty and accomplished our mission. The successful delivery of the Spitfires proved to be a deciding factor in the interception and termination of the supply line to the Axis forces in Africa.

En route to Britain, as the Wasp exited the Mediterranean, the ship received a personal message from Winston Churchill on 11 May that read:

"Who said a Wasp couldn't sting twice? Many thanks
to you all for the timely help." – Churchill

Needless to say, that message was so typically "Churchillian" in tone –short, elegant, and eloquent– that its effect on the Wasp's morale and esprit de corps was incredible, unbelievable. The entire ship went into an uproar!

I have always admired Winston Churchill as a great leader and a great man, and my admiration for him at that moment knew no bounds. Churchill's personal message, which I considered a message of commendation for the two trips that the Wasp made to Malta, remains my most unforgettable memory during my service aboard the USS Wasp. It inspires me still.
JWB Essay/navyhistory.com/3

05-10-2010, 04:27 AM
1940: Operation "Fall Gelb" ("Case Yellow"): At 5.35am, the Wehrmacht begins the invasion of the Low Countries (Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg), employing Army Group A (von Rundstedt) and B (von Bock), with Army Group C (von Leeb) in reserve. The attacking forces comprise 10 Armoured, 5 Motorised, and 75 infantry divisions. The 19th Panzer Korps (Guderian), 20th Panzer Korps (Hoth) and the 41st Panzer Korps (Reinhardt) field between them 2,445 tanks, most of which are of the light Marks I, II, 35(t) and 38(t) type, against 3,373 French and British tanks. In his Order of the Day, Hitler declares, "Soldiers of the Western Front! The battle which is beginning today will decide the fate of the German nation for the next thousand years. Go forward now and do your duty!" Airborne troops seize airfields and strategic bridges near Amsterdam and Rotterdam in Holland. The Luftwaffe, using hundreds of level and dive bombers, attacks Allied airfields, troop assembly areas and rear communications.


1941: Rudolf Hess parachutes into Scotland in order to try and negotiate a peace deal between the United Kingdom and Germany, but instead was arrested. He was tried at Nuremberg and sentenced to life in prison at Spandau Prison, Berlin, where he died in 1987


05-10-2010, 01:57 PM
May 10, 1940

British troops occupied Iceland.

Churchill became Prime Minister.


Comprehensive book burnings in Nazi Germany.

Also bad operations in Vietnam, 1969 & 1972

05-11-2010, 03:31 AM
1944: Operation Diadem: The British Eighth and U.S. Fifth Armies begin an attack on Gustav Line in central Italy. The Gustav Line was the most rearward of the three German defensive lines on the Italian peninsula south of Rome. Built along the Garigliano and Rapido rivers it was fortified with gun pits, concrete bunkers, turreted machine-gun emplacements, barbed wire and minefields. The Gustav Line was held by 15 divisions of the German Army under the command of General Albert Kesselring.


05-12-2010, 04:17 AM
1797: Napoleon’s troops occupy Venice and tore open the gates of the infamous Venetian Jewish ghetto. Swept up in the fervor, many Jews volunteer for Napoleon’s army
The French entry into Venice

1821: The Battle of Valtetsi, in mountainous Arcadia, Peloponnese, occurs. It was the first major battle of the Greek War for Independence. Approximately 12,000 Turks and Albanians, under Mustafa Kehayabey and Ruby Bey, attack 2,300 revolutionaries under the Maniot Kyriakules Mavromichales. 700 Greeks under Theodoros Kolokotrones, arrive on time and attack the Turks on their flanks weakening their operational power. All Turkish and Albanian attacks were repelled and finally Ruby bey ordered retreat which turned into a route after the Greeks abandoned their defensive attitude under the fortified positions and violently counterattacked, completely breaking the enemy lines achieving a decisive and total victory and capturing huge amounts of gun pieces and materiel, mainly cannons and ammunition that would be vital for the following events. Total Greek losses: 150 KIA; Ottoman losses accounted for 600 KIA
Mavromichales (left) and Kolokotrones

WWI-1917: The 10th battle of the Isonzo begins. 38 Italian divisions launch an attack on only 14 divisions of the Austro-Hungarian Army. 35,000 Italians and 7,300 Austro-hungarians are KIA
Italian Field Marshal Luigi Cadorna (left), Austro-Hungarian Field Marshal Svetozar Borojević von Bojna

1919: I/5 & II/5 Btns of the 5th Infantry Rgt occupy the region of Magnesia (now Manisa) in Minor Asia
Greek Cpl in Minor Asia. He wears French M1918 brown leather equipment; he carries an Adrian French steel helmet; He's armed with the M1903 Mannlicher-Schönauer, rotary magazine bolt action rifle (6.5mm)

1942: The 2nd battle of Kharkov. Timoshenko’s offensive grinds forward into Army Group South with two pincer attacks, one Northwest out of the Izyum bulge by the 6th Red Army and the other West then Southwest by the 28th Red Army from the Volchansk area, designed to converge west of Kharkov. After initial promising signs, the offensive was stopped by German counterattacks. Critical errors by several staff officers and by Joseph Stalin himself, who failed to accurately estimate the 6th Army's potential and overestimated their own newly-trained forces, led to a successful German pincer attack cutting off advancing Soviet troops from the rest of the front.

1943: Greek Destroyer "Kanares III" (L-53, former HMS Hatherleigh) under Lt Commander Panagiotes Damelates, disembarks a contingent under 2nd Lt Ioannes Semertsides on the islet of Zembra, in the gulf of Tunis; after a short skirmish, the German garrison on the islet surrenders

1945: The German garrison of "Festung Kreta" (Fortress Crete), surrenders to the Greek authorities

05-13-2010, 04:02 AM
1912: The Royal Flying Corps (later the Royal Air Force) is formed in the UK
The illustrations above are taken from diggerhistory.info/pages-conflicts-periods/ww1/afc/rfc.htm

1940: Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands flees the Nazi invasion in the Netherlands to Great Britain. Princess Juliana takes her children to Canada for their safety.

1940: German troops step on French soil: Supported by waves of Luftwaffe Stuka dive-bombers, the two German Panzer Korps of Heeresgruppe B establish bridgeheads across the Meuse river, tearing a 50-mile gap in the French defences between Dinant and Sedan. The 7th Panzer Division (Rommel) is the first division across. Dutch troops withdraw to their second and final line of defence on the Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Utrecht line.
Crossing the Meuse

1940: Winston Churchill, delivers his first speech as Prime Minister: "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat"

1943: Surrender of all German and Italian forces in Tunisia (130,000 German and 120,000 Italian prisoners). General von Arnim and 25 other axis generals are claimed captured, so ending the life of the once mighty "Afrika Korps" and marking the end of the three-year North African campaign.
Generaloberst Hans-Jürgen von Arnim (left) in British captivity at Trent Park camp in 1943

05-13-2010, 05:18 PM
May 13, 1846
President James Knox Polk declares war on Mexico (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_K._Polk)

05-14-2010, 07:29 AM
1509: During the War of the League of Cambrai (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_the_League_of_Cambrai), in the Great Italian Wars, the Battle of Agnadello, occurs. It was a struggle for power and territory among France and the Republic of Venice. Approximately 20,000 Venetians under Nicolo, Count of Pitigliano and his younger cousin, Bartolomeo d'Alviano, repulse approximately 40,000 French, who launch attacks, first by cavalry and then by pikemen. French king Louis XII arrives with his own reinforcements, throwing Alviano's army into confusion. Finally the Venetian army is routed leaving behind 5,000 dead and wounded. The battle is mentioned in Machiavelli's "The Prince" (Chapter 12), noting that in one day, the Venetians "lost what it had taken them eight hundred years' exertion to conquer."
Allegory of the Victory over the League of Cambrai (detail). This complex painting is in the "Sala del Senato", Venice. It commemorates a rather inglorious war against the League of Cambrai (formed by the Pope, the kings of France and Spain, and the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire) which went badly for Venice. In 1509 its enemy occupied Venice's mainland territories and threatened the City itself. The canvas depicts Doge Leonardo Loredan and represents the Venetian resistance to the combined powers of Europe, symbolized by allegorical figures.

1919: The Greek 4th Infantry Rgt occupies the town of Aydın (ancient Tralles) on the Aegean coast of Turkey.
Smyrna/İzmir: The Changing of the Guard at the Greek general headquarters

1940: Germans take Rotterdam. The Dutch government arrives in London.
Rotterdam annihilated by the Nazis

1944: Elements of the Greek Sacred Band, land on the island of Paros, neutralize the German garrison of the airfield and capture its CO as POW
The Greek Sacred Band's CO, Colonel Khristodulos Tsigantes in Tunisia

1948: Israel is declared to be an independent state and a provisional government is established. Immediately after the declaration, Israel is attacked by the neighboring Arab states, triggering the 1948 Arab-Israeli War (also known by Israelis as the War of Independence, and by Palestinians as Al Nakba-the catastrophe).

1955: Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, East Germany and the USSR, sign in Warsaw, Poland, a treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, known informally as the Warsaw Pact
The first Warsaw Pact conference

05-15-2010, 04:17 AM
1648: The Peace Treaty of Osnabrück is signed which brought the Thirty Years' War to an end (together with the Treaty of Münster are also known as the Peace of Westphalia). The Treaty of Osnabrück ended the 30 years' war & five months later (24 October) the Treaty of Münster ended 80 years of hostility between the Spanish government and the Dutch (Republic of the Seven United Netherlands).
The terms:

-France gained the bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun; Breisach and Philippsburg; Alsace and part of Strasburg.

-Sweden gained West Pomerania, Wismar, Stettin, Mecklenburg; the bishoprics of Verden and Bremen which gave her control over the estuaries of the Elbe and Weser.

-Brandenburg gained East Pomerania; the archbishopric of Magdeburg and Halberstadt.

-Bavaria kept the Upper Palatinate and the Electoral title that went with it. The Lower Palatinate was restored to Charles Louis, the son of Frederick and an 8th Elector's title was made for him.

-Saxony kept Lusatia.

-Bohemia remained an hereditary domain.

-Upper Austria was restored to the Habsburgs - Bavaria had taken control of it.

-Spain recognised the United Provinces as a sovereign state
Ratification of the Treaty of Münster

1701: The War of the Spanish Succession begins. It starts as a quarrel, specifically between France and Austria and 13 years later, half of Europe, fights the other half: the Habsburg Empire, Great Britain, the Dutch Republic, the Kingdom of Portugal, the Kingdom of Prussia and the Duchy of Savoy are at war with the Kingdom of France, the Kingdom of Spain, the Electorate of Bavaria and the Hungarians under the Prince Francis II Rákóczi, over a possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under one Bourbon monarch.

1756: The 7 years' War begins when Great Britain declares war on France. It involved all of the major European powers of the period: the Kingdom of Prussia, Great Britain, the Kingdom of Portugal and the lesser German States of Hanover, Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Hesse-Kassel & Schaumburg-Lippe are at war with the Kingdom of France, the Habsburg Empire, the Russian Empire (which temporarily changed sides in the later stages of the war), the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the Electorate of Saxony & the Kingdom of Sardinia. Because of its global nature, it has been described as the "first World War".
The battle of Kunersdorff (1759) in the 7 years' War

1792: France declares war on Kingdom of Sardinia. The War of the First Coalition (the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers, among them Great Britain, Prussia, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Portugal, the Dutch Republic, to contain Revolutionary France) begins. It ended 5 years later in a French victory.
Napoleon at the battle of Rivoli (1797) in the War of the First Coalition

1918: The Finnish Civil Ends. The war was fought in Finland from 27 January to 15 May, 1918, between the forces of the Social Democrats led by the People's Deputation of Finland, commonly called the "Reds" (punaiset), and the forces of the non-socialist, conservative-led Senate, commonly called the "Whites" (valkoiset). Its result was a "White" victory and claimed approximately 35,000 lives on both sides
The final shot

1919: Greek Army occupies the port town of Cydoniae (now Ayvalık) in Minor Asia
Greek troops with local Greek boy scouts of Ayvalık

1940: After the fall of Rotterdam, Holland surrenders. The German 20th Panzer Korps (Hoth) repels a counter-attack by French armoured forces, destroying 125 out of 175 tanks. An attack by 6th Army (von Reichenau) against the Dyle line in Belgium is repulsed. In Paris, panic breaks out over reports of a German breakthrough at Sedan with thousands of civilians fleeing the city for the west and south of the country, clogging the roads for Allied military traffic which is attacked by Luftwaffe bombers and fighter bombers.

1941: The Luftwaffe begin preparatory attacks against Crete

1957: The UK exploded its first hydrogen bomb as part of a series of tests in the Pacific, at Malden Island to minimise nuclear fall-out. After just two years of development, the bomb was dropped by a four-engined jet, Valiant of No 49 Squadron RAF Bomber Command, normally based at RAF Wittering, Northants.
The aircraft that dropped Britain's first H-bomb, Vickers Valiant B, 1 XD818 of No. 49 Squadron

05-16-2010, 05:25 AM
1940: The Germans try to enlarge Sedan pocket. British troops withdraw from Louvain, west of Brussels as troops of the German 6. Armee break through the Allied "Dyle line" in Belgium. The KW line, or "Dyle line" as it was referred to by the Allies, covered Brussels and connected the PFA-Position fortifiée d’Anvers with the city of Namur. It ran from the fort of Koningshooikt near Antwerp to Wavre (hence the name: KW) along the marshy Dyle valley, for 60 miles, a natural tank barrier. Belgian government leaves Brussels for Ostend.

1942: Kerch is captured by German troops: General Erich von Manstein commanded 11. Armee in an effort to clean out the Red Army presence on the Kerch peninsula which would then allow him to deal with Sevastopol without interference. According to von Manstein’s plan, the VII. and XLII. Korps had to tie down the Soviet forces in the northern sector, while the XXX. Korps and the 22. Panzer Division broke the front in the south and swept north, encirkling the Soviet forces. The result was yet another disaster for the Red Army; 162,282 soldiers KIA, WIA & MIA, almost all the heavy weapons and equipment and 417 airplanes lost. The remaining Soviets were forced to evacuate their troops across the straits in extremely difficult conditions and under heavy fire. For five days, Soviet ships shuttle back and forth, finally pulling out 86,000 men, including 23,000 wounded.

1943: The Warsaw Ghetto uprising ends.

05-17-2010, 03:31 AM
1940: Brussels, Louvain (Leuven) and Mechelen in central Belgium all occupied by the troops of 6. Armee. Germans attack further into NE France; General Gamelin, French Commander-in-Chief, gives allied troops "conquer or die" order. French prime minister Pierre Laval is replaced by Paul Reynaud who forms a new government. Charles de Gaulle's newly raised 4th Armoured division launches a counter-attack near Laon, which is easily repulsed by the Germans.
General Maurice Gamelin (center) with his staff officers

1943: Operation Chastise: The Dambuster Raids are carried out by No. 617 Squadron RAF on German dams. 1,300 people are killed (53 RAF aircrewmen).
The post-raid party attended by those crews who completed the mission

1944: U.S. troops land on Wake Island and the northern coast of New Guinea.
US soldiers of the 163rd Infantry Regiment storm the beach on Wake Island

1987: An Iraqi Mirage F1 fighter jet fires two Exocet missiles into the U.S. warship USS Stark (FFG-31), killing 37 and injuring 21 of her crew.

05-18-2010, 08:23 AM
1803: UK revokes the treaty of Amiens and declares war on Napoleonic France. The war of the 3rd Coalition (the third major concerted effort of multiple European powers, among them the UK, Austria, the Russian Empire, Portugal, Sweden, to contain Napoleonic France and its client states) begins. It ended 43 months later in a French victory.
Napoleon at the final battle of the war of the 3rd coalition, the battle of Austerlitz

1905: During the Greek struggle for Macedonia, Cpt Michael Moraites' (aka Kodros) armed band, while moving into the Gumenissa gorge to spend the night, falls into a Turkish ambush. They are attacked by a battalion sized Turkish element. After a desperate battle for survival, Cpt Moraites and his XO 2nd Lt Spyridon Phrangopulos (aka Gogras) are killed. A Large Number of Moraites' men are killed and captured.
Cpt Moraites (left), 2nd Lt Phrangopulos

WWI-1918: The Greek Divisions of the Armée d'Orient (Salonika Front) under Lt Gen Emmanuel Zymvrakakes, occupy Skra-di-Legen.
Skra-di-legen, was a fortified position covering the three peaks of the Paikon Mountain, west of the town of Gevgelija. Bulgarian troops fortified it in 1916 and in 1917 they withstood a strong frontal assault launched by the French. In May 1918 this triangular in shape position was defended by the 3rd brigade of the Bulgarian 5th "Dunavska" (Danubian) division: 2nd Infantry Regiment defended its right flank, 50th Infantry Regiment defended its left flank and on the top of the triangle, occupying the frontal position, stood the three battalions of the 49th Infantry Regiment. Three more Bulgarian Regiments (8th, 60th, 54th Infantry Regiment) & one German (45. Infanterie Regiment) were in reserve. The attacking forces comprise the Archipelago Division (Maj Gen Emmanuel Ioannu), the Cretan Division (Maj Gen Panaghiotes Speliades) & the Serrae Division (Maj Gen Epaminondas Zymvrakakes).
The allies, started a 13-hour Artillery barrage, before elements of the Greek Archipelago Division were thrown to battle. At 04:45, I/1 Btn (Major Psarras) & II/1 Btn (Cpt. Skaltsoyannes) of the 1st Archipelago Rgt (Lt Col Georgios Kondyles) of the Archipelago Division, marched under the fire of the Bulgarians against the first Bulgarian line of Defence, Bastion-Ouest, overrided the enemy & occupied the line Piton-Poche (the Regiment's main objective). At almost the same time, the Battalions (III/6 Btn-Major Nikolaos Plasteras, II/6 Btn-Major Vassilios Karakufas) of the 6th Archipelago Rgt (Col. Constantine Exarkhakos) after a tough & bloody fight, occupied the Bulgarian entrenchments set on the axis Courtine-Bastion Central. The Battalions (I/4 Btn-Major Vassilios Papayannes, III/4 Btn-Major Constantine Babales) of the 4th Archipelago Rgt (Lt.Col. Euthymios Tsimikales) commenced their advance against the main Bulgarian fortifications of Skra-di-Legen under heavy enemy fire. Within 15 minutes they approached the first enemy defence line. After a fierce battle, I/4 Btn although lost its CO, occupied the main defence line of Skra-di-Legen.
At the east flank of the Archipelago Division, the Regiments (7th Cretan-Lt.Col. Panagiotes Gardikas, 8th Cretan-Lt.Col. Demetrios Stavrianopulos) of the Cretan Division commenced their advance at 04:45. The Cretans of the 7th Rgt routed the enemy & by 10:50 occupied Bochet. At 05:30, 8th Rgt advanced against the Bulgarians at Tablette & occupied it. At 14:00, III/8 Btn (Major Ioannes Vlastos) attacked the Bulgarian entrenchments of Petit Tranche Brun & after heavy fight, occupied it.
At the west flank of the Archipelago Division, the Regiments (2nd Serrae-Lt.Col. Chrestos Tserules, 3rd Serrae-Lt.Col. Nikolaos Kalomenopulos) of the Serrae Division, attacked the Bulgarians at 04:45. By 06:45 the objectives had been secured: 2nd Rgt occupied the town of Lunci & secured the line Boite des Bulgars-Block Roche. 3rd Rgt. made contact with the allied Serbian Division. Although the Bulgarians conducted strong counter-attacks, they were all repulsed by the Greeks. Greeks suffered 2,832 casualties (29 officers). Bulgarian losses accounted for approx. 600 KIA. 1835 Bulgarians (35 Officers) captured.

1940: Germans take Antwerp, Belgium’s second city. Allied forces are seriously split as German tanks of 19. Panzer Korps (Guderian) reach Peronne and Rommel's 7. Panzer Division reaches Cambrai during their rapid advance toward the Channel coast. Amiens is occupied. Regions ceded to Belgium in Treaty of Versailles (1919) re-incorporated into Germany.
Motorcycle-mounted reconnaissance troops from the German 7. Panzer Division survey the landscape somewhere in northern France, May 1940

1944: In the 4th and final battle of Monte Cassino, after a 7-day fierce encounter with German Fallschirmjäger, Polish troops finally capture it.

2009: The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam are defeated by the Sri Lankan government, ending decades of fighting between the two sides.
Sri Lankans celebrate in Colombo after President Mahinda Rajapaksa declared victory in the country's civil war with LTTE

05-19-2010, 07:12 AM
19 May 1919


After the Armistice of Mondoros, the countries that had signed the agreement did not consider it necessary to abide by its terms. Under various pretexts the navies and the armies of the Entente (France, Britain and Italy ) occupied Istanbul, while the province of Adana was occupied by the French, and the British occuped Urfa and Maraş. In addition, British soldiers were in Merzifon and Samsun, and Italian soldiers were in Antalya and Konya. On the 15th of May 1919 the Greek Army landed in Izmir in accordance with the Allied powers. The Turkish War of Independence began under these difficult conditions on the 19th of May 1919 when Mustafa Kemal landed in Samsun. It is after this date, which marks the beginning of the Turkish War of Independence, that a national resistance arose across Anatolia. Mustafa Kemal became the leader of the national struggle movement which quickly grew in strength. Once the congresses in Erzurum and Sivas were held in the summer of 1919, the objectives of the national pact were declared.

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, a highly respected army general, led the Turkish people in their War of Independence (1919-1923) against the allied occupiers.Ataturk’s outstanding leadership qualities were first recognized during the 1915 Çanakkale Battle (also known as the Gallipoli Battle, or Dardanelles Campaign). After numerous victories by Turkish forces on many fronts between 1919 and 1922, the occupying forces were defeated. In 1923, the Republic of Turkey was established. As the leader of the new nation, Ataturk created the foundations for a modern, secular and democratic country.



05-19-2010, 08:55 AM
1643: In the Thirty Years' War, the French (under Louis II de Bourbon, 4th prince of Condé) decisively defeated the Spanish forces (under Don Francisco de Melo) in the Battle of Rocroi. 26,000 Spaniards, crossed the French border from the Netherlands and then stopped to besiege the small fortress of Rocroi, 55 miles (88 km) northeast of Reims. They were annihilated by the 22,000 French of the Duke d’Enghien (later known as the Great Condé), marking the end of Spain’s military ascendancy in Europe. At the battle of Rocroi, the Tercio Espańol (a mixed infantry formation of about 3,000 pikemen, swordsmen and arquebusiers in a mutually supportive formation that dominated warfare for over a century) is decisively defeated and the technique of the Tercios, and the art of their style of combat, died.
Louis II de Bourbon, Duke d’Enghien

1940: General Gamelin is replaced by General Maxime Weygand as Chief of the French General Staff and C-in-C of all theatres of operations. Marshal Henri Petain, the hero of the First World War, is appointed as Deputy Prime Minister. German troops of XX. Panzer Korps (Reinhardt) capture St. Quentin.
General Weygand

1941: In the Anglo-Iraqi War (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iraq_1941), the British capture Fallujah after fierce fighting.
Iraqi troops at Fallujah

1944: Wake Island is secured. In the battle of Wake island, 820 Japanese and 130 Americans were killed.
Raising the U.S. flag on Wake Island

05-20-2010, 03:55 AM
1813: During the War of the Sixth Coalition (the sixth major concerted effort of multiple European powers, among them Austria, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and a number of German States to contain Napoleonic France) the battle of Bautzen occurs. Napoleonic France defeats the combined forces of Prussia (under Count Gebhard von Blücher) and Russia (under Prince Peter Wittgenstein). Although a success for the French, Bautzen was not the decisive. Following Bautzen, Napoleon agreed to a seven-week truce with the Coalition, requested by the Allies on 2 June 1813, the armistice (Armistice of Pleischwitz) was signed on 4 June, and lasted until 16 August.

1825: During the Greek War for Independence, the naval battle of Kaphereus occurs. The Greek fleet (35 ships) under Vice Admiral Georgios Sakhtures defeats the Ottoman fleet (50 ships) under Hosref Pasha. In the battle which lasted for 8 hours, an Ottoman Frigate (62 guns) and a Corvette (28 guns) were sunk with all hands on board. The remaining Turkish ships slowly withdrew to the Dardanelles.

1940: XIX. Panzer Korps (Guderian) completes its advance to the Channel coast by capturing Abbeville (a town on the main road from Paris to Boulogne) and Noyelles, thus separating the BEF (British Expeditionary Force), French 1st Army and the Belgian Army from the rest of the French forces to the south of the river Somme. German reinforcements pour into this split between the allied troops in northern France.

1941: After initial air attacks by dive-bombers of the VIII Fliegerkorps, German paratroops of the 7. Flieger-Division carried in 490 Ju-52 transports of XI Fliegerkorps, land at Maleme, Canea (08:00), Heraklion (16:00), and Rethymno airfields (16:25). They suffer very heavy losses (1000 killed and wounded) as the British and Commonwealth troops together with the locals put up fierce resistance and by nightfall have only secured the area around the Maleme airfield (heights 107, Aghia), although it still remains under fire from the British. However, the capture of Maleme airfield allows the Germans to begin sending reinforcements by sea during the night.
The Greek Orthodox Bishop of Canea, blesses the British & Commonwealth troops


1942: The Crimea is finally cleared of the Red Army. 170,000 Soviets taken prisoner. Manstein's next objective: Sevastopol.
Crimea, 1942

1956: Operation Redwing (test "Cherokee") : The first United States airborne hydrogen bomb is dropped over ****** Atoll in the Pacific Ocean.

05-21-2010, 08:08 AM
1809: During the War of the Fifth Coalition (the fifth major concerted effort of multiple European powers, among them Austria, the UK, Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Kingdom of Sicily to contain Napoleonic France) the battle of Aspern-Essling occurs. Napoleon attempted a forced crossing of the Danube near Vienna, but the French were driven back by the Austrians under Archduke Charles. The battle was the first time Napoleon had been personally defeated in over a decade. The victory demonstrated the progress the Austrian army had made since the string of catastrophic defeats in 1800 and 1805.
Victorious Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen during the Battle of Aspern-Essling

1879: During the War of the Pacific (a conflict between Chile and the alliance between Peru and Bolivia) the naval battle of Iquique occurs. The wooden Chilean Corvette "Esmeralda" and the schooner "Covadonga", while sailing near Iquique, Peru, spotted the Peruvian ironclad ships "Independencia" and "Huáscar". The four ships engaged in combat, but the armor of the Peruvian ships resisted the shots from the Chilean ships while the Esmeralda lost one of her engines. Her CO, Captain Arturo Prat Chacón refused to surrender to the Peruvians and Esmeralda, was rammed by the Peruvian monitor "Huáscar". He was killed shortly after boarding the Peruvian armored monitor. Despite the fact that Iquique was a Peruvian victory, following Prat's death, his name became a rallying cry for Chilean forces, and Arturo Prat has since been considered a Chilean national hero.
Death of Arturo Prat

1940: A British counter attack is launched near Arras with armoured and infantry support against Rommel's 7. Panzer Division, throwing it off balance. A similar attack in the south by a French armoured brigade under General de Gaulle fails after initial success. The French 9th Army is surrounded and destroyed, its commander, General Giraud, taken prisoner.
French General Henri Giraud in captivity in Germany

1941: 80 Ju-52s crash land a regiment of 5. Gebirgsjäger Division to support the hard-pressed paratroopers who are defending Maleme airfield. A British counter-attack at Maleme airfield is repulsed by the now reinforced paratroopers. A German attack at the Rethymnon airfield fails. A Battalion of the Greek Gendarmerie counter-attacks and captures the CO of the 2. Fallschirmjäger-Regiment, Oberst Alfred Sturm.
Gebirgsjäger board Ju-52s for Crete

1941: The city of Heraklion is heavily bombarded by the Luftwaffe. German paratroopers penetrate the outskirts of the city. A Greek counter-attack is launched with infantry and civilian armed bands which causes disarray. The paratroopers withdraw with considerable casualties.

1941: A Royal Navy force commanded by Rear Admiral Irvine Glennie intercepted a convoy of 25 commandeered caiques - Greek fishing boats - escorted by the Italian destroyer Lupo (Cpt. Francesco Mimbelli). The Royal Navy sank several caiques and others turned back. They were carrying elements of the 5. Gebirgsjäger Division with their vehicles, Flak and support weapons, as well as engineer and anti-tank units. The Luftwaffe sinks the British Destroyer HMS "Juno" (F46) (Cdr J.R.J. Tyrwhitt) and damages the Light cruiser HMS "Ajax" (22), southwest of Crete.

1945: The Japanese begin the evacuation of Shuri, on Okinawa. Their losses so far are estimated at 48,000 killed out of a garrison of 85,000.

1945: The British Second Army (Major Sidney Excell) arrest a certain Heinrich Hitzinger at Bremervörde. British soldier Arthur Britton, identified him as Heinrich Himmler in disguise.

05-21-2010, 08:36 AM
May 21st, 1856

Sack of Lawrence by Pro-Slavery Forces

May 21st, 1864

Spotsylvania, Virginia

13 day Battle of Spotsylvania Court House ends, part of Grants Wilderness campaign

Union -100,000 engaged 2,725 KIA, 13,416 WIA, 2,258 POW/MIA
Confederate - 52,000 engaged, 1,467 KIA, 6,235 WIA, 5,719 POW/MIA

05-21-2010, 04:23 PM
May 21, 1935

German military service requires Aryan descent.

05-22-2010, 07:03 AM
334 BC: Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the battle of Granicus river. Plutarch in his "Life of Alexander", writes that
the Persians lost in this battle 20,000 foot and 2,500 horse. Alexander sent a portion of the war spoils home and to the Athenians three hundred bucklers, and upon all the rest he ordered this inscription to be set:

"Alexander the son of Philip, and the Greeks,
except the Lacedaemonians,
won these from the barbarians who inhabit Asia.

All the plate and purple garments, and other things of the same kind that he took from the Persians, except a very small quantity which he reserved for himself, he sent as a present to his mother".

1941: Anglo-Iraqi War. The Iraqi 6th Infantry Brigade, of the Iraqi 3rd Infantry Division, conducted a fierce counterattack against the British forces within Fallujah. The Iraqi attack started at 02:30 hours supported by a number of Italian-built light tanks. By 03:00 the Iraqis reached the north-eastern outskirts of the town. Two light tanks, which had penetrated into the town, were quickly destroyed. By dawn British counterattacks had pushed the Iraqis out of north-eastern Fallujah. The Iraqis now switched their attack to the south-eastern edge of the town. But this attack met stiff resistance from the start and made no progress. By 10:00 Kingstone arrived with reinforcements, from Habbaniya, who were immediately thrown into battle. The newly arrived infantry companies, of the Essex Regiment, methodically cleared the Iraqi positions house-by-house. By 18:00 the remaining Iraqis had fled or were taken prisoner, sniper fire was silenced, six Iraqi light tanks were captured, and the town was secure.

1940: The XIX. Panzer Korps (Guderian) strikes from Abbeville toward Boulogne, Calais and Dunkirk along the Channel coast.

1941: Fierce fighting continues as British troops begin to pull back from Maleme airfield towards Suda Bay in order to regroup and protect their main point of supply.

1941: Heavy German air attacks on Crete sink the cruisers HMS "Fiji" (58), "Gloucester" (62) and "York" (90) and the destroyer HMS "Greyhound" (H05). The Battleships HMS "Warspite" (03) and HMS "Valiant" (1914) are damaged.
HMS Warspite, a WWI veteran

1945: "Sugar Loaf Hill" on Okinawa is finally taken by U.S. troops after changing hands 11 times in the last few days.

1973: While participating in a NATO exercise and in order to protest against the junta, the Destroyer HNS "Velos" (D16), under Commander Nikolaos Pappas, anchored at Fiumicino in Italy, refused to return to Greece. Cdr Pappas signalled the commander of the squadron and NATO Headquarters of his intentions quoting the preamble of the North Atlantic Treaty (founding treaty for NATO) which declares that "all governments are determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilization of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law". This action caused international interest in the situation in Greece. The captain, six officers, and twenty five petty officers remained abroad as political refugees. The whole crew wished to follow their captain but was advised by the officers to remain onboard and return to Greece to inform families and friends about what happened.
The HNS Velos (D16) now is a naval museum in the Gulf of Phaleron in Athens anchored in the Park of Maritime Tradition.
HMS Velos (left) and her crest

The Velos CO, Cdr Nicholas Pappas

05-23-2010, 05:14 AM
1568: The first battle of the Eighty Years' War occurs. At Heiligerlee, a village in the Dutch province of Groningen, Dutch rebels consisting of 3,900 infantry led by Louis of Nassau, and 200 cavalry led by Adolf of Nassau, both brothers of William I of Orange, defeat Jean de Ligne, Duke of Aremberg and his pro-Spain loyalist troops. Louis' infantry, making up the bulk of the army, defeated the Spanish force which lost 1,500–2,000 men, while the rebels lost 50, including Adolf.
Battle of Heiligerlee monument

1706: During the War of the Spanish Succession, the battle of Ramillies occurs. An army of 62,000 men from the Dutch Republic and England, under John Churchill, the 1st Duke of Marlborough, defeat the Franco-Bavarian army (60,000 men) of François de Neufville, 2nd duke of Villeroy.
The 1st Duke of Marlborough

1915: Ignoring treaty agreements with the Central Powers, Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary.
Italian Bersaglieri in WWI

1940: Heavy fighting around Boulogne. Units of the German 6. Armee cross the Scheldt river at Oudenaarde in Belgium.
The wounded commander of 2nd batallion/Infanterie-Regiment 46, Hauptmann Burseg reports to his divisional commander General Kurt von Briesen (to the left with map, KIA 1941 in USSR) before being taken to the rear. Battle of Oudenaarde, May, 1940

1941: Further German attempts to land troops by sea on Crete are repulsed as heavy fighting continues around Canea. At Castelli a German attack is repulsed by the 1st Greek Rgt. The Greek government and King George II leave Crete for Cairo, Egypt.

1941: Luftwaffe sinks two British destroyers off Crete, HMS "Kashmir" (F12) and HMS "Kelly" (F01). Kelly was bombed and sunk, with half her crew killed.
HMS Kashmir

1943: The heaviest RAF raid of war to date is made against Dortmund, during which 2,000 tons of explosives are dropped.

1944: The U.S. Fifth Army begins an offensive from the Anzio bridgehead toward Rome. Canadian troops breach the Adolf Hitler Line to the South West of Monte Cassino.
The CO of the US 5th Army, Lt Gen Mark Wayne Clark

1945: British troops arrest the Donitz government and the remnants of the German High Command at Flensburg. Himmler commits suicide at the British Second Army HQ on Lüneburg Heath.
Himmler dead

1945: The heaviest air raid so far on the Japanese homeland, see USAAF bombers drop 4,500 tons of incendiaries on Tokyo. 21% of the city is now burnt out, but the firebombing continues for next four days.
Firebombing of Tokyo

05-24-2010, 04:29 AM
1940: Infantry units of XIX. Panzerkorps storm Boulogne. On the morning of 24 May the French garrison still held the old citadel, and was determined to fight on, protected by the 30 foot walls of the citadel. The Germans carry out a head-on attack. Using siege ladders, and supported by concentrated artillery fire, flame throwers and close range fire from anti-aircraft guns, by the end of the day the Germans had captured the citadel. They took 5,000 British and French prisoners. 5,000 British troops are rescued by the ships of the Royal navy. The French fortress of Maubeuge surrenders, while 6. Armee captures Ghent and Tournai in Belgium and St. Omer in North-eastern France.

1941: The German battleship Bismarck, the pride of Hitler's navy, sinks the British dreadnought HMS Hood (51), considered the pride of the Royal Navy in the interwar period, off Greenland, with the loss of more than 1,415 lives. Only three men (Ted Briggs, Bob Tilburn, and Bill Dundas) survived.
The death of HMS Hood; a smoke cloud fills the sky above Hood's position, just after she exploded

1942: Operation Hannover: For six days, 45,000 German troops, including panzer and SS-police units, search for an estimated 20,000 partisans, catching or killing many of them. In the Barvenkovo salient, General Ewald von Kleist's Panzers start to chop up the Russian 6th and 9th Armies. Moscow admits the loss of 5,000 dead, 70,000 missing, and 300 tanks destroyed. The Germans claim 10,500 KIA, 24,000 POW's and 1,200 tanks destroyed.
Soviet Partizans

1983: During the Iran-Iraq War, the Iranians recapture the border city of Khorramshahr after two days of bitter fighting, capturing 19,000 soldiers from a demoralized Iraqi Army after the fighting was over. At 13:50 on Saturday, May 24, 1983, the Iranian combatants marched triumphantly through the city of Khorramshahr. The Iraqi army retreated from most parts of the southern territories, and the liberation of Khorramshahr became a reality and a living legend in the hearts and minds of all Iranians. The Iraqis commemorate May 24 as "Martyr’s Day" and the Iranians celebrate this day as the "Liberation of Khorramshahr".
An armed Iranian woman in Khorramshar, during the Iraqi invasion

05-25-2010, 05:08 AM
1810: The last day of the week-long "May Revolution" occurs. These events are commemorated in Argentina as "May Week" (Spanish: Semana de Mayo). On Friday, 25 May, 1810, the First Assembly (Spanish: Primera Junta), the first independent government of Argentina is formed. The May Revolution is considered the starting point of the Argentine War of Independence.
Today, May 25, 2010, marks 200 years of the May Revolution, leading to the Bicentennial of Argentina.
The May Pyramid (Pirámide de Mayo) in Buenos Aires

1940: German armed forces pressed the Allied armies trapped in the north, from south and east, into the English Channel. The battle for Dunkirk begins.

1941: Bismarck escapes the Royal Navy’s pursuit, separates from the Prinz Eugen and makes her way to Brest. She is attacked by Swordfishes from the aircraft carrier HMS Victorious.
This photo of the Bismarck was taken by one of the Swordfishes during the attack

1941: During the Battle of Crete, the Germans decide to go on the offensive having now received substantial reinforcement through Maleme airfield. They capture the town of Galatas, near Canea. Greek troops attack and after fierce fighting recapture it in the evening.

1944: German airborne troops attack Tito's Partisan HQ at Drvar in Bosnia on Tito’s 52nd birthday. Tito and Churchill’s son Randolph, both manage to escape into the mountains.
A female partisan, is captured by the Germans in Drvar landings, May 1944

1982: During the Falklands War, the Royal Navy destroyer HMS "Coventry (D118)" was struck by two 1000lb bombs just above the water line on the port side and sunk. The bombs were delivered by two Argentine A-4 Skyhawks (Primer Teniente Mariano A. Velasco, Alférez Leonardo Barrionuevo). 19 of her crew were lost. 30 were injured.

05-26-2010, 03:36 AM
451: The Battle of Avarair occurs between the 66,000-strong Armenian army under Vartan Mamikonian (Saint Vartan for the Armenians) and their Sassanid rulers.The Persian army numbered 250-300,000 men (40,000 of whom were Armenians). In addition to the Persian elements, the Sassanid force included contingents from various Caucasian, Caspian and central Asian territories. In the battle, Vartan won initial successes, but was eventually slain along with eight of his top officers and 1027 of his men. Persian casualties accounted for 3,000-4,000 men. May 26 is considered to be a holy day by Armenians, and is one of the most important national and religious days in Armenia.
Depiction of the battle by Grigor Khanjian

1770: The Orlov Revolt, an attempt to revolt against the Turks before the Greek War of Independence, ends in disaster for the Greeks. A Russian fleet of 14 warships commanded by Count Aleksey Grigoryevich Orlov reached Mani in February 1770, prompting the Maniots to revolt against the Ottomans. Almost immediately the Greeks of W. Greece under Alexes Karakitsos and of Aetolia under Stathas Gerodemos raised their war flags. After an initial success, the revolt was a failure which cost a huge number of Greek lives (both in battle, and in the Turkish reprisals that followed for 4 long years). The Greeks became increasingly distrustful of the Russians as a result.
The naval Battle of Chesme took place on 5-7 July 1770 near and in Çeşme (Chesme) Bay, between the Russian Orlov fleet and the Ottomans in the area between Asia Minor and the island of Chios. It was part of the Orlov Revolt of 1770

WWI-1918: During the Caucasus Campaign of WWI, the Battle of of Sardarapat occurs. 6,000 Armenians of the Armenian National Council (a provisional Armenian government based in Tbilisi, Georgia) defeated 10,000 Turks and Kurds of the 36th Ottoman Caucasus Division. Suffering heavy losses, the Ottoman army is routed. The Ottoman defeats in the battles of Sardarapat, Bash Abaran, and Kara Killisse were instrumental in allowing the Armenian National Council in Tbilisi to declare the independence of the Democratic Republic of Armenia (which lasted for 2 years).
1919, Independence day celebration in the Democratic Republic of Armenia

1940: Operation Dynamo: The evacuation of British, French and Belgian troops from Dunkirk begins. Under the command of Admiral Bertram Ramsay, hundreds of naval, commercial and private vessels participate in this most desperate rescue attempt. Calais falls to the Germans as they advance towards Dunkirk.

1941: Swordfish Torpedo-bombers from the Ark Royal score hits on the Bismarck, disabling her steering gear and rendering her un-maneuverable. This enables British destroyers to attack after dark.
18 torpedoes were dropped against the Bismarck

1941: In the Battle of Crete, two companies from the Greek 5th Rgt attack and occupy the German held village of Estavromenos, Rethymnon. Dozens of Germans are captured prisoners.

1942: The battle for the Gazala line begins (Operation Venezia), as the Afrika Korps thrusts south with 560 tanks of the 15. and 21. Panzerdivision, elements of the 90th Motorized Infantry Division, and the Italian Divisions Trieste and Ariete and around the southern end of the British 8th Army's defensive positions towards Tobruk. The Free French forces (3,703 men of the 1st Free French Division under General Marie Pierre Kœnig) at Bir Hacheim manage to hold up this advance. This feat of arms was for many a significant proof of the valor and courage of the French soldiers. Axis losses were heavy: 3,300 men were KIA/WIA, 277 were captured. French losses accounted for 140 KIA, 229 WIA.
General Kœnig with his officers at Bir Hacheim

1943: The Soviet Army begins an offensive against the German forces isolated in the Kuban bridgehead between the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea.

bd popeye
05-26-2010, 08:35 AM
26 May 1954..Fire & Explosion on the USS Bennington CVA-20

(The short story) At 0811, 26 May 1954, while cruising off Narragansett Bay, the fluid in one of her catapults exploded, setting off a series of secondary explosions which killed 103 crewmen and injured 201 others. BENNINGTON proceeded under her own power to Quonset Point, R. I., to land her injured.

Moving to New York Naval Shipyard for repairs she was completely rebuilt during 12 June 1954 - 19 March 1955. On 22 April 1955 the Secretary of the Navy came aboard and presented medals and letters of commendation to 178 of her crew in recognition of their heroism on 26 May 1954. BENNINGTON served as a platform for innovations in Naval Aviation.

The full details...



On the 26th of May 1954 the aircraft carrier, USS BENNINGTON CVA-20 was steaming off the Atlantic coast for carrier qualifications. This cruise was interrupted by a violent explosion or series of explosions, which claimed over 200 officers and men as casualties. The ship suffered massive damage in the forward third with sheets of flame and a series of explosions. Nearly one hundred men lost their lives within seconds of the explosion and over one hundred others were seriously injured. All survivors were left with a searing memory.

That Wednesday morning had started early. By 0600 hours, preparations to launch aircraft had been completed and aircraft had begun the procedure for launching. Most of the ships crew who were not directly involved in the launch activity were in the process of waking. At 0611 hours with the propulsion system in use on the flight deck there was a violent explosion which involved the forward third of the ship.

Those corpsmen who had the night duty were beginning to start their day by 0600.

The sick bay was located in the stern area below the hanger deck. We thus did not hear any of the explosions. We did hear an announcement for "General Quarters", and we thought that this announcement was stated to be a drill. Within seconds after the corpsmen had begun to dash to their general quarters stations we were aware that this was in fact not a drill.


My first encounter with a hero occurred as the announcement over the speakers was advising that the "General Quarters was no drill". I had no reason to quarrel with that assessment.

A black shipmate started down the ladder to the sickbay. He had no clothes on. He pleaded for us to go and help his buddy. These were his last words. He died in my arms and I realized that his clothes had literally been burned off his body. In my mind he was a hero. Whether he ever received a medal I can't say, he was not easy to identify.

A bosonmate remembers that he was half-awake in his bunk below the hanger deck and "felt the ship shuttering and a dull explosion echoed through the passageways". In his shorts he made his way up a ladder to the second deck and by feeling his way in the dark went up another ladder where he found several shipmates. They helped each other up another ladder and to the fresh air when there was another explosion. A shipmate gave him a pair of dungarees. The second explosion twisted the ladder, which they had just used, "like a pretzel". A third explosion occurred while these men began their work in the aftermath, work that included finding injured, transporting them to the hanger deck where the corpsmen had set up the aid station and searching for bodies.

A fireman, also a hero, had just started out of his bunk when the first explosion occurred. The compartment quickly filled with smoke so the men here formed a chain and started for the hanger deck. The second explosion killed the two men just in front of him. The third explosion "brought him to his senses". He made it to his station for damage control, passing through compartments, which were on fire. "Rockets, bombs and bodies were in the passageways". They found the forward mess hall filled with two feet of water and two casualties, one man on a table and the other face down in the water. They carried the first man out and came back for the second. The second man walked on his own after being turned. "I was scared". All of the men in the catapult room had been killed. "Fires were all around".

The general quarters alarm found a cook preparing breakfast. He started for his general quarters station on the telephone for "Repair 5". Before plugging in his phones the first explosion hit. The second explosion caught him on the ladder and threw him to the upper deck. The third explosion found him looking down into the space below which he had just exited and which was now filled with smoke and dust. He got back to his station and plugged the phone in and found the repair parties aft of his station all checked in but only one station forward of his had checked in and this was manned by a single person. He learned that his Repair Party Officer was dead. On the phone he had made contact with a Damage Control Unit which was trapped. All members of this crew died before help could reach them. The cook's wife is, "still waiting for the telegram which was later sent to let her know he was ok".

At about 0530 hours a pantry man noted smoke coming from the galley. This was located on the third deck amidships. The cook's also noted smoke but no fire. The escape route for these men was through a hatch, which was blown, shut as they approached and became red-hot. One survivor recalls that an "extraordinarily brave man" who searched among all the dead to find him still alive helped him. He was evacuated by helicopter to Newport Rhode Island Naval Hospital and finally recovered and returned to active duty.


Not all efforts to rescue shipmates were successful. There was no doubt that in many cases friends were already beyond help. In some cases the efforts to help were not to succeed. One frantic effort to disengage a shipmate from entangled metal and machinery ended in watching the friend slowly drown as water filled the space where he was trapped. His knowing that he was nearing his final moments and his

Encouragement to those trying to help typified the spirit of the men of the BENNINGTON.


The number of explosions heard by various persons varies. Officers on the bridge recalled hearing two explosions. Some individuals in the area of the worst damage recalled three explosions, while one heard no explosion but saw a wall of flame. Certainly some of the differences relate to location. Where one was at the time determined what was heard as well as the chances of injury or death. We heard no explosions in the sick bay, probably because of the location. It appears from the memories that there was a series of explosions, that these were of varying intensities, and that some at least were confined to small areas. With hatches closed there would be a dampening of sound transmission.


Casual inspection of the damage to the ship following our return to dry dock in New York gave startling evidence of the tremendous forces, which were unleashed by the explosions. There was no evidence of harm on the flight deck or on the hanger deck, but in the forward third of the ship one saw structural I-beams twisted. Ladders were torn and twisted. Paint was burned; bulkheads were pushed out in bubbles and all the spaces were covered with greasy soot. Burned rubble was strewn about.


An obvious question was what caused these explosions. As a corpsman I was not in a position to know exactly what happened to cause this accident. I have put my personal observations and other explanations together to try to make sense of the causation. It appeared that there had been a slow leak in one of the catapults. A hydraulic fluid operated the catapults, which was supposed to be safe from fire or explosion. However the timing of the first explosion makes it appear that at some level in the ship the hydraulic fumes were in a vaporized state and had reached a concentration which permitted it to explode and burst into flame when a seaman awoke and lit his first cigarette. The flames spread rapidly throughout the spaces, which had accumulated the leaking hydraulic vapors. These flames must have been extremely hot as suggested by the rapidity of doors reaching a "hot" temperature. The initial flames consisted of the burning of the vaporized hydraulic fluid and lasted only seconds. Other material then began to burn.

05-27-2010, 02:59 AM
927: The Battle of Bosnian highlands between the Croatian army under King Tomislav and the Bulgarians of Tsar Symeon, takes place. King Tomislav was able to harvest an army of approximately 70-100,000 foot soldiers and 60,000 horse soldiers. The strength of Symeon's army is unknown but was probably 30,000-70,000. The commander of the Bulgarian forces in this battle was Duke Alogobotur. Both sides suffered heavy losses. According to the Byzantine historians Constantine Porphyrogenetus and Georgius Cedrenus, "in the month of May, during the fifteenth indiction, Symeon, ruler of the Bulgarians, attacked the Croats, and, having a fight with them, was defeated in impervious regions and lost all his army. Symeon died stricken by a heart attack in Bulgaria . Then, having heard of Symeon's death, neighboring peoples, the Magyars, Serbs, Croats and others decided, to attack the Bulgarians". After the defeat of the Bulgarians, Croatia reached the zenith of her power during the reign of her first King Tomislav. At that time she was a very powerful nation in Southeastern Europe.
King Tomislav Statue in Zagreb, Croatia

1821: During the Greek War for Independence, the 21-year old Psarian revolutionary Demetrios Papanikoles commanded and sailed his small fire ship alongside the Turkish flagship anchored in the Gulf of Eressos, at the Greek island of Lesbos and sunk her with all hands onboard.
The attack on the Turkish flagship in the Gulf of Eressos at the Greek island of Lesbos by a fire ship commanded by Papanikoles

1905: During the Russo-Japanese War, the Naval Battle of Tsushima occurs. It was naval history's only decisive sea battle fought by modern steel battleship fleets. In this battle the Japanese fleet under Admiral Heihachiro Togo destroyed two-thirds of the Russian fleet, under Admiral Zinovy Rozhestvensky, which had conducted a voyage of over 18,000 nautical miles to reach the Far East from the Baltic Sea. Historian Edmund Morris calls it the greatest naval battle since Trafalgar. It was a devastating loss for Russia, which lost all of its battleships, most of its cruisers and destroyers, and effectively ended the Russo-Japanese war in Japan's favor. The Russians suffered 4,380 killed and 5,917 captured, including 2 admirals and 1,862 interned. Japanese losses accounted for 117 dead, 583 injured. 3 Japanese torpedo boats sunk.

WWI-1918: Third German Spring offensive: The 3rd Battle of the Aisne, begins in French sector along Chemin des Dames. German 1. and 7. Armee (over 20 divisions and 4000 artillery guns) launched a massive surprise attack (named Blücher-Yorck after two Prussian generals of the Napoleonic Wars) against the French VI Armée, British IX Corps and later 2 American Divisions which had just arrived and proved themselves in combat for the first time in the war. The French suffered over 98,000 casualties and the British around 29,000. German casualties accounted for 130,000.
German shock-troops take their machinegun up to the front after having conquered a British position

1940: The Le Paradis massacre takes place. It was a war crime committed by members of the 14th Company, SS Division Totenkopf, under the command of Hauptsturmführer Fritz Knöchlein. Soldiers of the 2nd Battalion, the Royal Norfolk Regiment, had become isolated from their regiment. They occupied and defended a farmhouse against an attack by Waffen-SS forces in the village of Le Paradis. After running out of ammunition, the defenders surrendered to the German troops. The Germans led them across the road to a wall, and machine-gunned them. 97 British troops died. Two survived, with injuries, and hid until they were captured by German forces several days later.
After the war, Fritz Knöchlein was located, tried and convicted by a war crimes court, with the two survivors acting as witnesses against him. For his part in the massacre, Knöchlein was executed in 1949.
Le Paradis Memorial and Cemetery

1941: Germans paratroopers take Canea, the second largest city of Crete and with it the main British supply point of Suda Bay. This convinces Major General Freyberg, that the situation has gone against the British and Commonwealth troops and that he must withdraw from Crete to save what he can.

1942: The siege of Sevastopol rages on, becoming the only incident of a formal siege of a modern fortress being pushed through to final reduction. Sevastopol is the premier port on the Black Sea, and its defenses include three zones of trenches, pillboxes, and batteries. The strongest defenses lie in the middle zone, which includes the heights and the south bank of the Belbek River. Among these hills are "Fort Stalin" on the East and the massive western anchor of "Fort Maxim Gorki I," with its turret of twin 305 mm (12-inch) guns sweeping the length of the Belbek valley. 105,000 men defend this port. Against this the Germans and Romanians range 203,000 men and some of the most powerful siege artillery ever disposed by any army in World War II. Field Marshal Erich von Manstein aims 305 mm, 350 mm, and 420 mm howitzers at the Soviets, along with two of the new, stubby "Karl" and "Thor" 600 mm mortars. Also on hand is the 800 mm (31.5-inch) Schwerer-Gustav aka "Big Dora" from Krupp, which has to be transported to position by 60 railway wagons. "Big Dora" is commanded by a major general and a colonel, protected by two flak regiments and periodically fed with a 4,700 kilograms (10,500 lbs) shell.

1942: 400 miles west of Brest, the crippled Bismarck is relentlessly bombarded by dozens of British warships, including the battleships HMS "Rodney" (29) and "King George V" (41). After all her guns are silenced, she is sunk by torpedoes from the cruiser HMS "Dorsetshire" (40). There are only 110 survivors out of a crew of 2,300.
One of the last photographs of the Bismarck, taken from the Dorsetshire
Survivors from the Bismarck floating in the oily water just after the Bismarck sank. They struggle to reach the safety of the Dorsetshire

1942: The Afrika Korps, having pushed round the British defenses, move northeast. They are engaged by elements of the British 1st and 7th Armoured Divisions. Many tank losses were taken by both sides, although as the battle went on the British armour became increasingly scattered. The Italian Ariete Armoured Division continued to meet stiff resistance from the Free French at Bir Hacheim.
Gen Kœnig and his officers at Bir Hacheim

1942: Operation Anthropoid: The assassination of the acting Reichsprotektor of Bohemia and Moravia and a chief planner of the final solution, Reinhard Heydrich takes place. Four members of the Czechoslovak resistance, Lt. Adolf Opálka, Sgt. Josef Valčik, Sgt. Jan Kubiš and Sgt. Jozef Gabčík, seriously wound Heydrich by throwing a modified anti-tank grenade near his approaching car. Although Heydrich's condition appeared to stabilise after a few days, he eventually died on June 4. The attackers initially hid with two Prague families and later took refuge in Karel Boromejsky Church, an Orthodox church dedicated to Saints Cyril and Methodius in Prague. The Gestapo could not find the assassins until Karel Čurda (of the group Out Distance, whose objective was sabotage), was arrested and told the Gestapo the names of the team’s local contact persons for the bounty of 1 million Reichsmarks. Germans stormed the Church, and the seven men (the four assasins, and Sgts. Bublik, Hruby and Svarc) holed up inside fought bravely with pistol, rifle, submachine gun and grenades. Opálka was killed in the firefight, and Kubiš and Svarc fatally wounded. The other four men were hiding in the crypt, afraid to tunnel away for fear of giving away their position, although it might have saved them at this point. The Germans discovered they were in the crypt and tried to storm it repeatedly, first through the entrance hatchway and then by blowing up the stone entrance. The defenders acquitted themselves bravely, killing fourteen Germans and fighting until they ran out of ammunition, and the Nazis began to flood the crypt through its sole ventilation hatch. At this point they committed suicide with their revolvers. Bishop Gorazd, in an attempt to minimize the reprisals among his flock, took the blame for the actions in the Church on himself, even writing letters to the Nazi authorities. On June 27, 1942, he was arrested and tortured. On September 4, 1942, he, the Church priests, and senior lay leaders were executed by firing squad (for his actions, Bishop Gorazd was later glorified as a martyr by the Eastern Orthodox Church).
Bullet-scarred window of the Church of Saints Cyril and Methodius in Prague where the attackers were cornered

1944: 12,000 U.S. troops land on Biak in the Schouten Island Group, 350 miles West of Hollandia. The battle of Biak was fought from 27 May 1944 through 20 June 1944. The capture of Biak island cost the Americans 474 KIA, and 2,400 WIA; the Japanese lost 6,100 killed and 450 captured. MacArthur says, "this marks the strategic end of the New Guinea campaign".

05-28-2010, 04:16 AM
WWI-1918: U.S. forces (28th Regiment of 1st Division) are victorious in their first action, Battle of Cantigny. Although a minor action in itself, the Battle of Cantigny was fought on the second day of the great Third German Spring Offensive comprising the Third Battle of the Aisne. A regiment of the American 1st Division (some 4,000 troops), under Maj Gen Robert Lee Bullard, captured the village of Cantigny, held by the German XVIII. Armee, commanded by General Oskar von Hutier and the site of a German advance observation point, strongly fortified. U.S. forces lost 1,067 casualties; they captured around 100 German prisoners. German losses are unknown.
French flamethrower teams supporting the AEF attack at Cantigny

1940: Belgium formally surrenders to the Germans. The British and French reject capitulation and continue the evacuation and rearguard actions at Dunkirk.
King Leopold of Belgium agrees to the surrender of the Belgian army

1940: Norwegian (6th Division), French Mountain and Foreign Legion troops (13th Demi-Brigade), Polish (Independent Highland Brigade) and British forces (4 British battalions) recapture the port of Narvik, forcing the German defenders (Gebirgsjäger units and crews of sunk destroyers) into the surrounding hills and towards the safety of the Swedish border and internment. This is the first allied infantry victory of WWII.
Polish Mountain troops with German POW at Narvik

1941: British and Commonwealth forces begin evacuating Crete through the port of Sphakia on the southern coast of Crete. The withdrawal is to be covered by two recently landed Commando Battalions. Suda is occupied by the Germans.

1982: During the Falklands War, the Battle of Goose Green occurs. It was the first major land conflict of the Falklands War. By the end of the battle, men from 2 Para, the Parachute Regiment, had captured Goose Green and the surrounding area but had lost their commander, Lt Col "H" Jones who was awarded a posthumous Victoria Cross for his leadership and bravery during the battle. 2 Para lost 17 KIA, 64 WIA. Argentine losses accounted for 47 men KIA, 145 WIA. About 100 Argentine troops had been taken prisoner during the battle.

05-29-2010, 04:11 AM
363: Roman Emperor, Flavius Claudius Iuli**** (aka Julian the Apostate), defeats the Persian Army of the Sassanid King, Shapur II the Great, in the Battle of Ctesiphon, the Imperial capital of the Persian Sassanids
Ctesiphon today is located in Iraq

1176: The Lombard League (an alliance which included most of the cities of northern Italy) defeats Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire, in the Battle of Legnano, ending Frederick's rule over Lombardy. In a proclamation issued in Bergamo on August 3, 1848, the revolutionary Garibaldi referred to the historic Battle of Legnano as a source of inspiration for his own struggle for the Unification of Italy: "Bergamo will be the Pontida [i.e the town where the Oath of Pontida was signed there in 1167, by which the Lombard League was founded] of the present generation, and God will bring us a Legnano!".
Giuseppe Verdi's Ouverture-The Battle of Legnano

1453: Ottoman Armies under Sultan Mehmet II Fatih (=Conqueror) sack and capture Constantinople after a siege, ending the Byzantine Empire.

1940: German troops capture Heraklion, the capital and largest city of Crete. Germans enter the town of Rethymnon. The British, Commonwealth and Greek troops that defend the area, cut off from the rest of the allied force, either surrender to the Germans or join armed Cretan bands formed in the mountains.
Father & Son; Cretan guerillas, "antartes", on the high Cretan mountains

1940: The British destroyer HMS "Wakeful" (H88) is torpedoed 13 miles north of Nieuport by the German Schnellboot "S30". The Wakeful (Cdr.R.L. Fisher) had taken on around 700 men from the beaches at Dunkirk, an operation that had taken eight hours. Heading north and for home she was hit by the S-30's torpedo. It was 12.40 pm when the torpedo struck amidships on the starboard beam. Another destroyer, HMS "Grafton" (H89), moves in to help but is hit and damaged by a torpedo from the same Schnellboot. HMS "Comfort now approaches but is fired upon by the Grafton who mistook her for a German ship. The Comfort finally sinks. After the torpedo struck the Wakeful she reared up from the water and broke in two. Other ships nearby picked up 25 survivors but for over 600 men below deck, the end came swiftly.
The Wakeful

1940: German 6. Armee takes Ostend and Ypres in western Belgium. 47,300 British and French troops are evacuated from Dunkirk.

1941: During the evacuation of British troops from Crete, a Luftwaffe attack by Junkers Ju 87, sinks British destroyers HMS "Imperial" (D09) and "Hereward" (H93).
The Imperial

1942: The Soviet pocket to the Southeast of Kharkov, Ukraine is finally wiped out and 214,000 Soviets captured, along with 1,200 tanks and 2,000 guns destroyed. German casualties in the fighting around Kharkov amount to some 20,000.

1943: The RAF launches a major raid (719 bombers) against Wuppertal, dropping 1,900 tons of bombs and killing 2,450 civilians and claim that half of Wuppertal has been "wiped off the map".

05-30-2010, 04:51 AM
1434: During the Hussite Wars (a religious struggle between the reformist Hussites and the Roman Catholic Church, a national struggle between Czechs and Germans, and a social struggle between the landed and peasant classes), the Battle of Lipany occurs. An army of Utraquists (a moderate faction of the Hussites) and Roman Catholics, called the "Bohemian League", defeated the Taborites and Orphans (radical factions of the Hussites) led by Prokop the Great. 13,000 of the 18,000-strong Hussite army were killed, thus ending the Hussite Wars.

1919: Greek Army (1/8 Battalion of the 8th Rgt & a Cavalry Coy of the 3rd Cavalry Rgt) occupies Pergamum, on the Aegean coast of Turkey.

1940: 53,823 British and French troops are evacuated from Dunkirk, bringing total landed in England since May 27th to 126,606.
Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay was the officer in charge of “Operation Dynamo”

1941: Two students, Emmanuel "Manoles" Glezos (19 y.o) and Apostolos "Lakes" Santas (19 y.o.) ascended the Acropolis, managed to elude the German soldier on flag guard duty and tore down the Swastika. That was the first resistance act that took place in Greece. The Nazi regime responded by sentencing Glezos and Santas to death in absentia.
The Greek newspaper "Eleutheron Vema" of June, 1, 1941. It reads:
"On the night of May, 30, the German flag on the Acropolis, was stolen by unknown culprits. An investigation is underway. The perpetrators and their accomplices will be punished by death."

After the incident, the number of German soldiers on flag guard duty, increased

1942: Admiral Nimitz orders for Task Force 17 (Admiral Fletcher) consisting of the carrier Yorktown, 2 cruisers and 6 destroyers, which had been refitting at Pearl Harbor after operations in the Coral Sea, to set sail for Midway and meet Admiral Spruance there.
USS "Yorktown" (CV-5)

05-31-2010, 04:22 AM
1223: In the Battle of the Kalka River, a Mongolian army of 20,000-strong, defeated a combined army comprising Kievan Rus and Cumans of 25-30,000 men. The importance of the Mongolian expedition was immense. The expedition was history's longest cavalry raid, with the Mongols riding 5,500 miles (8,851 km) in three years in order to deal with the Rus. 14 years later, the Mongols attacked Rus, this time with 120,000 men and with this army, they conquered Kievan Rus.

1825: During the Greek War for Independence, the combined Greek Fleet comprising ships from the island of Hydra under Admiral Andreas Miaoules, ships from the island of Spetsae under Admiral Georgios Andrutsos, and ships from the island of Psara under Admiral Nikolaos Apostoles, defeated the Ottoman Fleet, in the Naval Battle of Suda, Crete.
The Spetsean Admiral, Georgios Andrutsos

WWI-1916: Naval Battle of Jutland: The British Grand Fleet under the command of Admiral Sir John Jellicoe & Admiral Sir David Beatty engage the Kaiserliche Marine under the command of Admiral Reinhard Scheer & Admiral Franz von Hipper in the largest naval battle of the war. At Jutland (N. Sea near Denmark), the Germans, with a 99-strong fleet, sank 115,000 tons of British ships, while a 151-strong British fleet sank 62,000 tons of German ships. The British lost 6,784 seamen, the Germans 3,039. After the battle, Jellicoe was criticised for his caution and for allowing Scheer to escape. Beatty, in particular, was convinced that Jellicoe had missed a tremendous opportunity to annihilate the High Seas Fleet, and win what would amount to another Trafalgar.
Admiral Jellicoe (left), Admiral Beatty
Admiral Scheer (left), Admiral von Hipper

1940: Defence of Dunkirk continues as 68,000 allied troops are evacuated. The French defence of Lille collapses.

1942: During the Battle of Gazala, the Kesselschlacht or "Cauldron battle" occurs as Rommel attacks the fortified box in the Gazala line that is held by the 150th Brigade of the British 50th Division. The Italians attack from the west as elements of the Afrika Korps attack from the east. Meanwhile Rommel's anti-tank gunners, repulse a number of British armoured counter-attacks against his position in the Cauldron.

1943: Black May ends. In May 1943, in the Battle of the Atlantic campaign during World War II, the German U-boat arm (U-Bootwaffe) (UBW) suffered high casualties with fewer Allied ships sunk; it is considered a turning point in the Battle of the Atlantic. Black May signalled a decline from which UBW never recovered.

1944: The Soviets repel a heavy German counter attack North of Jassy, Romania and in the southern Ukraine. Stalin gives the go-ahead to Operation Bagration (the Soviet summer offensive) which is to destroy Army Group Centre in Belarus.

06-01-2010, 04:42 AM
1794: During the War of the First Coalition (a series of major conflicts, from 1792-1797 fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states trying to contain France), the Glorious First of June is fought. It was a Naval Battle fought between Great Britain and the 1st French Republic, in the Atlantic Ocean, some 400 n.m. West of France. Despite the fact that a 25-strong British Fleet under Admiral Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, defeated a 26-strong French Fleet under Vice Admiral Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse, both parties claimed victory, because the British sunk 7 French ships, but a French vital cereal convoy from the United States got through the British blockade. British had 1,200 casualties, while French casualties accounted for 4,000.

WWI-1918: During the 3rd German Spring offensive, the Battle of Belleau Wood begins, fought predominantly by US Marines. On June 1, the US 2nd Division, including the 4th Marine Brigade (Brigadier General James Guthrie Harbord) took up positions south of Belleau Wood near Lucy-le-Bocage while elements of the German 347th Division from Army Group Crown Prince Wilhelm occupied the forest. The Germans launched a major assault on June 4. Supported by machine guns and artillery, the Marines were able to hold, effectively ending the German offensive in Aisne. The following day, the commander of the French XXI Corps ordered Brigadier General James Harbord's 4th Marine Brigade to retake Belleau Wood. On the morning of June 6, the Marines advanced, capturing Hill 142 to the west of the wood. Twelve hours later, they frontally assaulted the forest itself. To do so, the Marines had to cross a wheat field under heavy German machine gun fire. With his men pinned down, Gunnery Sergeant Dan Daly called "Come on ya sons-of-*****es, ya want to live forever?" and got them on the move again. When night fell, only a small section of forest had been captured.In addition to Hill 142 and the assault on the woods, the Marines attacked into Bouresches to the east. After taking most of the village, the Marines were forced to dig in against German counterattacks. All reinforcements trying to reach Bouresches had to cross a large open area and were subjected to heavy German fire. When night fell, the Marines had suffered 1,087 casualties making it the bloodiest day in the Corps' history to date. On June 11, the Marines pressed hard into Belleau Wood. From June 11-26, US forces repelled consecutive attacks conducted by the Germans attempting to retake their positions in the forest. Following the Battle of Belleau Wood, Marines began being referred to as "Devil Dogs". According to tradition in the United States Marine Corps, the title was assigned by German soldiers to U.S. Marines who fought in the Belleau Wood (Teufel Hunden). US forces suffered 1,811 killed and 7,966 wounded and missing. The number of Germans dead or wounded is unknown. 1,600 Germans captured.

1940: German onslaught continues at Dunkirk as General John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort, C-in-C BEF, returns from Flanders with another 64,400 troops who were evacuated off the beaches this day. However, in future, the evacuation will only continue during the hours of darkness due to the high losses of warships to daylight air attacks.
Lord Gort

1940: The British destroyers HMS "Keith" (H06), "Basilisk" (H11) and "Havant" (H32) and the transport Scotia (300 of the French troops she was carrying lost their lives) are sunk by Luftwaffe dive bombers, near Dunkirk.

1940: British forces evacuate the Bodř area of Norway, 120 miles to the southwest of Narvik.

1941: Battle of Crete ends. The evacuation of the island is completed, with 17,000 British, Commonwealth and Greek troops being rescued, although the Australians lose more than half their contingent. The Allied force available to Freyberg for the defence of the island comprised the 1,512 officers, 29,900 other ranks of the British and Commonwealth expeditionary force, the 300 students of the Greek Army Academy, the 474 officers, 10,997 other ranks of the local Gendarmerie chapter and Greek Army. 3,000-4,000 civilians took arms and formed armed bands. Final figures for the British are 16,500 killed, wounded or captured, along with a large number of warships sunk or damaged, while the Germans lose about 6,200 men. Greeks casualties amount to some 4,300 killed, wounded or captured.

1941: Stukas sink the British cruiser HMS "Calcutta" off Alexandria. On passage from Alexandria to provide additional AA protection to ships returning with more troops from Sphakia, Crete, she was attacked by two Ju 88. She was hit by two bombs and sank in a few minutes.

1942: Rommel takes the fortified "box" that is held by the British 150th Brigade in the Gazala defensive line and secures the Cauldron. This enables him to get much needed supplies flowing. Rommel now turns the German 90th Light Division and the Italian Ariete Armoured Division against Bir Hacheim in an attempt to wipe out the Free French garrison which still holds out. He also distracts the British by sending the 21. Panzerdivision northeast to operate nearer to Tobruk.
Men of the Italian Ariete Division-N. Africa, 1942

1943: Greek guerillas blow up the railway tunnel located in Phthiotes, Central Greece, while a train full of Italian troops, ammunition and provisions was crossing it. Dozens of Italians were killed and wounded.
Greek ELAS guerillas

06-01-2010, 02:20 PM
June 1, 1915

The first successful Zeppelin attack on London.

06-01-2010, 04:58 PM
Age of Sail:

June 1, 1794 (french revolutionary wars)
The glorious first of June (obviously) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glorious_First_of_June)
The royal navy defeats the french navy but is unable to stop vital grain convoy from the US to reach France.

June 1, 1813 (war of 1812)
HMS Shannon takes USS Chesapeake off Boston (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capture_of_USS_Chesapeake)
With 228 casualties, this was a very bloody frigate action and restored the british confidence in the royal Navy after a string of defeats.
From now on, the US navy was bottled up in their ports by superior british forces.

06-02-2010, 03:46 AM
1098: During the 1st Crusade (a military expedition from 1096 to 1099 by Western Christianity to regain the Holy Lands taken by the Muslims) the first Siege of Antioch ends as Crusader forces take the city.

1940: 26,200 British and French troops are evacuated from the beaches today. Virtually all British soldiers have now been evacuated and so the remaining French troops have taken over the defence of the perimeter.

1941: In retaliation for the participation of Cretans in the Battle of Crete, the Massacre of Kondomarí occurs. Temporary commander of Crete, General Kurt Student issued an order for launching a wave of brutal reprisals against the local population right after the surrender of the island. Following Student's order, the occupants of Kondomarí were blamed for the death of a few German soldiers whose bodies had been found near the village. Men from the 3. Fallschirmjägerbatallion under Oberleutnant Horst Trebes executed all male civilians from the village of Kondomarí. Trebes was killed in 1944 in Normandy.

1943: Greek destroyer RHNS "Vassilissa Olga" (D15) (Georgios Blessas), and Royal Navy destroyer HMS "Jervis" (G00) (A.L. Poland) attack and sink an Italian convoy comprising two merchant ships, a torpedo boat and the destroyer "Castore", off the island of Pantellaria, SW Italy.
The Queen Olga (left) and the Jervis

1944: U.S. troops are now only 20 miles from Rome.

1984: Operation Bluestar: A military offensive, is launched by the Indian government at the Golden Temple, the holiest shrine for the Sikhs, in Amritsar, Punjab, against Sikh separatists, led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, who were amassing weapons in the Golden Temple. The operation continues until June 6; according to the Army, 83 Indian soldiers were killed, 248 wounded. Militants lost 492 Killed, 86 wounded. Civilian casualties exceeded 5,000.
Golden Temple after the end of the operation

06-03-2010, 04:19 AM
1665: During the Second Anglo–Dutch War (fought between England and the United Provinces from 4 March, 1665-31 July, 1667. England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade) the naval battle of Lowerstorf occurs (O.S.). A fleet of more than a hundred ships of the United Provinces commanded by Lieutenant-Admiral Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam attacked an English fleet of equal size commanded by James Stuart, Duke of York 40 miles east of the port of Lowestoft in Suffolk, England. The outcome of the confrontation was a decisive English victory: 1 English ship lost, 300 - 500 killed; 17 Dutch ships lost, 2000 -2500 killed ca 2000 taken prisoner. The English failed to take advantage of their victory. They never managed an effective blockade of the Dutch coast.

1940: Operation Dynamo ends: On the night of 3-4 June, the last night of the Dunkirk evacuation sees 26,700 French soldiers lifted from the beaches. This brings the total rescued to 224,686 British, 121,445 French and Belgian troops. Most of the French opt to return to France to continue the fight. During the evacuation, 6 destroyers, 24 small warships were sunk. 222 British naval vessels and 665 other craft participated in Dunkirk operation. 226 vessels were sunk altogether. 177 aircraft were lost (Germans lost 140 aircraft).

1940: 300 German planes bomb Paris inflicting around 900 casualties.

1941: In retaliation for the participation of Cretans in the Battle of Crete, the Razing of Kándanos occurs. Men from the 3. Fallschirmjägerbatallion entered the town, killed about 180 residents and slaughtered all livestock; all houses were torched and razed. After its destruction, Kándanos was declared a dead zone and its remaining population was forbidden to return to the town and rebuild it.
A German soldier in front of the first of the signs erected after the razing. The text reads: "Kándanos was destroyed in retaliation for the ******* ambush murder of a paratrooper platoon and a half-platoon of military engineers by armed men and women."
The second sign after the razing. It reads: "Here stood Kándanos. It was destroyed in retaliation for the murder of 25 German soldiers"
The Kándanos Memorial

1942: In retaliation for the sabotage of the Heraklion airfield carried out by Cretan and British saboteurs, German troops arrest and put before the firing squad 62 prominent members of the Heraklion society, at the town of Gazi, 6 km (3.7 miles) W of Heraklion.

1942: Task Force 16 (Spruance) and 17 (Fletcher) meet 350 miles NE of Midway. Admiral Fletcher takes overall command of the joint task force, although the two would act separately. US land based aircraft from Midway spot the Japanese Transport Force about 600 miles from Midway. They launch attacks against this force, but without success. US reconnaissance aircraft spot the 2 carriers of the Japanese 2nd Carrier Striking Force, which were about 400 miles from Kiska in the Aleutians.
Admiral Raymond A. Spruance (left), Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher

2007: The USS "Carter Hall" (LSD-50) engaged pirates after they boarded a Danish ship and destroyed 3 small boats being towed behind the captured vessel, but was unable to pursue after the vessel entered Somalian waters.

06-04-2010, 04:56 AM
1859: During the Second War of Italian Independence (the Piedmontese with the help of Napoleon III, Emperor of France defeat the Austrians) the Battle of Magenta (a town located 12 miles/19 km W of Milan, in Austrian-dominated N. Italy) occurs. The small Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, asked for help from the French in order to defeat the Austrians. The Austrian military plan aims at attacking with their army (58,000-strong) and defeating the small Piedmontese army (1,100 foot) before Napoleon III in command of the French army (59,100-strong) arrives. Napoleon III quickly arrives in N. Italy with his army though, and the Austrians and the French meet around Magenta railway station. The battle of Magenta was not particularly large, but it was a decisive victory for the French-Piedmontese forces. About 6,000 soldiers died during the battle, most of them - about 3/4 - were Austrian. The French-Piedmontese victory opens the way to the liberation of Milan, the first step towards the unity of Italy. After the battle, a real bloodshed, the noun "magenta" was adopted to describe a bright purplish red, blood red.

WWI-1916: The Russians with 55 Divisions (633,000 men) launch their Brusilov Offensive against the Austro-Hungarians & Germans (49 Divisions, 467,000 men) in Carpathia. It was the Russian Empire's greatest feat of arms during WWI, and among the most lethal battles in world history. Brusilov Offensive was the only battle which was named after the individual field commander and was successful in WWI.
General Aleksei Alekseevich Brusilov

1940: Winston Churchill, delivers his famous speech "We shall fight on the beaches, in the fields, in the streets and in the hills. We shall never surrender."

1942: The Battle of Midway, the most important naval battle of the Pacific Campaign of World War II, begins.

1944: The U.S. Fifth Army enters Rome.

1944: German U-505, patrolling off Cape Blanco on the West African coast is forced to the surface by depth-charges from the U.S. destroyer escort USS "Chatelain" (DE-149) and is captured intact and towed to Bermuda by the escort carrier USS "Guadalcanal" (CVE-60).
U-505 shortly after being captured

06-05-2010, 04:14 AM
1900: During the Second Anglo-Boer War, British Army takes Pretoria.
British in Pretoria

1940: The Battle of France begins. Germans attack with 119 divisions, including 10 Panzer divisions. Army Group B, with 50 divisions, opens the offensive against the French left wing which is anchored along the Somme for 120 miles, in fortified positions known as the Weygand Line, just 100 miles from Paris.

1942: 8th Army launches a counter-attack against the Afrika Korps forces that are inside the Cauldron. This is codenamed "Aberdeen", but went disastrously wrong from the start, with an infantry tank brigade being destroyed in minefields and an Indian infantry brigade attacking the wrong positions. This left the remainder of the force, the 22nd Armoured Brigade to be repulsed easily by the untouched German defenses. British losses for this operation were 150 tanks, 133 guns, 6,000 killed or wounded and 4,000 POW. Tank units felt the full force of expertly placed German FlaK 8.8 cm guns and without proper armoured cover, the infantry units that followed on suffered accordingly.

1944: More than 1000 Allied bombers drop 5,000 tons of bombs on German gun batteries on the Normandy coast in preparation for D-Day.

1967: The Six-Day-War broke out on, when Israel responded to the Egyptian military build-up by launching a surprise attack on Egypt’s air force, destroying most of it on the ground within a matter of hours.

06-05-2010, 10:32 AM
June 5, 1942:
The United States declares war (http://johnshadegg.house.gov/RSC/DeclarationofWar.PDF) on Rumania, Hungary and Bulgaria.


Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_F._Kennedy_assassination) was shot in a ballroom at The Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles.
(Robert became critical of the Johnson administration after they approved the resumed bombing of North Vietnam in 1966)

06-05-2010, 07:58 PM
Some big things happened on the 6th of June, I'm sure someone will cover it. Something closer to home for me though was the raising of my second Battalion 6 RAR.

http://www.6rarassociation.com/bnhistory.htm 6 RAR was raised in Brisbane at the Enoggera Barracks on 6 June 1965 under the command of Lieutenant Colonel C.M. Townsend. The Battalion was formed by dividing 2 RAR (Pentropic) into two Tropical Establishment (TE) Battalions. The Battalion initially comprised a nucleus command structure of Officers and NCO, two rifle companies and some specialists. The Battalion was brought up to full strength when a large draft of soldiers from the first National Service intake marched-in in September 1965.

06-06-2010, 04:42 AM
1940: The Battle of France: German tanks in groups of 200-300, break through French line in two places on Somme front and Rommel's 7. Panzerdivision advancing to the West of Amiens, penetrates 20 miles into French territory. During these breakthroughs the Germans suffer heavy losses at Amiens and Petonne.

1942: In the Battle of Midway, planes from USS Enterprise (CV-6) and USS Hornet (CV-8) made three attacks, completely wrecking Japanese cruiser Mikuma.

1944: A section of 46 Greek Sacred Band Commandos (13 officers) under Lt. Col. Andreas Kallinskes, conduct a raid mission against the Germans at Neorion, island of Chios. 13 German naval vessels are sunk and several munition stores are destroyed.

1944: Battle of Normandy begins. D-Day, code named Operation Overlord, commences with the landing of 156,115 Allied troops on the designated beaches in Normandy named Sword, Juno, Gold, Omaha and Utah. The allied soldiers quickly break through the Atlantic Wall and push inland in the largest amphibious military operation in history. This is preceded by the British 6th Airborne Division which lands near Caen and some 12,000 paratroopers of the U.S. 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions which are dropped on the Cotentin peninsula. These forces are supported by 1,213 warships, including 7 battleships and 23 cruisers, 1,600 auxiliary ships, and 4,126 landing craft, as well as massive British and American air support, which flies 14,674 sorties that day. Opposing them in their bunkers and on the beaches are 5 German infantry divisions with about 50,000 men and 100 tanks and assault guns. Despite some heavy casualties, especially by the U.S. forces on Omaha Beach, the German defenders, stunned and surprised by the massive onslaught, are progressively overwhelmed, and most of the allied objectives are reached and secured by nightfall. There is very little opposition from the Luftwaffe or Kriegsmarine.

1982: Lebanon War begins. After the assassination attempt against Israel's ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov, by the Abu Nidal Organization, Israeli forces invade southern Lebanon in their Operation Peace for the Galilee, eventually reaching as far north as the capital Beirut.
Destroyed Syrian T-62 in E. Lebanon

06-06-2010, 04:53 PM
June 6, 1918

The Battle of Belleau Wood (http://videos.howstuffworks.com/military-channel/7184-20th-century-battlefields-1918-us-action-video.htm). The most catastrophic day in U.S. Marine Corps history.

06-07-2010, 08:20 AM
1822: During the Greek War for Independence, Psarian revolutionary, Constantine Canares, destroyed the flagship of the Turkish admiral Nasuhzade Kara-Ali Pasha, anchored in the island of Chios. The admiral was holding a celebration, while Canares and his men managed to place a fire ship next to the flagship. When the flagships' powder keg caught fire, she blew up killing all hands on board. Ottoman casualties accounted for 2,000 men, both naval officers and crewmen, as well as Kara-Ali himself.

1863: During the Franco-Mexican War (the invasion of Mexico by the army of the Second French Empire, supported in the beginning by Mexico's major creditors Spain and the United Kingdom, intending to pressure the Mexicans into settling their debts) French troops under General François Achille Bazaine capture Mexico's capital city, Mexico City.
A week later, Maximilian archduke of Austria and Princess Carlota of Belgium were installed as Emperor Maximillian I and Empress Carlotta of Mexico

1880: During the War of the Pacific (a South American conflict in which the forces of Chile fought against a defensive alliance of Bolivia and Peru) the Battle of Arica occurs. 5,000 Chilean troops led by Colonel Pedro Lagos, launched a simultaneous assault from two sides against the 1,903 Peruvians under Colonel Francisco Bolognesi occupying Arica Cape, taking the defenses on a bayonet charge. According to legend, while Col. Lagos waited for reinforcements before storming the Cape, an unidentified soldier shouted "ˇAl morro muchachos!" ("To the Cape, boys!"), causing the mass assault. The Chilean officers had nothing to do but to follow their soldiers in a frenetic race for the summit. The Chileans won the battle and the Peruvian CO, Colonel Bolognesi was killed. Chilean casualties accounted for 474 killed and wounded. Peruvians lost approx. 1,000 men.
Peruvian Colonel Francisco Bolognesi, CO of the garrisson at Arica. He held his position against all odds and rejected surrendering proposals by the Chilean Army. His last words: "We shall fight to the last cartridge"

1907: During the Greek Struggle for Macedonia, 2nd Lieutenant Sarantes Agapenos (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tellos_Agras) (aka Tellos Agras) a prominent figure among the Macedonian Fighters, is captured and executed by hanging by the Bulgarians.

WWI-1917: The Battle of Messines: 12 British and Commonwealth divisions (216,000-strong) under the command of General Herbert Plumer, launched an offensive near the village of Mesen (Messines) in West Flanders, Belgium against 5 German divisions (126,000 men) under General Sixt von Arnim. The British explode 19 large ammonal mines underneath German trenches at Messines Ridge, killing 10,000.

1942: Battle of Midway ends. The U.S. carrier USS "Yorktown" (CV-5), having been damaged on the 4th June, is torpedoed and sunk by a Japanese submarine whilst enroute to Pearl Harbor for repairs.

1942: The Japanese make landings on Attu and Kiska Islands in the Aleutian Islands, off Alaska.
Japanese on Attu

1944: 18 captured Canadian soldiers of the North Nova Scotia Highlanders and the 27th Canadian Armoured Regiment (CAR-Sherbrooke Fusiliers Regiment) were taken to the Ardenne Abbey, near Caen, France and killed by members of the 12. SS Panzerdivision Hitlerjugend. This was the place where Standartenführer (Colonel) Kurt Meyer, Commander of the SS-Panzergrenadier-Regiment 25 (of the 12. Panzerdivision), had established his headquarters. Kurt Meyer was brought to trial for the Abbaye d'Ardenne massacre in December 1945 and denied knowledge of it. He was found guilty and sentenced to death - a sentence later commuted to life imprisonment. He served eight years in a New Brunswick penitentiary and, on September 7, 1954, was released. He died of a heart attack seven years later.

1967: During the Six-Day War, Israeli forces enter Jerusalem.

1981: Operation Opera: 8 F-16A's with an escort of F-15A's of the Israeli Air Force, bombed and heavily damaged Iraq's Osiraq nuclear reactor in a surprise air strike.

06-08-2010, 08:10 AM
793: Vikings raid the abbey at Lindisfarne in Northumbria, commonly accepted as the beginning of the Scandinavian invasion of England. It was a particularly dramatic and significant event, heralding the onset of frequent raids on coastal communities, with churches and monasteries being particularly targeted for their wealth.

1928: During the Northern Expedition (a military campaign led by the Kuomintang from 1926 to 1928 with main objective to unify China under the Kuomintang banner by ending the rule of local warlords), the National Revolutionary Army (the Military Arm of the Kuomintang) captures Peking, whose name is changed to Beijing.
Chiang-Kai-Sek, the C-i-C of the National Revolutionary Army

1940: Battle of France: German forces advancing South from the Somme capture Rouen, Upper Normandy, on the Seine. The British 51st Highland Division and part of the French 10th Army withdraw towards St-Valery-en-Caux, Upper Normandy.

1940: The evacuation of British and French troops (24,000 men) from Narvik and Harstad, Norway is completed.

1944: U.S. forces advancing from Utah Beach capture Sainte-Mčre-Église and cut the crucial road and rail links on the Cherbourg peninsula. Rommel puts all German forces in Normandy onto the defensive.

1982: During the Falklands War, Argentine Skyhawks attack the Royal Fleet Auxiliary vessels RFA "Sir Galahad" (L3005) and "Sir Tristram" (L3505) killing 50 British servicemen, mostly Welsh Guards.

06-09-2010, 08:53 AM
721: Battle of Toulouse: Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani, the wali (governor) of Muslim Spain (al-Andalus), built up a strong army from North Africa, Yemen, and Syria to conquer Aquitaine, a large Duchy in the southwest of modern-day France. He besieged the city of Toulouse, then Aquitaine's most important city, and Duke Odo of Aquitaine immediately left to find help. He returned three months later just before the city was about to surrender and defeated the Muslim invaders on June 9, 721, at what is now known as the Battle of Toulouse. The victory hindered the spread of Umayyad control westward, from Spain to France.

1667: During the Second Anglo–Dutch War, the Attack on the Medway occurs. The Dutch Fleet, under Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter, sailed up the River Thames to Gravesend, then up the River Medway to Chatham, where they burnt three capital ships and ten lesser naval vessels and towed away the Unity and the Royal Charles, pride and normal flagship of the English fleet. The raid led to a quick end to the war and a favourable peace for the Dutch.

WWI-1918: The Germans launch the fourth Spring offensive, Battle of the Matz, in French sector between Noyan and Montdider.

1944: The Soviets launch a heavy assault on the Finnish forces in the Karelian Isthmus to the North of Leningrad, in an attempt to force them out of war.

1967: During the Six-Day War, Israel captures the Golan Heights from Syria.

06-10-2010, 05:03 AM
1619: During the Thirty Years' War, the Battle of Sablat occurs. The Roman Catholic army of Charles Bonaventure de Longueval, Count of Bucquoy, defeats the Protestant army of Ernst von Mansfeld.
Charles Bonaventure de Longueval, Count of Bucquoy

1719: During the Jacobite Risings (a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in the British Isles occurring between 1688 and 1746. The uprisings were aimed at returning James VII of Scotland and II of England, and later his descendants of the House of Stuart, to the throne after he was deposed by Parliament) the Battle of Glen Shiel occurs. 970-strong British soldiers (120 dragoons) defeated the Jacobites and Spaniards (1,000 foot) of the Scottish Jacobite general, Lord George Murray. It was the last close engagement of British and foreign troops on mainland Great Britain.

1871: During the United States expedition to Korea or Shinmiyangyo, the Battle of Ganghwa occurs: Captain McLane Tilton leads 109 U.S. Marines in a naval attack on Han River forts on Ganghwa island. The fighting lasted fifteen minutes. In the end, 243 Koreans were counted dead in the forts and three Americans were also killed in the fighting.

1940: Norway surrenders to Nazi forces.
Hegra Fortress: Hauptman Giebel accepts the Norwegian fortress' surrender

1942: Prague radio announces the extermination of Lidice, a Bohenian town of about 2,000. All the men were shot and women sent to concentration camps. All buildings are razed to the ground as a reprisal for Heydrich killing.

1944: In Distomo, Boeotia Prefecture, Greece, in retaliation for the previous death of three Germans at the hands of local guerrillas, the 4. SS-Polizei-Panzergrenadier Division massacre 218 men, women and children. The SS committed the heinous crime of ripping out the intestines of a baby and splattering them on a close relative.

1944: Troops of the 2. SS Panzerdivision Das Reich massacre more than 600 people in the French town of Oradour-sur-Glane, Limousin Region. While the men are shot immediately, the women and children are locked in a church the alter of which is set on fire; those who try to escape the flames are shot.
Oradour-sur-Glane is preserved in a Ruined State

06-11-2010, 07:09 AM
1429: During the Hundred Years' War, the Battle of Jargeau occurs. Joan of Arc and Duke John II of Alençon controlled a French force of 1,200-strong and assaulted the small town of Jargeau, on the southern bank of the Loire river. The duke of Suffolk, William de la Pole led the English defence (700 men). The English suffered heavy losses. Most estimates place the number at 300-400 of some 700 combatants. Suffolk became a prisoner. The French had some 1,200 troops and their losses appear to have been light.
The statue of Joan of Ark at Jargeau

1938: During the 2nd Sino-Japanese War (a military conflict fought between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1941), the Battle of Wuhan occurs. More than one million National Revolutionary Army troops were gathered, with Chiang Kai-shek himself in command, to defend Wuhan from the Imperial Japanese Army led by Yasuji Okamura (350,000). The casualties both sides suffered were tremendous. The Chinese lost 400,000 while Japanese losses accounted for 140,000. As a result, the Japanese army was able to completely occupy the Wuhan region. However, the Chinese army was able to preserve their strength, while the Japanese army was considerably weakened.

1940: Battle of France: The French government of PM Reynaud leaves Paris for Tours. German forces capture Rheims.

1943: Operation Corkscrew, the invasion of Pantelleria meets little resistance after a 20-day aerial bombardment of the island.

1943: The US 8th Air Force raids the German naval base at Wilhelmshaven (200 B-17s), while the RAF attacks Münster and Düsseldorf.

06-12-2010, 04:42 AM
1653: During the 1st Anglo-Dutch War (fought entirely at sea due to disputes over trade) the Battle of the Gabbard occurs. The Dutch with 98 ships under Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp and Vice-admiral Witte de With, divided in five squadrons, attack the 100 ships of the English fleet commanded by Generals at Sea George Monck and Richard Deane and Admirals John Lawson and William Penn. The Battle lasted for two days and ended in a Dutch disaster. The English lost no ships, but General at Sea Robert Deane was killed. The Dutch had six ships sunk and 11 captured.

1798: During the Irish uprising against British rule, the Battle of Ballynahinch occurs. 4,000 Irish under Henry Munro, attack the 2,000 British occupying the two hills to the left and right of Ballynahinch. Ballynahinch was a decisive British victory, which ended the rebellion in Ulster.

1940: The Germans cross the River Marne. Four French divisions and most of the British 51st Highland Division (13,000 men) is cut off and captured by Rommel at St. Valery-en-Caux.
General Rommel talking to his officers on the Western front in June 1940

1944: U.S. troops fighting for Carentan, link up with British troops. So far, the allies have landed 326,000 men and 54,000 vehicles onto the Normandy beaches.

1999: Operation Joint Guardian: NATO-led forces from Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States enter the province of Kosovo in Federal Republic of Yugoslavia forming KFor.

06-13-2010, 03:34 AM
WWI-1917: The Luftstreitkräfte (Imperial German Air Service) carries out the deadliest German air raid on London. Gotha G.IV heavy bombers bomb with the first daylight the UK capital which results in 162 deaths, including 46 children, and 432 injuries. The reason for the relatively large numbers of casualties seems to have been ignorance as to the threat posed by aerial bombardment of a city in daylight.

1940: German troops advance on Paris. General Weygand declares the French capital an open city.

1944: Near Villers-Bocage, Michael Wittmann's Tiger tank from the 12th SS Panzer Division, destroys 25 tanks and other vehicles of the British 7th Armoured Division.
The Tiger 205 of SS-Obersturmführer (1st Lt) Michael Wittmann, on its way to Normandy

1944: During the German counterattack on Carentan, the Battle of Bloody Gulch takes place near Hill 30 (U.S. Army designation) approximately one mile (1.6 km) southwest of Carentan in Normandy, France, between elements of the German 17. SS Panzergrenadier-Division and 6. Fallschirmjäger-Regiment, and the American 501st, 502nd and 506th, Parachute Infantry Regiments (PIR) of the U.S. 101st Airborne Division, reinforced by elements of the U.S. 2nd Armored Division. The 17. SS Panzergrenadier-Division suffered severe losses.

06-15-2010, 02:41 PM
1800: Battle of Marengo: Napoleonic Forces defeat the Austrians near the city of Alessandria, in Piedmont, Italy, driving them out of Italy, and enhancing Napoleon's political position in Paris.

1807: Battle of Friedland: Napoleon's Grande Armée defeat the Russians near Königsberg (now Kaliningrad). It was the last battle of the War of the 4th Coalition (the fourth major concerted effort of multiple European powers, among them, Prussia, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to contain Napoleonic France).

1846: Bear Flag Revolt begins. Anglo settlers in Sonoma, California, start a rebellion against Mexico and proclaim the California Republic.
The first Bear Flag raised by the Anglo-American settlers to symbolize their taking control

1940: Germans enter Paris.

1940: Rommel's 7th Panzer Division takes Le Havre. The French government leaves Tours for Bordeaux. Army Group C, with 24 divisions, prepares to cross the upper Rhine to attack the Maginot Line in Alsace.

1982: The Falklands War ends: Argentine forces in the capital Stanley unconditionally surrender to British forces.
Alfredo Astiz signing the surrender document on board the British HMS Plymouth

06-15-2010, 02:43 PM
1389: Battle of Kossovo: Battle fought at Kosovo Polje (“Field of the Blackbirds”) between the army of the Serbian principality under Stefan Lazar Hrebeljanović, ruler of Moravian Serbia, and the invading army of the Ottoman Empire under the leadership of Sultan Murad I. The battle ended in a Turkish victory, the collapse of Serbia, and the complete encirclement of the crumbling Byzantine Empire by Turkish armies.

1944: During the Pacific Campaign of WWII, the Battle of Saipan is fought on the island of Saipan in the Mariana Islands from 15 June 1944 to 9 July 1944. The United States 2nd Marine Division, 4th Marine Division, and 27th Infantry Division, commanded by Lieutenant General Holland Smith, defeated the 43rd Division of the Imperial Japanese Army, commanded by Lieutenant General Yoshytsugu Saito. U.S. casualties accounted for 2,949 KIA, 10,364 WIA. Japanese lost 30,000 men (KIA, WIA & POW)

06-15-2010, 07:33 PM
Nice work, Valtrex. Keep 'em coming!

Ali Baba
06-15-2010, 10:22 PM
Great Read, Great Thread Man, Keep It Up.

06-16-2010, 08:14 AM
1487: The Battle of Stoke Field, the final battle of the Wars of the Roses (a series of dynastic civil wars between supporters of the rival houses of Lancaster and York, for the throne of England) occurs. The Yorkist Army, numbering some 8,000 men led by the claimant of the York dynasty, John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, is defeated by King Henry VII's of England Northern Army of some 12,000 men, commanded by the Earl of Oxford.

1746: During the War of the Austrian Succession (a war which used as its pretext the ineligibility of Maria Theresa of Austria to succeed to the Habsburg throne her father Charles VI; in reality this was a convenient excuse put forward by Prussia and France to challenge Habsburg power) the Battle of Piacenza takes place. A Franco-Spanish army of 40,000-strong under Jean-Baptiste Francois des Marets, Marquis de Maillebois & Jean-Thierry du Mont, Comte de Gages is heavily defeated by the 55,000 Austrians of Prince Josef Wenzel. Austria had 700 dead. The Spanish army suffered almost 9,000 casualties and the French added approx. 4,000 to this total.
Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary & Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria

1815: Two days before the decisive Battle of Waterloo, the Battle of Ligny occurs. It is regarded as the last victory of the Napoleon's military career. 68,000 French troops of Napoleon's Armée du Nord (northern army) defeat the 84,000-strong Prussian Army under Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher.

1815: Two days before the decisive Battle of Waterloo, the Battle of Quatre-Bras is fought between the 36,000-strong British Army under the Duke of Wellington and the 20,000 men (2,000 horse) of the left wing of Napoleon's Armée du Nord (northern army) under Marshal Michel Ney. Although the battle tactically ended in a draw, it is considered a French strategic victory.

1913: On the morning of 16 June (08:30) the Bulgarians launch surprise attacks on the Greek (Nigrita) and Serbian (Gevgelija) Army without a previous declaration of War. The 2nd Balkan War begins.

1920: The C-i-C of the Greek Army in Minor Asia, Lt. General Leonidas Paraskevopulos, orders the XIII Infantry Division, Archipelago Division and the Cavalry Brigade to attack the Turks occupying the Soma-keresun & Ayvali-kemer Heights.
Gen. Paraskevopulos with his staff officers

1940: French front cracking as the Germans break through in Champagne to Dijon, with units of XIX. Panzer-Korps reaching Besancon on the Swiss border. German forces, supported by heavy artillery and Stuka dive bombers, continue their assault against the Maginot Line on a broad front. The French government of Paul Reynaud resigns and is replaced by one led by Marshal Petain who immediately appoints Weygand as Minister of National Defence. 57,000 British troops are evacuated from Nantes and St. Nazaire.

Nice work, Valtrex. Keep 'em coming!

Great Read, Great Thread Man, Keep It Up.

Thanks, guys

06-16-2010, 08:27 AM
Great job vatrex.one question.Are u sure about kosovo battle,i was always thought and we always celebrated it on 28 of june on St.Vidus day.might be the Julian date that was 15j june

06-16-2010, 09:53 AM
Great job vatrex.one question.Are u sure about kosovo battle,i was always thought and we always celebrated it on 28 of june on St.Vidus day.might be the Julian date that was 15j june

I was really puzzled on the calendar issue (being Chrisitian Orthodox myself, I've learned that calendar is not something to be taken lightly ;)); So, I decided to follow the calendar the battle took place. I did the same thing for the Anglo-Dutch wars.You are obviously right.

06-17-2010, 03:18 AM
1497: During the Cornish Rebellion (a popular uprising by the people of Cornwall against the imposed by the King of England War Taxes on the impoverished Cornish, to finance a campaign against Scotland, led by the Cornish lawyer Thomas Flamank and Michael An Gof), the Battle of Blackheath occurs. A Royalist Army of 25,000-strong under King Henry VII, defeats some 9-10,000 Cornish rebels commanded by Michael Joseph the Smith (An Gof).
Commemorative plaque in Cornish and English for Michael Joseph the Smith (An Gof) and Thomas Flamank mounted on the north side of Blackheath common, south east London, near the south entrance to Greenwich Park

1920: During the Greek Campaign to Minor Asia, Greek Archipelago Division defeats the Turkish 61st Division in the Battle of Balikesir, near the site of the ancient Greek City of Adramytion.
Greek heavy artillery fires at the Turkish positions

1940: Liner RMS ”Lancastria”, with 3,000 British troops aboard, bombed and sunk at St. Nazaire, in North West France with the loss of an estimated 4,000 plus lives.

06-17-2010, 09:29 AM
Liner RMS ”Lancastria”, with 3,000 British troops aboard, bombed and sunk at St. Nazaire, in North West France with the loss of an estimated 4,000 plus lives.

Holy ****... :( We cannot even imagine such casualties today.

06-18-2010, 03:53 AM
1429: During the Hundred Years' War, the Battle of Patay occurs. 1,500 French under the leadership of Joan of Arc, defeat the 5,000-strong English longbowmen and cavalry under Sir John Fastolf. This turns the tide of the Hundred Years' War.
Battle of Patay from Les Vigiles de Charles VII by Martial d'Auvergne, written circa 1477-84

1757: During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Kolin, near Prague, occurs. 44,000 Austrians under Leopold Joseph von Daun, defeat 32,000 Prussians under King Frederick the Great of Prussia. The battle was Frederick's first defeat in this war.
Frederick the Great in the battle of Kolin

1812: U.S. Congress declares War on the United Kingdom. President James Madison signs the Declaration of War on June 18.

1815: During the War of the 7th Coalition, the Battle of Waterloo occurs. An Imperial French Army commanded by the French Emperor Napoleon, is defeated by the combined Armies of the 7th Coalition, led by the Duke of Wellington. The defeat at Waterloo put an end to Napoleon's rule as Emperor of the French.

1913: A day after the Bulgarian surprise attacks against their former allies, General Constantine Kallares, C-i-C of the Greek forces comprising II Infantry Division and Cretan Gendarmerie, in Thessaloniki, sends the following message to the commander of Bulgarian forces cantoned in the city:
Sir, since Bulgarian troops began hostilities in the countryside against our Army, I have the honour to request you to leave the city of Thessaloniki one hour after the delivery of this letter. The arms of your men must be delivered to our officers, while your officers may keep their swords. A train will transport your men to the front and measures will be taken to allow them to safely pass the front line. After this deadline expires I must, to my regret, give orders that your troops will be considered hostile.
As expected, the Bulgarians ignored the ultimatum and plans for their disarmament were initiated. At 08:00 of 18 June, after an all-night clash, 1,279 Bulgarians (19 officers) are held prisoners.
General Kallares

1953: Men of the Greek Battalion of the Greek Expeditionary Force in Korea, defend OP ”Harry” (U.S. Army designation, Height 440), against consecutive Chinese attacks.

06-19-2010, 05:02 AM
1306: During the Wars of Scottish Independence (a series of military campaigns fought between the independent Kingdom of Scotland and England, in the late 13th-early 14th century), the Battle of Methven occurs. A 4,500-strong Scottish army under Robert I the Bruce, King of Scotland met the English army of some 3,000 men under the French-English nobleman Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, at Methven, near Perth, Scotland. Before dawn on 19 June Bruce's army was taken by surprise and almost destroyed. Scottish losses accounted for 4,000 dead. The English had 600 dead or wounded.
Robert the Bruce of Scotland

1807: During the Russo-Turkish War, fought between 1806-1812, the Naval Battle of Athos occurs. A Russian fleet commanded by Admiral Dmitry Nikolayevich Senyavin, attacked and destroyed an Ottoman fleet of some 20 naval vessels under Kapudan Pasha (Ottoman Admiral) Seyit-Ali, between the Athos peninsula and the island of Lemnos, in Greece. As a result of the battle, the Ottoman Empire lost a combat-capable fleet for more than a decade and signed an armistice with Russia on 12 August.

1821: Following the outbreat of the Greek War for Independence, on 25 March, a small force of 500 Greeks consisting a volunteer unit mostly made up of young Greek students studying in Europe, from both upper and middle classes, named ”Sacred Band”, formed by the brothers Alexandros and Nikolaos Ypsilanti, invaded the Ottoman-dominated Danubian principalities of Moldavia-Wallachia hoping for a Russian intervention on their behalf. They fought the Ottomans at the Battle of Dragashani, Wallachia on 19 June where the Sacred Band was destroyed by the better trained and better equipped Ottoman forces. The remaining Greeks led by Georgakes Olympios and Ioannes Kolokotrones, tried to escape to Greece. Olympios was killed in Moldavia in a clash with the Ottomans. Kolokotrones and his men arrived in Greece in August.
Alexandros Ypsilanti in a Russian hussar uniform. Although an ethnic Greek, he fought for the Russians in the battle of Dresden where his right hand was torn off by a shell
Battle of Dragashani: Ottoman cavalry attack Sacred Band

1940: The Germans invite the French to send a representative to discuss armistice terms as their troops reach River Loire, advance on Lyons, capture Strasbourg, Brest and Tours. Rommel's 7. Panzer-Division captures Cherbourg along with 30,000 prisoners.
Major General Erwin Rommel, then commander of the 7. Panzer-Division, with captured British officers in Cherbourg

1944: During the War in the Pacific, the Naval Battle of the Philippine Sea occurs. It was the largest aircraft carrier battle in history, fought on 19 and 20 June. The engagement proved disastrous for the Japanese Navy which lost three aircraft carriers and some 600 aircraft. Losses on the U.S. side on the first day were only 23, and on the second 100, most of them resulting from the night landings.

2009: Operation Panchai Palang (Panther's claw) in Helmand, Afghanistan: British troops begin, one of the largest air operations in modern times, when more than 350 troops made an aerial assault on Taliban positions and subsequently repelled Taliban counter-attacks.

06-20-2010, 01:24 AM
June, 20

451: Battle of Chalons
The Battle of Chalons occurred on June 20, 451, in present-day France. Pitting Attila the Hun against Roman forces led by Flavius Aetius, the Battle of Chalons ended in a tactical draw but was a strategic victory for Rome. The victory at Chalons was one of the last achieved by the Western Roman Empire.

06-20-2010, 05:42 AM
1940: German troops capture Lyons and the vital port of Brest in Bretagne. French envoys drive behind German lines to receive armistice terms. Italian forces begin an offensive along the Riviera coast into France.

1945: Australian troops land at Lutong on Sarawak.

June, 20

451: Battle of Chalons
The Battle of Chalons occurred on June 20, 451, in present-day France. Pitting Attila the Hun against Roman forces led by Flavius Aetius, the Battle of Chalons ended in a tactical draw but was a strategic victory for Rome. The victory at Chalons was one of the last achieved by the Western Roman Empire.
Also known as the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields.
Coin of Aetius, General/Ruler in Gaul under Valentinian III and one of the last great Roman Generals

06-21-2010, 03:06 AM
1798: During the Irish rebellion, the Battle of Vinegar Hill occurs. 15,000 British soldiers under General Gerard Lake, 1st Viscount Lake, launched an attack on Vinegar Hill the largest camp and headquarters of the Irish rebels. The Irish army of 18,000 was routed and what ensued was a massacre of hundreds of stragglers, including many women and children, by the British cavalry and infantry.

1813: During the Peninsular War (a contest between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars), the Battle of Vitoria occurs. A 105,000-strong coalition army of British, Spanish and Portuguese under Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, defeated the 60,000-strong (11,000 cavalry) French army under Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan near Vitoria in Spain, leading to eventual victory in the Peninsular War.
The Monument to the battle in Vitoria, Spain

1824: During the Greek War of Independence, the Turko-Egyptian Fleet of some 176 naval vessels under Hosref Pasha, disembarks 6,000 troops on the Greek island of Psara, one of the three Greek islands that played a key role and made many contributions to the war against the Ottomans with their vast navy and ships (the other two being the islands of Spetsae and Hydra). Out of its 30,000 inhabitants, 18,000 were either killed or captured alive and sold as slaves. The island never recovered from the complete destruction. The tragic event of the destruction of Psara inspired the poet Dionysios Solomos - the author of the "Hymn to Liberty" (the Greek National Anthem) - to write a poem about it, called "The Destruction of Psara":
"On the all-black ridge of Psara
Glory walks by herself taking in
the bright young men on the war field
the crown of her hair wound
from the last few grasses left
on the desolate earth"
The flag of the Psarian revolutionaries

1826: During the Greek War of Independence and the Egyptian invasion of Mani, Peloponnese, the Battle of Vergas occurs. 7,500 Maniots under Petros Mavromichales, defeated the 12,500-strong Egyptian army commanded by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. The Egyptians suffered 3,900 casualties.
The Maniot Panoraea Vozikes. During the battle, she saw her father being captured alive by two Egyptians. She rushed headlong to them and killed them both with her reaping hook

1913: During the 2nd Balkan War, the Battle of Kilkis-Lachanas occurs. It was fought between the 85,000-strong Greek Army (73 Infantry Battalions, 33 Field Artillery Battalions, 9 Mountain Artillery Battalions, 8 Cavalry Squadrons and 8 Cavalry Troops) under the C-i-C of the Greek Army, Crown Prince Constantine and the 40,000-strong Bulgarian Army (32 Infantry Battalions, 1 Cavalry Regiment and 62 Artillery guns) under Field Marshal Nikola Ivanov occupying the town of Kilkis and the surrounding heights. The battle started on 18 June and it was generalised on the 21st. It ended at 11:15 of 21 June, when the Greek flag was hoisted on St. George height. The victory proved important for the Greeks and prejudged the outcome of the 2nd Balkan War. From Kilkis, the Greek Army marched towards Doiran, Kerkine, Strumnitsa, Delhi-Risar and Kressna straits. The victory was great, so were the casualties: 8,652 men killed & injured (37 Officers killed, 85 injured). There are no official records for the Bulgarian casualties. The Bulgarian POWs were 2,500 Officers & men.
Gerasimos Raphtopoulos (left) is the youngest ever NCO in the history of the Greek Armed Forces. He was born in Phiscardo, island of Cephallonia in 1900. During the 1st Balkan War, against the Ottomans, he volunteered at the age of 12 & was accepted as private of the 18th Infantry Regiment of the IV Division. For his courage in the battle of Sarandaporon he received a Manlicher-Schonauer rifle as a gift. In the battle of Kilkis-Lachanas, he managed to escape from enprisonment, killing 3 out of the 5 Bulgarian soldiers who had captured him. On his way back, he found a wounded Evzone & carried him with him. For his valour, he was promoted to the Corporal's rank on August 28th, 1913 at the age of 13

WWI-1919: Admiral Ludwig von Reuter scuttles the German fleet in Scapa Flow, Orkney. The nine sailors killed are the last casualties of World War I.
Rear Admiral Ludwig von Reuter

1942: Tobruk falls to the Italians and Germans, who capture 32,000 prisoners, 2,000 tons of fuel, 5,000 tons of food and 2,000 vehicles.
Italian Newsreel: The fall of Tobruk

1945: Organised resistance on Okinawa ends after 82 days of the bloodiest fighting in the Pacific, during which 98,654 Japanese have been killed and 6,922 captured. U.S. losses were 6,990 killed and 29,598 wounded.

06-22-2010, 02:44 AM
217 BC: During the Wars of the Diadochi (=Greek for heirs/successors) - the wars fought between the rival successors of Alexander the Great, following his death - the Battle of Raphia occurs. Ptolemy IV Philopator of Egypt with 70,000 infantry, 5,000 cavalry, and 73 war elephants fought the army of Antiochus III the Great of 62,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry, and 103 elephants at Raphia, near today's Gaza. According to the Greek historian Polybius, the Antiochids suffered a little under 10,000 foot dead, about 300 horse and 5 elephants; 4,000 men were taken prisoner. The Ptolemaic losses were 1,500 foot, 700 horse and 16 elephants. Most of the Antiochid elephants were taken by the Ptolemies. Ptolemy's victory secured the province of Coele-Syria (=hollow Syria; an area expanding from today's Beqaa valley in Lebanon to the Israeli coast as far south as Jaffa) for Ptolemaic Egypt.
Gold Octadrachm of Ptolemy IV

168 BC: During the Third Macedonian War (a war fought between Rome and King Perseus of Macedon; Perseus aimed to end Roman political control in Greece and restore former Macedonian sovereignty over Greek states), the Battle of Pydna occurs. A 44,000-strong Macedonian Army under the Macedon King Perseus, was defeated by the 38,000-strong Roman Army under the Consul of the Roman Republic and General, Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus. Macedonians suffered horrendous casualties (25,000 killed and wounded). Following Perseus' defeat (he was captured prisoner), the Kingdom of Macedon was divided into four republics which marked the final destruction of Alexander’s empire.
Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus

1593: During the Ottoman Wars in Europe, the Battle of Sisak occurs. A combined army of forces from the Holy Roman Empire under the supreme command of the Styrian general Ruprecht von Eggenberg, of Croatians under the Ban of Croatia Tamás Erdődy, and of some forces from the Duchy of Carniola led by Andreas von Auersperg defeated the Ottomans of the Bosnian Beylerbey, Hasan Pasha Predojević. The defeat brought the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Central Europe to a temporary halt and allowed Croatia and Inner Austria with the duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola to remain free from Turkish control.
Croatian Hussar in the Battle of Sisak

1898: During the Spanish-American War, U.S Marines land on Cuba.
Hositing the US flag at Guantanamo

1940: An armistice between France and Germany is signed at Compičgne,in the very same railway carriage in which the 1918 Armistice was signed (removed from a museum building and placed on the precise spot where it was located in 1918). Hitler sat in the same chair in which Marshal Ferdinand Foch had sat when he faced the defeated German representatives. Adolf Hitler deliberately chose Compičgne Forest as the site to sign the armistice due to its symbolic role as the site of the 1918 Armistice with Germany that signaled the end of World War I with Germany's surrender. Its terms are read out loud to the French delegation by Generaloberst Keitel and provide for the occupation of the entire Channel and Atlantic coastlines, all major industrial areas, Alsace-Lorraine is to be returned to Germany. Most of southern France will remain unoccupied, with a French administrative centre at Vichy. The French Army and Navy is to be demobilised and disarmed and France is to bear the cost of the German occupation. All French prisoners of war are to remain in Germany until a peace treaty is signed.

1941: At 3:15am, Operation Barbarossa begins with German and Axis forces comprising 183 divisions (3,500,000 men), 3,350 tanks, 7,184 guns and 1,945 aircraft launching the biggest military operation in history on a 2,900 km (1,800 miles) front from Finland to the Black Sea. Three Army Groups supported by powerful Panzer armies and Luftwaffe bomber fleets, Army Group South (von Rundstedt) with Panzer Group 1 (von Kleist), Army Group Centre (von Bock) with Panzer Groups 2 (Guderian) and 3 (Hoth), and Army Group North (von Leeb) with Panzer Group 4 (Hoepner), go into action against 132 Soviet divisions (2,500,000 men), 20,000 tanks and 7,700 aircraft. The overall objective of the campaign is to destroy the Soviet forces in western Soviet Union by the Autumn and to occupy the European part of the Soviet Union up to the line Archangel - Urals - Volga - Astrakhan. By the end of the first day, the Luftwaffe had destroyed 800 Soviet aircraft on the ground at 60 airfields and 400 in the air. The Red Army along the border seemed unprepared for the assault and offered only limited resistance, which allows the Panzer divisions to advance up to 80 km (50 miles) and maul 12 Soviet divisions.

1942: Erwin Rommel is promoted to Field Marshal after the capture of Tobruk.

1944: The Soviet summer offensive, Operation Bagration begins against Army Group Centre in Belarus with assaults by the Soviet 1st Baltic, 3rd Belorussian 2nd and 1st Belorussian Fronts against Army Group Centre on a 724 km (450 miles) front between Polotsk and Bobruysk. Soviet forces amount to 124 divisions, 1,200,000 men, 5,200 tanks, 30,000 guns and 6,000 aircraft. Against this, the German can field just 63 divisions, including 900 tanks and 10,000 guns.

06-23-2010, 03:32 AM
1314: During the 1st War of the Scottish Independence, the Battle of Bannockburn begins (it lasted for two days and ended on 24 June). The Scottish Army led by Robert I of Scotland the Bruce defeated some 20-25,000-strong English Army commanded by King Edward II of England. The Battle of Bannockburn became the greatest victory in the history of Scotland. While full recognition of Scottish independence was still several years off, Bruce had driven the English from Scotland and secured his position as king. While exact numbers of Scottish casualties are not known, they are believed to have been light. English losses are not known with precision but may have ranged from 4,000-11,000 men. Following the battle, Edward raced south and finally found safety at Dunbar Castle. He never again returned to Scotland.
English Knights charge their armored war-horses, in vain, against a solid mass of Scottish spears. Robert Bruce, King of Scots, is victorious over the army of Edward II, on the second day of the Battle of Bannockburn, Scotland, June 24th, 1314 A.D.

1758: During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Krefeld is fought between a 32,000-strong Prussian-Hanoverian army under Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick and a 47,000-strong French army led by Louis de Bourbon-Condé, Count of Clermont. It was a victory for the allies and as a consequence, Clermont was relieved of his command.
The victor, Duke Ferdinand Braunschweig

1760: During the Seven Years' war, the Battle of Landeshut occurs. A Prussian army of 12,000 men under General Heinrich August de la Motte-Fouqué fought an Austrian army of over 28,000 men under Baron Ernst Gideon von Laudon and suffered a defeat, with its commander taken prisoner.
The victor, Baron Ernst Gideon von Laudon

1812: Napoleon's Grande Armée numbering some 580-600,000 men, invade Russia; the Patriotic War of 1812 for the Russians begins.

1919: During the Estonian War of Independence (an Estonian defensive campaign against the Soviet agression and the offensives of the Baltic nobility-established armies in 1918–1920), the Battle of Wenden occurs. A combined Estonian-Latvian Army (3rd Estonian Division and North Latvian Brigade), defeated the forces of the Baltische Landeswehr, the Pro-German Government of Latvia. In Estonia the anniversary of the battle is celebrated as "Victory Day", a national holiday.
The monument to the battle

1940: Adolf Hitler visits the Madeleine, Opera, Place de la Concorde, Arch of Triumph, and Trocadero in newly defeated Paris in occupied France. Lieutenant General Kurt von Briesen awards Iron Crosses First Class to his men, the 30th infantry division, at the grave of the unknown soldier, Arch of Triumph. Von Briesen then salutes the troops on horseback as they parade along the Avenue Foche

06-24-2010, 04:33 AM
972: The Battle of Cedynia, the first historically recorded battle in the history of Poland occurs. Polish duke Mieszko I and his brother Czcibor defeated Hodon, the German Margrave of Brandenburg. This battle secured the western border of Polish territory.
Duke Mieszko I

1128: The Battle of Săo Mamede takes place near Guimarăes and is considered the seminal event for the foundation of Portugal. Portuguese forces led by Afonso I of Portugal defeated forces led by his mother Teresa of León and her lover Fernăo Peres de Trava. Following Săo Mamede, the future king styled himself "Prince of Portugal". He would be called "King of Portugal" in 1139 and was recognised as such by neighbouring kingdoms in 1143.
Dom Afonso Henriques the future king of Portugal

1340: During the Hundred Years' war, the Naval Battle of l'Ecluse occurs. An English fleet of some 120-160 ships commanded by the English King Edward III himself, defeats the French Fleet of some 213 naval vessels under Admiral Hugues Quiéret. It is historically important in that it resulted in the destruction of most of France's fleet, making a French invasion of England impossible, and ensuring that the remainder of the war would be fought mostly in France.

1821: During the War for the Independence of Venezuela, the decisive Battle of Carabobo occurs. A Venezuelan Army of some 6-8,000 troops (the British volunteers of the British Legion included) under Simón Bolívar, defeated the Royalist Spanish Army of Field Marshal Miguel de la Torre. Bolívar's decisive victory at Carabobo led to the independence of Venezuela.
Simón Bolívar

1859: During the 2nd Italian War of Independence, the Battle of Solferino and San Martino occurs. An Army of the Franco-Sardinian alliance numbering some 120,000 men under their respective Monarchs, Emperor Napoleon III & King Victor-Emmanuel II, defeated an Austrian Army of some 100,000 troops under the Austrian Emperor Franz-Joseph. It was the last major battle in world history where all the involved armies were under the personal command of their Monarchs. The battle is especially notable for being witnessed by the Swiss Jean-Henri Dunant. Horrified by the suffering of wounded soldiers left on the battlefield, Dunant set about a process that led to the Geneva Conventions and the establishment of the International Red Cross.
Jean-Henri Dunant

1866: During the Italian Unification process, the Battle of Custozza, near Verona, occurs. The Austrian Imperial army, led by Archduke Albert of Habsburg, defeated the Italian army led by Alfonso Ferrero la Marmora and Enrico Cialdini, despite the strong numerical advantage of the Italians. The Austrians were decisively victorious, both strategically and tactically. The Italians were driven back across the Mincio river out of Venice.
The charge of the 13th Regiment of Austrian-Hungarian Uhlans under Col. Rodakowski against Italian Bersaglieri

1941: Italian troops enter Athens, under the booing and the taunts of gathered Athenians.
The triple axis occupation of Greece; Red: German occupation. Blue: Italian occupation. Green: Bulgarian Occupation. Dark blue: Italian Dodecanese (Possedimenti Italiani dell'Egeo)

06-25-2010, 03:05 AM
524: During the Burgundian War initiated by the four successors of the Frankish King Clovis I, Childebert I, Chlodomir, Clotaire I and Theuderic I, the Battle of Veseruntia (Vézeronce-Curtin in today's France), occurs. The Burgundian Army under king Sigismund was defeated by the Frankish Army, but Chlodomir, the leader of the Frankish army, was killed in battle by Gundomar III, brother of Sigismund. In vengeance, Sigismund and his two sons were slain by the Franks after the battle. Clotaire and Childebert then completed their conquest at Veseruntia by defeating Gundomar and his allied Ostrogoths. The Frankish victory assured the annexation of the Burgundian kingdom to the Merovingians.
The four brothers Childebert, Chlodomir, Clotaire and Theuderic

841: Contention over the division of the Carolingian Empire between the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, king of Aquitaine and co-emperor of the Franks (with his father Charlemagne) culminated in the decisive Battle of Fontenoy fought near Auxerre. It was a defeat for the allied forces of Lothair I of Italy and Pepin II of Aquitaine and a victory for Charles the Bald and Louis the German. It was a decisive divisionist victory (the Empire was divided between the three brothers two years later).
The partition of the Carolingian Empire in 843

1876: During the Great Sioux War of 1876-77, a two-day armed confrontation between the combined forces of Lakota and Northern Cheyenne and the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army occurs, also known as the Battle of the Little Bighorn. The U.S. Seventh Cavalry, including a force of 700 men led by George Armstrong Custer, suffered a severe defeat. Five of the Seventh's companies were annihilated; Custer was killed, as were two of his brothers, a nephew, and a brother-in-law. Total U.S. deaths were 268, including scouts, and 55 were wounded.
Custer's last stand in the battle of littlebighorn

1920: During the Greek Minor Asia campaign, the Greek Cavalry Brigade enters and occupies the city of Bursa (the ancient Bithynian city of Prusa)
Greek cavalry in Bursa

1944: During the Continuation War (the second of two wars fought between Finland and the Soviet Union during World War II) the Battle of tali-ihantala begins. it lasted until 9 July and to date, it is the largest battle in the history of the Nordic countries. The Battle of Tali-Ihantala was possibly the single most important battle fought in the Continuation War and it was a Finnish victory.
Finnish 75 mm anti-tank gun at Tali-Ihantala

1950: At approximately 4 a.m. (Korean Standard Time) on a rainy Sunday morning, Democratic People's Republic of Korea Army artillery and mortars open fire on Republic of Korea Army positions south of the 38th Parallel, the line then serving as the border between the two countries. The opening barrage is followed shortly by tank/infantry attacks at all points along the Parallel. At 11 a.m. North Korea announced a formal declaration of war and what is now known as "The Korean War" officially began.

2006: 19 year-old Israeli Corporal Gilad Shalit is captured by Palestinians in a cross-border raid.

06-26-2010, 09:35 AM
363: During his Sassanid campaign, Roman Emperor Flavius Claudius Iuli****, also known as Julian the Apostate, is killed in the Battle of Samarra. It is said that Julian's dying words were "Vicisti, Galilaee" (Thou have won, Galilean). General Flavius Iovi**** is proclaimed Emperor by the troops on the battlefield.
Bronze coin during the reign of Emperor Jovian

1913: During the Second Balkan War, the Greek X Infantry Brigade, after a two-day fight, drive off the Bulgarians occupying the Kerkine ridge and advances to the valley of Strumnitsa

WWI-1917: The first U.S. troops begin arriving in France. These are men of the U.S. 1st Division.
French soldiers watch as a large contingent of newly arrived Americans pass through a small village

1940: De Gaulle forms French Volunteer Legion in Britain.

1944: US troops enter Cherbourg taking the German garrison commander prisoner. The British Second Army begins a major offensive in the Odon valley, west of Caen, named Operation Epsom.

1950: During the Korean War, South Korean government - President Syngman Rhee and cabinet - leave Seoul for Taejon.
ROK President,Syngman Rhee

06-27-2010, 03:58 AM
1709: During the Great Northern War (an anti-Swedish alliance comprised Peter the Great of Russia, Frederik IV of Denmark-Norway and August the Strong of Saxe-Poland-Lithuania that fought Swedish Empire), the Battle of Poltava occurs. 42,500 Russians under Tsar Peter I the Great of Russia, defeated some 24,500 Swedish troops under the Swedish King Charles XII and Field Marshal,Count Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld. The Battle of Poltava was a disaster for Sweden and a turning point in the Great Northern War. Swedish casualties numbered 6,900 dead and wounded, as well as 2,800 taken prisoner. Among those captured was Field Marshal Rehnskiöld. Russian losses were 1,350 killed and 3,300 wounded.
Peter the Great, the conqueror of Poltava

1743: During thw War of the Austrian Succession, the Battle of Dettingen occurs. On the battlefield in Bavaria, the British Monarch, George II personally leads his troops into battle, the last time that a British monarch would command troops in the field. The British forces, in alliance with those of Hanover and Hesse, defeated a French army under Adrien Maurice de Noailles, 3čme duc de Noailles. With the French defeat at Dettingen, the Duc du Noailles missed the best opportunity to win the war for France.
King George II

1921: During the Greek Minor Asia campaign, large scale operations begin on the entire front by the entire Greek Army of Minor Asia (3 Army Corps, 12 Divisions, ca 200,000 troops) along the line Eskişehir (ancient Dorylaeum)-Kütahya (ancient Cotyaeum)-Afyonkarahisar (ancient Akroinum) against the Turkish revolutionaries of the Turkish National Movement under Mustafa Kemal (also known as Atatürk).

1941: Romanian troops conduct a pogrom against Jews in the town of Jassy, killing 13,000.

1941: Hungary declares war on the Soviet Union and agrees to send troops to help Army Group South.
Hungarian troops on the move, 1941

1950: The U.N. Security council passes a resolution calling for member nations to give military aid to South Korea.

1991: Slovenia, after declaring independence is invaded by 35,000 JNA troops, starting the Ten-Day War.

06-28-2010, 09:48 AM
1914: Archduke Franz-Ferdinand of Habsburg, heir to the Austria-Hungary throne and his wife Sophie are assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian Nationalist in Sarajevo. The Great War begins.

1919: The Treaty of Versailles is signed. It was the peace settlement signed after World War One had ended in 1918 and in the shadow of the Russian Revolution and other events in Russia. The treaty was signed at the vast Versailles Palace near Paris - hence its title - between Belgium, Britain, France, Italy, the United States and allies on the one side and Germany and Austria-Hungary on the other side. The Versailles Palace was considered the most appropriate venue simply because of its size - many hundreds of people were involved in the process and the final signing ceremony in the Hall of Mirrors could accommodate hundreds of dignitaries. Many wanted Germany, now led by Friedrich Ebert, smashed - others, like Lloyd George, were privately more cautious.

1922: The Irish Civil War (a conflict waged between two opposing groups of Irish nationalists: The forces of the "Provisional Government" that established the Free State in December 1922, who supported the Anglo-Irish Treaty, and the Republican opposition, for whom the Treaty represented a betrayal of the Irish Republic. The war was won by the Free State forces) begins with the shelling of the Four Courts (the Republic of Ireland's main courts building) in Dublin by Free State forces.

1950: North Korean forces enter Seoul in the early afternoon and street fighting ensued but by midnight Seoul is in North Korean hands.

06-29-2010, 04:57 AM
1149: In the Battle of Fons Muratus (Fountain of Murad), the Syrian army of Nur ad-Din Zangi destroyed the Crusader army of Raymond of Antioch (he was killed in the battle) and the allied followers of Ali ibn-Wafa. After the victory, Nur ad-Din became a hero throughout the Islamic world.

1444: In the Battle of Torvioll, Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu (Skanderberg), with the united Albanian armies of 15,000 men, defeated an Ottoman force of 25-40,000 troops under Ali Pasha. Thousands of Turks died while 2,000 were captured. The Albanians were originally attributed to have lost as little as 120 men, while modern sources suggest higher figures with about 1,800 dead and 2,000 wounded. Skanderbeg's victory was loudly praised throughout the rest of Europe. The Hungarians urged Skanderbeg to join their alliance against the Turks. The European states thus began to consider a crusade to drive the Turks out of Europe.
Gjergj Kastrioti is the national hero of Albanians, remembered for the restoration of the Albanian state in 1443 and the national war of liberation against the Ottomans

1644: During the English Civil War (a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists), the Battle of Cropredy Bridge occurs. A 5,000 horse, 4,000 foot Parliamentarian army under Sir William Waller, is defeated by the 5,000 horse, 4,000 foot Royalist army under King Charles I of England. The battle at Cropredy Bridge is the last battle won by an English King on English soil.
King Charles I of England

1659: The Battle of Konotop, fought between an army of the Ukrainian Cossacks under their Hetman Ivan Vyhovsky and the Russians, occurs. It was a defeat for the Russian forces who tried to stop the Ukrainian leader from entering into an alliance with Poland and Lithuania.

1941: Hermann Göring is named Hitler's successor.

06-30-2010, 04:27 AM
1422: The Battle of Arbedo (canton of Ticino, Switzerland), fought between the Duchy of Milan and the Old Swiss Confederacy, occurs. A 11,000 foot, 5,000 horse, Milanese Army under Francesco Bussone, defeated a Swiss army of some 2,500 foot. The defeat at Arbedo persuaded the Swiss to increase the number of pikemen.

1651: During the Khmelnytsky Uprising (a Cossack rebellion in Ukraine that began in 1648 and turned into a Ukrainian war of liberation from Poland), the Battle of Berestechko ends. It lasted for two days (28-30 June, 1651) and it was a decisive Polish-Lithuanian victory. It led to the signing of the Treaty of Bila Tserkva according to which the number of Registered Cossacks decreased from 40,000 (the Treaty of Zboriv) to 20,000, and their seats located only on the territory of the Kiev Voivodeship.
Ukranian Cossack Colonel Ivan Bohun, fighting the Poles in the Battle of Berestechko

1758: During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Domstadt occurs. A 30,000-strong Prussian Army under the Hussar General Hans Joachim von Zieten, is defeated by a 12,000-strong Austrian Army under Baron Ernst Gideon von Laudon. The defeat shocked the Prussian camp. A memorial called Black Cross was built to the north-east of Domstadt (now Domašov in Czech republic) in 1858 on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the battle.
The Black Cross

1921: During the Greek Minor Asia Campaign, the Greek IV Infantry Division, defeats the Turks and captures the town of Afyonkarahisar (ancient Akroinon).
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk with his staff officers, battle of Afyonkarahisar

1941: German forces of Army Group South capture the city of Lviv in Ukraine.

1944: The remaining 6,000 Germans in the Cherbourg peninsula surrender to the US VII Corps.

1950: Gen. MacArthur receives permission to deploy one (1) Regimental Combat Team (RCT) to Korea to establish a defense line in Pusan area to assure retention of the port. A few hours after this the order was expanded to 2 combat divisions and with permission to employ these forces against North Korean forces in the Suwon area. The United States was now fully committed to the Korean War.
US General Douglas McArthur

07-01-2010, 04:05 AM
1 July 1916. The british army suffering 60 000 casualties on this, the first day of that battle. Reading the book 'The first day on the Somme' just now.

The number of causalties starts to sink in when at the end of the book, the author writes that 28 battalions lost 500 men or more on this day.. Staggering losses indeed. May those poor men who fought and died in the trenches, rest in peace.


07-01-2010, 04:10 AM
1097: During the First Crusade, the Battle of Dorylaeum occurs. A 10-20,000-strong Crusader army commanded by Bohemond I, Prince of Antioch and Taranto, was surrounded outside Dorylaeum by the 6-8,000 Seljuk Turks (cavalry mainly) of Kilij Arslan. It was a victory for the Crusaders who captured Kilij Arslan's treasury and became rich. The Turkish defeat at Dorylaeum, cleared the road for Antioch.

1898: During the Spanish-American War, the Battle of San Juan Heights occurs. Two US Divisions and two Cavalry Brigades under Major General William Rufus Shafter, attack the 760 Spaniards occupying the San Juan Hill and Kettle Hill. The battle proved to be a hard one for the Americans, who suffered almost three times as many losses as the Spanish. The Spaniards, meanwhile, had literally fought to the knife. The future US President Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt, became a Medal of Honor recipient for his actions in this battle.
Roosevelt and his Rough Raider Volunteers at San Juan Hill

WWI-1916: Start of the Battle of the Somme, with the British military suffering its greatest number of casualties in a single day, 60,000.

1941: Armoured forces of Panzer Group 4 of Army Group North cross the Dvina river and capture Riga, the Latvian capital.

1942: The First Battle of El Alamein: Rommel captures 2,000 prisoners from the El Alamein "box" but loses 18 of his 55 remaining tanks.

1944: Since D-Day, the Allies have landed 920,000 troops, 177,000 vehicles and 600,000 tons of supplies and equipment. In the 24 days of fighting, they have lost 62,000 men killed, wounded and missing.

07-01-2010, 04:49 AM
We will remember them

07-01-2010, 04:51 AM
what a waste of life


07-01-2010, 04:52 AM
Look here: http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.php?177957-On-this-day-in-Military-History/page8
There is a relevant thread and a post about the battle, so it's a repost.

07-01-2010, 04:55 AM
Look here: http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.php?177957-On-this-day-in-Military-History/page8
There is a relevant thread and a post about the battle, so it's a repost.

Oh crap. Sry bout that..

07-01-2010, 01:28 PM
Lest We Forget...and i did :(

Look here: http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.php?177957-On-this-day-in-Military-History/page8
There is a relevant thread and a post about the battle, so it's a repost.
thanks for the link Korath,

07-02-2010, 03:32 AM
1298: During the contention for the throne of Holy Roman Empire, the Battle of Göllheim, occurs. It's fought between Albert I of Habsburg and Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg. It was a decisive Habsburg victory. Albert I of Habsburg was elected King of Romans.
The death of Adolf of Nassau

1644: During the English Civil Wars, the Battle of Marston Moor occurs. The combined forces of the Scottish Covenanters (a Scottish Presbyterian movement) under Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven and the English Parliamentarians under Ferdinando Fairfax, 2nd Lord Fairfax of Cameron and Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester, defeated the Royalists commanded by Ruprecht, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria and William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The defeat at Marston Moor was a serious blow to the Royalist cause. Oliver Cromwell's reputation as an effective cavalry commander and leader was cemented by his successful commanding of the Parliamentarian Cavalry, the Ironside at Marston Moor. Prince Ruprecht on the other hand, had been decisively beaten for the first time in the war and lost his reputation for invincibility.
The Scottish Covenanters' colours

1941: Troops of the German 11th, Romanian 3rd and 4th Armies begin an offensive from Moldavia toward the Black Sea port of Odessa.
Romanian Infantry; Siege of Odessa, 1941

1966: The French military explodes a nuclear test bomb codenamed Aldébaran in Mururoa, their first nuclear test in the Pacific. This was a test of the MR-50 CTC (Charge Tactique Commune - common tactical warhead). This was the first test in which a barge was used for the detonation of the nuclear device. The barge containing the nuclear device was moored at the Dindon testing sector on the western end of the atoll. This method of testing would be used for a further three tests (Rigel, Sirius, and Arcturus).
Aldébaran was detonated at 5:34 local time on July 2, 1966 with a yield of 28 kilotons. The MR-50 was the basis for the design of the AN-51 CTC and AN-52 CTC warheads.

2008: The French-Colombian politician, Íngrid Betancourt and 14 other hostages held by FARC guerrillas, are rescued by the Colombian armed forces, during Operation Jaque.

07-03-2010, 06:37 AM
324: During the Roman Civil War waged between the two Roman Emperors, Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus, commonly known as Constantine I the Great, and Valerius Licini**** Licinius, the Battle of Adrianople occurs. It was a decisive Constantinian victory, a year later he'd become the sole and undisputed master of the Roman world.
Constantine the Great is a Saint of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Here he is depicted with his mother, Saint Helen

1866: During the Seven Weeks' War fought between the German Confederation under the leadership of Austrian Empire and the Prussian Kingdom and its allies, the Battle of Königgrätz occurs. 220,000 Prussians defeated 184,000 Austrians and 22,000 Saxons. Königgrätz was the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War; an armistice signed at Prague ensued three weeks later. It provided a great opportunity for Prussian statesmen, by clearing a path toward German Unification, in particular with the Little Germany, or Germany without Austria solution, with the subsequent foundation of the North German Confederation.
The Königgrätzer Marsch was written to commemorate the battle.

1898: During the Spanish-American War, the Spanish Caribbean Naval Squadron under Admiral Pascual Cervera y Topete, is destroyed by the U.S. Navy in Santiago, Cuba.

1940: Operation Catapult: The French fleet of the Atlantic based at Mers el Kébir, is bombarded by the British fleet, coming from Gibraltar, causing the loss of three battleships, Dunkerque, Provence and Bretagne. 1,200 sailors perish.

1944: Minsk, the capital of Belarus is captured by the Soviets, trapping 100,000 Germans in a pocket to the East.

1988: U.S. Navy warship USS "Vincennes" (CG-49) shoots down Iran Air Flight 655 over the Persian Gulf, killing all 290 people aboard
USS "Vincennes"; she was decommissioned in 2005

07-04-2010, 04:31 AM
1187: During the 3rd Crusade, the Battle of Hattin occurs. A 30,000-strong Muslim army under Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, commonly known as Saladin, defeated a 20,000-strong Crusader army under Guy of Lusignan. The Muslim forces captured the royal tent of Guy. Prisoners included Guy, his brother Amalric II, Raynald, William V of Montferrat, Gerard de Ridefort, Humphrey IV of Toron, Hugh of Jabala, Plivain of Botron, Hugh of Gibelet, and many others. Perhaps only as few as 3,000 Christians escaped the defeat.
The statue of the Kurdish Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt and Syria, Saladin, in Kerak, Jordan

1456: During the Ottoman Wars in Europe, the Siege of Belgrade begins (it ended 18 days later in a desicive Christian victory). After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman sultan's Mehmet II, immediate objective was the town of Belgrade, then under Hungarian rule and at the Hungarian-Ottoman border. Hungarian nobleman János Hunyadi, with just 4,000 troops attacked the Turkish camp, compelling the wounded Sultan Mehmet II to lift the siege of Belgrade and retreat with his 30,000 men. The victory stopped the Ottoman Turkish advance towards Catholic Europe for 70 years.
The statue of Hunyadi in Budapest, Hungary; he died three weeks after his personal triumph, from plague

1610: During the Polish-Muscovite War (1605-1618), the Battle of Klushino occurs. Polish-Lithuanian forces numbering about 4,000 men (of which about 80 percent were the famous winged hussars) under Hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski defeated a numerically superior force of about 35,000-40,000 Russians under Dmitry Shuisky. Soon after the battle, Żółkiewski entered Moscow with little opposition.
The famous Polish Winged Hussars

1776: The Second Continental Congress (a convention of delegates from the Thirteen American Colonies that managed the colonial war effort), adopts the United States Declaration of Independence.
The five-man drafting committee of the Declaration of Independence presenting their work to the Second Continental Congress. The United States becomes a nation

1879: The last battle of the Anglo-Zulu War, occurs. A 5,000-strong British Force under General Frederic Augustus Thesiger, 2nd Baron Chelmsford, invaded and burnt to the ground the capital of the Zulu nation, uluNdi (=The high place, in Zulu).
The Zulu king Cetshwayo; he was captured on 28 August and exiled to London. Cetshwayo was restored to the throne of the subjugated Zulu kingdom shortly before his death in 1884

1921: During the Greek Minor Asia Campaign, the Greek X Division, after fierce firefight captures Kütahya.
Greeks of Kütahya

1943: 5,000 Greek guerillas of the National Republican Greek League (EDES) resistance group, under the former army officer, Colonel Napoleon Zervas, begin operations against the German and Italian forces on the whole of W. Greece. The fierceness of the Greek attacks against the axis forces cause the Germans to send two more divisions in the country, thus, increasing the number of the German divisions in the Balkans, to twelve. Italian occupying force comprise 10 divisions.
Colonel Zervas (2nd from the left) with fellow EDES officers

1976: Israeli commandos raid Entebbe airport in Uganda, rescuing all but four of the passengers and crew of an Air France jetliner seized by Palestinian terrorists.

07-05-2010, 03:39 AM
1316: A combined Burgundian-Byzantine army under the titular king of Thessalonica and prince of Achaea, Louis of Burgundy, of the Capetian House of Anjou, defeated Ferran de Mallorca, the infante of Majorca in the Battle of Manolas, on the Elian plain of W. Peloponnese, Greece. Both monarchs claimed the Principality of Achaea in right of their wives. The defeat and death of Ferran, ensured the continued Anjou supremacy over Achaea.
Coin of the Principality of Achaea under Louis of Burgundy

1809: During the War of the 5th Coalition (a fifth attempt of the allied states of Austria and the UK to contain Napoleonic France), the Battle of Wagram occurs. A 136,000-strong Austrian Army under Archduke Karl of Austria, Duke of Teschen, was defeated by the 162,000-strong Napoleonic Army led by Napoleon Bonaparte, in the Battle of Wagram. The two-day battle of Wagram was particularly bloody for both sides but the Austrian defeat was serious enough to shatter the morale of the Austrians, who could no longer find the will to continue the struggle, hence deciding to accept a harsh peace treaty, which meant the loss of one sixth of the Empire's subjects, alongside significant territories.

1821: During the Greek War for Indpendence, an Ottoman fleet of some 36 ships, bombards the Greek island of Samos and disembarks 300 troops. The whole operation was a debacle: In the clash with the local population that follows, all 300 troops were killed.
The flag of the Samos revolutionaries; it was hoisted on the island on 17 April, 1821

1943: The Germans launch Operation Citadel, a massive offensive to encircle and destroy the Soviet forces in the Orel-Belgorod salient near Kursk on a 320-km (200 miles) front, with the 9th Army attacking from the North and 4th Panzer Army attacking from the South. The Germans have deployed 37 divisions totaling 900,000 men, which include 11 Panzer divisions with 2,500 tanks and assault guns, 10,000 guns and Nebelwerfers, as well as 1,800 aircraft. Against this, the Red Army has 1,300,000 troops in deeply echeloned defensive positions, protected by 8,000 land mines per square mile, 3,300 tanks, 20,000 guns and 2,500 aircraft. Taken together, the opposing forces in this operation constitute the largest concentration of military power ever assembled in history. In the northern sector, the Germans advance 10 km (6 miles), while in the southern sector they manage 40 km (25 miles) against stubborn Soviet resistance which inflicts heavy casualties.

1950: During the Korean War, the first clash between American and North Korean forces in the Battle of Osan occurs.
At 08:16, Task Force Smith (units of the 24th Infantry Division named for its commander; Task Force Smith consisted of 406 men of the 1st Battalion, 21st Infantry Regiment, as well as 134 men of A Battery, 52nd Field Artillery Battalion) engages a N. Korean column of T-34 tanks with Artillery, 75mm recoiless rifles and 2.36" bazookas. The fire was accurate but proved ineffective. In total, 33 T-34 tanks went through Task Force Smith infantry positions by 9 a.m, two were disabled.

07-06-2010, 04:44 PM
371 BC: In the Battle of Leuctra, in Boeotia, Greece, on the road from Plataea to Thespiae, on the 5th of the month of Hecatombaeon (6 July), 8-9,000 Thebans (1,500 Cavalry), met and defeated 11-12,000 Spartans (1,000 Cavalry). The latter never recovered from the blow this disaster gave to their prestige. The credit for the victory falls to Epaminondas, who broke away from the traditional tactical methods of his time and employed for the first time in the history of war the modern principle of local superiority of force.
The Theban Sacred Band was a troop of 300 chosen men formed in 378 BC by the Theban general Gorgidas; Sacred Band played a key role in the Theban triumphs against the Spartans in the battles of Coronea, of Tegyra, of Leuctra and of Mantinea

1495: During the 1st Italian War (Charles VIII of France, who had initial Milanese aid, pitted against the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and an alliance of Italian powers called the Venetian League led by Pope Alexander VI), the Battle of Fernovo occurs. It was a French tactical victory and a Venetian strategic victory. Charles although won the battle, he left Italy without having gained anything.

1801: During the Napoleonic Wars, the Battle of Algeciras bay occurs. A British fleet consisted of seven ships of the line under Admiral James Saumarez, 1st Baron de Saumarez, defeated a French fleet of eight ships commanded by Admiral Charles-Alexandre Léon Durand, Comte de Linois.

07-07-2010, 04:18 AM
1770: During the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774, the two-day Naval Battle of Chesme ends and the Battle of Larga occurs.
The Naval Battle of Chesme, was a Russo-Turkish naval engagement that took place in the Chesme bay, in the area between the Tukish coast and the Greek island of Chios. 16 Russian ships (4 fireships manned by Greeks) under Admiral, Count Alexey Grigorievich Orlov, defeated an Ottoman fleet of some 40 ships under Mandalzade Hüsameddin Pasha. It was the greatest naval defeat suffered by Ottomans since the Battle of Lepanto (1571).
The Battle of Larga, was a Russo-Turkish engagement that took place on the banks of the river Larga and lasted for eight hours. 38,000 Russians under Field Marshal, Count Pyotr Alexandrovich Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky, defeated an 80,000-strong Ottoman Army (65,000 Crimean Tatar Cavalry) under Kaplan Girey. For this victory, Rumyantsev was awarded the Order of Saint George of the 1st Degree.
Count Orlov (left), Count Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky

WWI-1915: The Italians end an unsuccessful attack against Austro-Hungary at what will be called the 1st Battle of Isonzo (there will be 12 Isonzo battles in total). Their losses exceed 14,000.

07-08-2010, 03:34 AM
1283: During the War of the Sicilian Vespers (the name given to a rebellion on the island of Sicily in 1282 against the rule of the French/Angevin king Charles I), the Naval Battle of Malta occurs. A fleet of 21 galleys under the Sicilian-Aragonese Admiral Roger de Llúria defeated a fleet of Angevin galleys commanded by William Cornut and Bartholomew Bonvin. Cornut was killed.
The statue of Roger de Llúria in Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain

1716: During the Great Northern War, the Battle of Dynekilen occurs. A light Dano-Norwegian naval force under Peter Jansen Wessel, nom de guerre Tordenskjold (=Thundershield), trapped and defeated a similar Swedish force under Olof Strömstierna in Dynekilen fjord (just north of Strömstad), on the west coast of Sweden. 80 percent of the sailors and 90 percent of the soldiers in Tordenskjold's force were Norwegian.
Peter Jansen Wessel, aka Tordenskjold

1921: During the Greek Minor Asia Campaign, the two-day Battle of Eskişehir (in Greek Army nomenclature: Battle of Dorylaeum) begins. The Turkish Revolutionary Army, following their defeat in Kütahya, withdrew and redeployed along the line Eskişehir-Seyidi Gazi. On the morning of 8 July, a full scale attack is launched against the Greeks. This was the largest confrontation between the two sides in terms of numbers of armed forces during the whole war, as the Greeks threw in the battle 100,000 troops against a similar number of Turks. It was tactically a victory for the Greeks but strategically, the battle was of little importance as they failed to grasp the opportunity to encircle the retreating Turkish troops. Greek losses accounted for 6,472 men. Turks lost ca 12,000 men.

1944: The British Second Army begins a major offensive Operation Charnwood aimed at capturing Caen. The plan called for Lieutenant-General Crocker’s I (British) Corps to strike south directly towards the city with three divisions. On the right flank, the 3rd (British) Division was to strike SSW from Biéville towards the north-eastern part of Caen.
Simultaneously, in Crocker’s centre, the 59th Division was to thrust due south from Cambes. Finally, on the western flank, the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division was to strike south-east from Carpiquet towards the River Odon, located south-east of the city.

1944: The Soviets capture Baranovichi, Belarus, 130 km (80 miles) SW of Minsk. Lieutenant General Müller, the commander of German 12th Corps surrenders with 57,000 men. Army Group Centre's losses have now reached 300,000 men (28 divisions) in less than three weeks, since the beginning of the Soviet Operation Bagration.

1950: Korean War: President Truman names General Douglas MacArthur as Commanding General of United nations Military Forces and directs him to use the United Nations Flag, concurrently with the flags of the various nations participating, in the course of operations against North Korean Forces.
UN flag presentation to Douglas MacArthur, for use in the Korean War

07-09-2010, 03:45 AM
1790: During the Russo-Swedish War of 1788-1790, the Naval Battle of Svensksund occurs. Some 500 ships with 2,500 guns and 30,000 men, from Sweden and Russia, engaged in the Gulf of Finland outside the present day city of Kotka on 9–10 July 1790. It was a disaster for the Russians: they lost 40% of their fleet and at least 9,500 killed or captured. This defeat persuaded Russia to negotiate with Sweden eventually signing the Treaty of Värälä on 14 August 1790.

1943: Operation Husky, the allied invasion of Sicily, begins, with the US 82nd and the British 1st Airborne Divisions making the first landings on Sicily at night. However, due to navigational errors, hundreds of U.S. paratroopers are dropped in the sea and are drowned, while many others are widely scattered and miss their assigned targets.

1944: A major Soviet offensive begins towards Riga, Latvia, in order to cut off Army Group North in Baltic States. The 2nd Belorussian Front attacks northwest from Vitebsk, the 3rd Belorussian Front attacks West from Psovsk and the Leningrad Front attacks southwest toward Narva.

1944: British and Canadians of the British Second Army enter Caen which has been reduced to a heap of rubble due to the preceding heavy aerial and artillery bombardments by the British.
Canadian troops entering Caen

07-10-2010, 04:13 AM
48 BC: During Caesar's Civil War (one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire, between Gaius Julius Caesar and the Senate), the Battle of Dyrrhachium (today's Durrës in Albania) occurs. It was fought between Julius Caesar's veteran legions and the Roman army led by Gnaeus Pompey the Great with the backing of the majority of the Senate. Caesar's legions attacked Pompey's camp, but the attackers were outmanned nearly two to one and though initially successful, they simply couldn't sustain the advantage. Caesar's right wing was flanked, began to buckle, panicked and eventually routed. Despite that Caesar lost just 1,000 men, it was a clear victory for Pompey and the Senate.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus

1460: During the War of the Roses, the Battle of Northampton occurs. Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick and 6th Earl of Salisbury, defeats the king's Lancastrian forces and takes King Henry VI prisoner.
Henry VI, King of England

1645: During the English Civil War, the Battle of Langport occurs. A 20,000-strong Parliamentarian army under Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron, nom de guerre Black Tom, destroyed the last Royalist field army of just 3,000 men under George, Lord Goring. This victory gave Parliament control of the West of England, which had been a major source of manpower, raw materials and imports for the Royalists.
Sir Thomas Fairfax

1913: During the Second Balkan War, the 6-day Battle of Kresna Gorge begins. The Greek Army crossed the Strymon (Struma in Bulgarian) river and invaded Bulgaria. The consolidated Bulgarian Army (1st Army under General Vassil Kutinchev of 79,370 men & 2nd Army under General Saravov of 122,748 men), that had been settled defensively at Simitli, launched attacks on both flanks of the Greek frontline, pushing them down the Strymon and Mesta River valleys. General Mikhail Savov was the Bulgarian Field Marshal. The Greeks deployed six Infantry Divisions (I, II, IV, V, VI, VII) and the Cavalry Brigade. Greek Field Marshal was the Cretan Major General Emmanuel M****oyannakes. At noon, Greek Divisions (I, VI), began their advance against the Bulgarian fortified positions set on Hassan Pasha height. They met the Bulgarians occupying the first line of defence who are fought obstinate. Greek troops, fixed bayonets and fought hand to hand with the Bulgarians. The Divisions faced severe casualties. On the next morning, the Bulgarians conducted strong counter-attacks aiming at the weak center of the Greek frontline (VI ID). They exerted so much pressure on the 9th Evzone Battalion of the 1/38 Evzone Regiment (8th-9th Evzone Btns) that General M****oyannakes sent the 18th Infantry Regiment to their aid. On Height 1378, the battle was epic. The fight turned to a savage bloodbath. Any sense of humanism was lost. The troops fought each other with rocks, bare hands, even their teeth. A Cretan soldier dropped his empty rifle and with his bayonet killed two Bulgarians before he was stabbed to death by five others. After the battle, the stab wounds on his dead body accounted for 22. Two Evzones, Sergeant Tolios & Private Makrakes of the 8th Evzone Battalion, fought alone, against a Bulgarian platoon. After the battle, the stab wounds on Tolios' dead body, accounted for 30. Makrakes was killed by an enemy machine gun volley. Around their dead bodies, a hillock of Bulgarian corpses was formed. Two Evzone Companies under Captain Manolides & Captain Karachrestos launched immediately an attack on the Bulgarian entrenchments to avenge their deaths. The battle on 1378 continued for two more days. Major Ioannes Velissariou, CO of the 9th Evzone Battalion, was killed on the second day.
On the morning of the last day of the battle of Kresna, the Bulgarians launched their final major offensive. Their entire 2nd Army launched a ferocious attack on the Greek III & X ID stationed at Petsovo & the VIII ID that was moving from Machomia to Kresna, that shook the entire Greek line. An armistice though, was at hands. Greeks lost around 10,000 men in the fighting at Kresna. Bulgarians had a similar number of casualties.
The Greeks at the straights of Kresna

The Greeks crossing the Strymon river; Georges Scott-1914

1940: Preliminary phase of Battle of Britain begins with German air attacks on Channel convoys with the aim of tempting the RAF in to battle. The Luftwaffe launches its first large scale attack on Britain as 70 aircraft attack the dock facilities at Swansea and the Royal Ordnance Factory at Pembrey in Wales.

1943: Operation Husky, the Allied invasion of Sicily, is now fully underway with 12 divisions (160,000 men and 600 tanks) of the British Eighth and U.S. Seventh Armies being brought ashore by 3,000 landing craft (200 sunk by rough seas) on the south-east coast of Sicily. The British approaching Syracuse meet with little German resistance, the U.S. forces are held back by strong counter-attacks of the Fallschirm-Panzer-Division 1. Hermann Göring and the Italian Livorno Division.

Korean War-1950: At approximately 10:00, the first tank-to-tank battle of the Korean War took place south of 1st Battalion positions and Choch'iwon when 4 U.S. M-24 light tanks engaged the same North Korean tanks which had gone through 1st Battalion lines earlier in the day. U.S. tanks performed poorly, losing two while the North Korean's lost none. Later that afternoon the second tank-to-tank battle took place in the same area. This time U.S. M-24's lost none and destroyed two T-34 tanks.

07-11-2010, 04:30 AM
1302: During the French invasion of Flanders, the Battle of the Golden Spurs occurs, near Kortrijk, Flanders. An 8,000-strong French army led by Robert II, Count of Artois, invaded Flanders in an attempt to subdue it. Flanders was formally part of the French kingdom. The Flemish response consisted of two groups; one group which consisted of 3,000 men was led by William of Jülich and Pieter de Coninck. The other group, which consisted of about 2,500 men was led by Guy of Namur. From the East came another 2,500 men, led by Jan Borluut, and yet another 1,000 men led by Jan van Renesse. In the battle that followed the French suffered severe casualties (ca 1,000) while the Flemish lost just 100 men. The large numbers of golden spurs that were collected from the French knights gave the battle its name. Robert II, Count of Artois was killed in the battle.
The date of the battle is the official celebration day of the Flemish community in Belgium

1882: During the Second Anglo-Egyptian War, the British Mediterranean fleet begins the Bombardment of Alexandria in Egypt. Admiral Sir Frederick Beauchamp Seymour was in command of a fleet of about 15 Royal Navy ironclad ships in the one-day bombardment of the city. The four Egyptian coastal batteries commenced fire against the ships with the result the death of 6 British crewmen. 27 British sailors were also wounded. Egyptian casualties were 680-700.
Alexandria after the British bombardment

1940: Marshal Petain replaces President Lebrun and proclaims himself Chief of French State of Vichy France.

1943: One of the bloodiest days of the massacre of Poles in Volhynia, W. Ukraine, takes place. The massacres orchestrated and conducted by the Ukrainian nationalists of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), the military wing of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists — Bandera faction. UPA engaged in a series of guerrilla conflicts during World War II against Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and Poland.

1995: Over 8,000 Bosnian men and children (mostly Bosniaks) are killed by Serbian troops commanded by Ratko Mladic in Potočari near Srebrenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

07-12-2010, 03:59 AM
1191: During the Third Crusade, the army of Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, commonly known as Saladin, surrenders to the Italian nobleman, and one of the major participants in the Third Crusade, Conrad of Montferrat, ending the two-year siege of Acre, Western Galillee.

1691: During the War of the Two Kings (a conflict between Catholic King James II and Protestant William III of Orange over who would be King of England, Scotland and Ireland), the Battle of Aughrim occurs. It was fought between the 18,000 Jacobites (French and Irish troops) and the 20,000 Williamites (Irish, Dutch, British, Danish and French Huguenot troops) near the village of Aughrim in County Galway, Ireland. It was a decisive Williamite victory and one of the bloodiest ever battles fought on Irish soil – over 7,000 people were killed. It meant the effective end of Jacobitism in Ireland.
King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland

1812: During the War of 1812, fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, a US army under General William Hull, invades Canada.
General Hull

1943: The largest operation conducted by the Greek People's Liberation Army (ELAS) resistance group, against the Germans, during World War II, commences. It begins on the night of 12 July and ends on 14 July. Its main objective was the capture of the town of Amphilochia, located in the northwestern part of Aetolia-Acarnania. After a two-day battle fought inside and around the town, Amphilochia is captured by the insurgents. Germans lost 298 men (180 dead) in the street fighting inside Amphilochia. Greek guerillas lost 80 men (26 dead). Greek ELAS insurgents capture 250 rifles, 45,000 ammunition rounds, 5,000 land mines, 96 horses, 4 arty pieces among others.
The ELAS march

1943: The Battle of Prokhorovka (part of the Battle of Kursk), the largest tank engagement of all time is fought between the II. SS-Panzerkorps and the Soviets Voronezh and Steppe Fronts.

2006: The 2006 Lebanon War begins. The conflict began when Hezbollah militants fired rockets at Israeli border towns as a diversion for an anti-tank missile attack on two armored Humvees patrolling the Israeli side of the border fence (Operation True Promise). The ambush left three soldiers dead. Two additional soldiers, believed to have been killed outright or mortally wounded, were snatched by Hezbollah to Lebanon. Five more were killed in a failed rescue attempt.

07-12-2010, 09:13 AM
July 12, 1862: The Medal of Honor is approved by Congress:
A Brief History — The Medal of Honor*

The first formal system for rewarding acts of individual gallantry by the nation's fighting men was established by General George Washington on August 7, 1782. Designed to recognize "any singularly meritorious action," the award consisted of a purple cloth heart. Records show that only three persons received the ward: Sergeant Elijah Churchill, Sergeant William Brown, and Sergeant Daniel Bissel Jr.

The Badge of Military Merit, as it was called, fell into oblivion until 1932, when General Douglas MacArthur, then Army Chief of Staff, pressed for its revival. Officially reinstituted on February 22, 1932, the now familiar Purple Heart was at first an Army award, given to those who had been wounded in World War I or who possessed a Meritorious Service Citation Certificate. In 1943, the order was amended to include personnel of the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. Coverage was eventually extended to include all services and "any civilian national" wounded while serving with the Armed Forces.

Although the Badge of Military Merit fell into disuse after the Revolutionary War, the idea of a decoration for individual gallantry remained through the early 1800s. In 1847, after the outbreak of the Mexican-American War, a "certificate of merit" was established for any soldier who distinguished himself in action. No medal went with the honor. After the Mexican-American War, the award was discontinued, which meant there was no military award with which to recognize the nation's fighting men.

Early in the Civil War, a medal for individual valor was proposed to General-in-Chief of the Army Winfield Scott. But Scott felt medals smacked of European affectation and killed the idea.

The medal found support in the Navy, however, where it was felt recognition of courage in strife was needed. Public Resolution 82, containing a provision for a Navy medal of valor, was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on December 21, 1861. The medal was "to be bestowed upon such petty officers, seamen, landsmen, and Marines as shall most distinguish themselves by their gallantry and other seamanlike qualities during the present war."

Shortly after this, a resolution similar in wording was introduced on behalf of the Army. Signed into law July 12, 1862, the measure provided for awarding a medal of honor "to such noncommissioned officers and privates as shall most distinguish themselves by their gallantry in action, and other soldierlike qualities, during the present insurrection."
Although it was created for the Civil War, Congress made the Medal of Honor a permanent decoration in 1863.

Almost 3,400 men and one woman have received the award for heroic actions in the nation's battles since that time.


* Quoted from "Armed Forces Decorations and Awards," a publication of the American Forces Information Service. Copies of the pamphlet are available upon request (in print format only), via the "DefenseLINK Comment/Question Form" in the "Questions" section.

From: http://www.defense.gov/faq/pis/med_of_honor.html

07-13-2010, 03:51 AM
1558: During the Franco-Spanish War of 1547-1559, the Battle of Gravelines, near Calais, France, occurs. An 18,000-strong Spanish Army under the Flemish nobleman Lamoraal, Count of Egmont, defeated a 14,000-strong French Army led by Paul de La Barthe de Thermes. The Spanish were supported by the English Navy, who opened fire on the French as they reached Gravelines.
Statue of Lamoraal van Egmont, on market square in Zottegem, Belgium

1643: During the English Civil War, the Battle of Roundway Down occurs. A Royalist force of some 1,800 horse, 2,000 foot under Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester, won a crushing victory over the Parliamentarian force of some 2,500 horse, 1,800 foot under Sir William Waller. The Parliamentarian field army in south-west England was in effect destroyed operationally, allowing the Royalists to capture the port and major city of Bristol a few weeks later.

1794: During the French Revolutionary Wars (a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states), the Battle of the Vosges (a range of low mountains in eastern France, near its border with Germany) occurs. An Allied army of around 70,000 Prussians, Austrians and Saxons under Prussian Field Marshal Joachim Heinrich von Möllendorf, is defeated by the 115,000 French, led by General Claude Ignace François Michaud.

1941: The Montenegrin Uprising. Montenegrin partisans mounted an uprising against the Italian occupiers. As a result, almost the entire country is liberated.
The Political commissar of the 5th Montenegrin Brigade, Dragisa Ivanovic

1943: The British advance into Sicily continues with the capture of Augusta and Ragusa. The first allied ship that enters the port of liberated Augusta, is the Greek Destroyer RHNS "Kanares" (L-53) under Lt.Commander Damelates.

1943: The Baltos Regiment of the combined National Republican Greek League - National Groups of Greek Guerrillas (EDES-EOEA) resistance groups, engages the units comprising the Italian 11° Divisione di Fanteria "Brennero". The Italians were moving to Epirus with the purpose to be transported, through Albania, to Sicily, to assist the axis forces fighting the allies. The Italians of the "Brennero" Division, are bogged down in Greece until 21 July.

07-14-2010, 04:41 AM
1789: On the morning of July 14th, Parisian craftsmen and salesmen stormed the Bastille, a prison that was a symbol of the King's absolute and arbitrary power. Only 7 people were freed.
Some historians found the diary of King Louis XVI. On that day, July 14th, 1789 he only wrote "Nothing". That was the result of his day's hunting. When the Duc de Liancourt informed the King of what had happened at the Bastille, the King asked his advisor is this a revolt? and he was answered, No Majesty, this is a revolution

1900: During the Boxer Rebellion (a Chinese anti-colonialist, anti-Christian movement by the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists, known as Boxers in English), armies of the eight-nation alliance (Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) capture Tianjin in NE China.

1916: As part of the Battle of the Somme, the Battle of Delville Wood begins. It lasted until 3 September and it was an engagement between the forces of Germany, UK and South Africa. Both the Allies and Germans suffered appalling casualties, caused largely by both sides continually committing new forces in piecemeal attacks against one another.

1944: An allied force of 158 Greek Commandos of the Sacred Band and 79 British Commandos of the 3rd Special Service Brigade, under the Greek Lt. Colonel Tryphon Triantaphyllakos, raid the Greek island of Symi, Dodecanese. The island's garrison comprised 53 German and 175 Italian troops. After a short skirmish, allied commandos capture 108 Italians and 41 Germans. Enemy casualties accounted for 9 dead, 17 wounded.

Korean War-1950: The Battle of Taejon (July 14–21, 1950), an early battle between United States and North Korean forces, begins. In the Taejon-Kongju area the US 24th Infantry Division was deployed with the 24th Reconnaissance Company watching principle river crossings west of Kongju, the 34th Infantry at Kongju, the newly arrived 19th Infantry Regiment at Taejon, and the badly mauled 21st Infantry Regiment (the 21st was down to a total strength of approximately 1,100 men, having 1,433 men missing-in-action during the first week of fighting) in blocking position southeast of Taejon. Eventually, US forces were overwhelmed by numerically superior forces of the Korean People's Army.

1969: The Football War: Following the inflamed rioting during the second North American qualifying round of the 1970 FIFA World Cup in 1969, the Salvadoran army launched an attack against Honduras. Both sides of the Football War suffered extensive casualties. Some 300,000 Salvadorans were displaced, while Salvadoran army lost about 900 troops. Honduras lost 100 combat troops, and over 2,000 civilians were killed during the early days, since most of the war was fought on Honduran soil.

07-15-2010, 04:24 AM
1099: During the First Crusade, the Crusaders stormed and captured the city of Jerusalem and eventually took the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, after eight days of difficult siege.

1240: During the Swedish–Novgorodian Wars, fought between Sweden and the Rus of the Novgorodian Land over the vital trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, which was under Novgorod's control, the Battle of Neva occurs. A Swedish army of unknown strength, met and engaged a small Novgorodian army led by the 20-year old Prince Alexander Yaroslavich, on the Neva river. The result was a decisive Novgorodian victory. Because of this battle, 20-year-old Alexander was given the name of Nevsky (=of Neva).
Prince Alexander is a Saint of the Eastern Ortodox Church. He is greatly venerated by the Russians and the Bulgarians

1410: During the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War of 1409-1411, the 1st Battle of Tannenberg occurs. It's fought between a Polish-Lithuanian army under the King of Poland Władysław II Jogaila and the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas, and the Knights of the Teutonic Order under Ulrich von Jungingen. The defeat of the Teutonic Knights was resounding. About 8,000 Teuton soldiers were killed and an additional 14,000 were taken captive.
The Monument to the battle in Cracow, Poland

1815: Napoleon surrenders to Captain Frederick Maitland of the HMS Bellerophon and is transported to Torbay in SW England. The Napoleonic Wars officially end.

WWI-1918: The Allies counterattack against German forces, seizing initiative on the Western Front immediately after the last major German Spring Offensive on the Western Front during World War I, the Second Battle of the Marne. The battle ended on 6 August as an overwhelming Allied victory. Généralissime (=Supreme Commander of the Allied Armies) Ferdinand Foch received the baton of Marshal of France.
The baton of Marshal of France has the Latin inscription: Terror belli, decus pacis (=Terror in war, ornament in peace)

1974: In Nicosia, Cyprus, Greek Junta-sponsored nationalists launch a coup d'état, deposing President Makarios and installing Nikos Sampson as Cypriot president.

07-16-2010, 03:54 AM
1212: During the Reconquista (a period of nearly 800 years in the Middle Ages during which several Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula succeeded in retaking it from the Muslims of Al-Andalus Province), the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa occurs. A 50,000-strong combined army of King Alfonso VIII of Castille, Sancho VII of Navarre, Pedro II of Aragon and Afonso II of Portugal fought and defeated a 200,000-strong Berber Muslim Almohad force made up of people from the whole Almohad empire, under Caliph An-nasir li-din allah muhammad ben al-mansur, commonly known as Miramamolín, near Las Navas de Tolosa, Jaén, Andalusia. The crushing defeat of the Almohads (they lost ca 100,000 dead, wounded or captured) significantly hastened their decline both in the Iberian Peninsula and in the Maghreb a decade later.
The monument to the battle

1683: Chinese Manchu Qing Dynasty naval forces defeat the Kingdom of Tungning in the Battle of Penghu, near the Pescadores Islands. The defeat at Penghu resulted in the Zheng Keshuang's (King of Tungning) surrender to Qing.

1918: Czar Nicholas II, his family, the family doctor, their servants and their pet dog are shot by the Bolsheviks, who had held them captive for 2 months in the basement of a house in Yekaterinburg, Russia.
The Romanovs in 1911

1942: 12,887 Jews of Paris are rounded up and sent to Drancy Internment Camp located outside the city, then shipped by rail to Auschwitz, in what is known today as the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup. Few of the transported Jews survived. French president Jacques Chirac apologised in 1995 for the complicit role French policemen and civil servants served in the raid.

1945: The Three-Power Summit Conference opens at Potsdam, Germany. The leaders of the three Allied nations, British Prime Minister Clement Atlee, US President Harry S Truman and Soviet Premier Josef Stalin, meet to decide the future of a defeated Germany.

1945: The Atomic Age begins when the United States successfully detonates a plutonium-based test nuclear weapon at the Trinity site near Alamogordo, New Mexico.

07-17-2010, 05:24 AM
1453: During the Hundred Years' War, the Battle of Castillon, occurs. This was the last battle fought between the French and the English in the War and the first battle in history where cannons played a singnificant role in the battle. A French army of 7-10,000 troops and 300 guns under the master of artillery Jean Bureau, decisively defeated an English army of some 7,000 troops under John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury. English casualties were huge: 4,000 men were killed, wounded or captured.

1912: During the First Balkan War, the Greeks of the island of Icaria, at the eastern Aegean, then under Ottoman rule, revolt, impelled by a certain Ioannes Malachias, capture the Ottoman garrison of the island and proclaim the short-lived, Icarian State. On 4 November, Icaria was annexed as part of Greece.
The flag of the Free State of Icaria

WWI-1918: The transatlantic passenger steamship RMS "Carpathia", the ship that became famous for rescuing the survivors of RMS "Titanic" in 1912, and used as a troop transporter of American troops to Europe during the First World War, is torpedoed off east coast of Ireland by German submarine U-55.

1936: Spanish monarchists, the conservatives of the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (Confederación Espańola de Derechas Autónomas, or C.E.D.A) and the fascists of the Falange Espańola, attempt a coup d'état against the government of the Second Spanish Republic, then under the leadership of president Manuel Azańa. The Spanish Civil War begins.

1942: Army Group B resumes its offensive towards Stalingrad. The Battle of Stalingrad begins.

1944: Munitions detonated while being loaded onto a cargo vessel bound for the Pacific Theater of Operations, at the Port Chicago Naval Magazine in Port Chicago, California, United States, killing 320 sailors and civilians and injuring 390 others. Most of the dead and injured were enlisted African-American sailors.

1953: Greek troops of the Greek Expeditionary Force (GEF) in Korea, repel a strong Chinese attack at Sugam-Ni, 176 km (110 miles) east of Seoul and 244 km (151 miles) north of Pusan.

1989: First flight of the B-2 Spirit, Stealth Bomber.

07-18-2010, 05:29 AM
390 BC: During the first Gallic invasion of Italy, the Battle of the Allia river occurs. It's fought near the Allia river between the 15,000-strong Roman army and the 30,000 Gauls under Brennus. When the Gauls attacked, the Roman flanks were routed leaving the Roman centre to be surrounded and slaughtered. The news of defeat spread panic amongst Romans who barricaded themselves on the Capitoline Hill. The rest of the city was left undefended and thus it was plundered by the Gauls and almost all Roman records were destroyed. According to the Roman historian Livy, Brennus and the Romans negotiated an end to the war and the latter agreed to pay one thousand pounds of gold. To add insult to injury, it was discovered that Brennus was using heavier weights than standard for weighing the gold. When the Romans complained, Brennus is said to have thrown his sword and belt on the scales and adding in Latin, Vć Victis (woe to the vanquished).

1656: During the Second Northern War (fought between Sweden and its adversaries the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Russia, Brandenburg-Prussia, the Habsburg monarchy and Denmark-Norway) the three-day Battle of Warsaw begins. The 19,000-strong allied army of Sweden and Brandenburg, commanded by King Charles X of Sweden and Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg defeated an allied Polish-Lithuanian army of some 36,000 men of which only about 4,000 were infantry and the remainder cavalry & dragoons, with 18 artillery pieces commanded by the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania John II Casimir. The Polish king's defeat led him to concede sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia to Brandenburg.

1944: The U.S. XIX Corps captures Saint-Lô, but has suffered 6,000 casualties since the beginning of the operation to capture the town.

1996: During the Sri Lankan Civil War, the Battle of Mullaitivu begins. It was fought between the Sri Lankan army (215th Brigade with 1,407 troops) and the 4,000-strong Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam army. It lasted until 25 July and it was a Tamil Tiger victory. The Sri Lankan military lost at least 1,200 troops. The LTTE claimed 332 of its men killed.

07-19-2010, 07:06 AM
711: The Battle of the Río Barbate, near Cadiz, Andalusia occurs. The Visigothic army under the Vigothic King of Hispania Roderic, was defeated by a North African Muslim army comprised of Arabs and Berbers commanded by the Umayyad general Tariq Ibn Ziyad. The battle was significant because it marks the beginning of the Islamic conquest of Hispania. In the battle Roderic probably lost his life. With the defeat of the regular Visigothic army and the death of their monarch, many Visigoths lost their resolve to resist the invading Muslim forces, opening the way for the capture of Visigothic capital of Toledo.
Georg Friedrich Händel's opera Rodrigo (Roderic) is dedicated to the last king of the Goths

1544: During the Italian War of of 1542–1546 (a conflict pitting Francis I of France and Suleiman I of the Ottoman Empire against the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Henry VIII of England), the Siege of Boulogne begins, during King Henry VIII of England's second invasion of France.
Battles of the Italian War of 1542-1546

1864: During the Taiping Rebellion (a Chinese Civil War pitting the Christian convert Hong Xiuquan - an ethnic Hakka Chinese - who had established the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace, with its capital at Nanjing and his followers, against the Qing Dynasty) the Battle of Nanking ends in a decisive Qing victory. It lasted for three days and probably more than a million troops engaged in the battle. The Taiping army sustained 100,000 dead and the Imperial troops, commanded by Zeng Guofan, slaughtered much of the city's population. The battle was a testing ground for the first modern Chinese firearms used in the battle.

1870: Following the public release of Ems Dispatch, an internal message of the Prussian King with alleged insults between him and the French ambassador, France mobilized, and on 19 July declared war on Prussia only, but the other German states quickly joined on Prussia's side. The Franco-Prussian War of 1870 begins.
The Ems Dispatch

1916: As a diversion to the Battle of the Somme, that was taking place about 80 kilometres (50 miles) to the south, the two-day Battle of Fromelles begins. The Australian 5th Division and the British 61st Division commenced an assault against the left and right flank respectively of the German 6th Bavarian Reserve Division. The whole operation completely failed as a diversion. 5,533 Australians were killed, wounded, or captured; 1,500 British were killed or wounded. The Australian 5th Division was effectively incapacitated for many months afterwards.

1940: The Italian Cruiser, Bartolomeo Colleoni is sunk off Cape Spada, near Crete by HMAS "Sydney" (I48/D48) during the Battle of Cape Spada, an engagement of the British fleet with the Italian fleet.
Bartolomeo Colleoni exploding during the Battle of Cape Spada. 555 survivors of Bartolomeo Colleoni were rescued; 121 died

1944: A German convoy of 13 military trucks with 200 troops is attacked by the men of the 1/9 Battalion of the 9th ELAS (Greek People's Liberation Army) Regiment, in Messenia, SW Peloponnese. German casualties accounted for 150 dead and wounded. ELAS casualties accounted for 18 dead, the Regiment's CO included (Colonel Elias Sphakianakes).

07-20-2010, 04:40 AM
70: During the Great Jewish Revolt (the first major rebellion by the Jews of the Judea Province, against the Roman Empire), Titus, son of emperor Vespasian, storms Jerusalem. The Roman army is drawn into street fights with the Zealots.
Rome: The Arch of Titus, depicting and celebrating the Roman sack of Jerusalem and the Temple

1402: Battle of Ankara: The army of the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I, while his forces lay siege to Constantinople, is attacked and defeated by the Turko-Mongolian army of Tamerlane. Because of the Timurid invasion, the siege of Constantinople was lifted and the city survived for 51 more years.
Sultan Bayezid imprisoned by Tamerlane

1866: During the Third Italian War of Independence (a conflict between the Kingdom of Italy and the Austrian Empire) the Naval Battle of Lissa occurs, near the island of Vis in today's Croatia. The Italian fleet of 12 ironclads and 17 unarmoured ships under the Piedmontese Count Carlo Pellion di Persano engaged an Austrian fleet of 7 ironclads and 11 unarmoured ships under Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff. The Italians withdrew with two armoured ships sunk. Count di Persano was dismissed from the navy for cowardice while Tegetthoff returned home a hero and is considered one of the greatest naval commanders in Austrian history.

1944: An attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler at his Rastenberg headquarters is undertaken as part of Operation Valkyrie by the German army officer and Catholic aristocrat Claus Philipp Maria Justinian Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg. The attempt failed and Stauffenberg was executed by firing squad.
Claus von Stauffenberg

1961: French military forces (800 French paratroopers) break the Tunisian siege of Bizerte (Tunisia imposed a blockade on the French naval base at Bizerte, Tunisia, hoping to force its evacuation) by launching a full-scale invasion of the town. In the three-day battle that follows, Tunisian forces suffer 630 dead and 1,555 wounded. French losses acounted for 24 dead and 100 wounded.

1974: Turkish forces (an armada of 33 ships, including troop transporters and at least 30 tanks and small landing craft) invade Cyprus five days after the coup d'état, organised by the dictators of Greece, in which President Makarios was deposed. Turkish paratroopers that land near the Greek contingent of ELDYK (Hellenic Forces of Cyprus), meet fierce resistance from the Greek forces. HNS "Lesbos" (L172), an LST, under Lt. Commander Eleutherios Chandrinos, while sailing 40 n.m. SW of Cyprus en route to Piraeus, Greece, receives news of the situation, changes route to Paphos and with her 40 mm Bofors guns, shells for two hours (15:30-17:30) the Paphos Castle (Turkish-Cypriot HQ) and the Turkish pocket of Muttalos (hosting two Turkish-Cypriot Battalions). Greece orders a general mobilization. Syria and Egypt put their militaries on alert.
LST Lesbos and her CO, Lt.Cdr. Chandrinos

2006: Ethiopian troops enter Somalia. Alongside the Somali Transitional Federal Government (TFG) forces fight against the Somali Islamist umbrella group, the Islamic Court Union (ICU), and other affiliated militias for control of the country.

07-21-2010, 04:11 AM
1403: During the Welsh Revolt (an uprising of the Welsh, led by Owain Glyndŵr, against England. It was the last major manifestation of a Welsh independence movement before the incorporation of Wales into England), the Battle of Shrewsbury occurs. A 10,000-strong Welsh Rebel army under Sir Henry Percy, nom de guerre Hotspur, is defeated by an 11,500-strong army led by the Lancastrian King, Henry IV. The King's forces sustained much greater losses than the rebels, in fact Henry IV very nearly lost both his life and his throne. Henry Percy was killed in the battle and burried at Whitchurch, Shropshire but due to circulating rumours that he was not really dead, the King had him disinterred. His body was salted, set up in Shrewsbury impaled on a spear between two millstones in the pillory in the marketplace, with an armed guard and was later quartered and put on show in the four corners of the country. His head was sent to York and impaled on the north gate, looking towards his own lands. His quarters were sent to Chester, London, Bristol and Newcastle-on-Tyne. In November his grisly remains were returned to his widow Elizabeth. She interred them in York Minster at the right hand side of the altar.

Death of Sir Henry Hotspur Percy

1568: During the Eighty Years' War, the Battle of Jemmingen (today's Jemgun in Lower Saxony, Germany) occurs. The Spanish army of 12,000 infantry (4 tercios) and 3,000 cavalry under Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba, defeated a 10,000-strong Dutch Rebel army under Louis of Nassau. The battle raged for three hours until Alba's army drove them over the bridges of the Ems river and eventually into the Ems itself. Many drowned trying to cross the river, Louis *****ped himself of his heavy armor and was able to swim across to safety. In the end the Dutch rebellion lost 7,000 men.

The victor, Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba

1774: With the signing of the Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji (today's Kaynardzha, Bulgaria), the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774 ends with an Ottoman defeat. The treaty granted Eastern Orthodox Christians the right to sail under the Russian flag, which served as the catalyst for the establishment of large naval fleets by the Greek islanders of Hydra, Spetsae and Psara that played a key role some fifty years later, in the Greek War of Independence.

A Hydrean archontissa (=noblewoman). Many prominent Hydrean shipowners were women

WWI-1918: German Unterseerboot 156 (U-156) under Kapitänleutnant Richard Feldt, sinks the tug Perth Amboy and four barges off Cape Cod, Massachussets, and opens fire on the Massachussetian town of Orleans. Four seaplanes from the Naval Air Station, Chatham, Massachussets, attack the surfaced German submarine which submerges after returning the planes' fire.

The U-156

1944: U.S. Marines land on Guam, establishing beachhead up to a mile inland. The 3rd Marine Division landed near Agana to the north of Orote at 08:28, and the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade landed near Agat to the south. The battle would end on August 10. US casualties accounted for 1,747 killed, 6,053 wounded. Japanese lost 18,040 killed. Only 485 were captured alive.






1960: The atomic powered ballistic missle submarine USS "George Washington" (SSBN-598), successfully conducted the first Polaris missile launch from a submerged submarine. At 12:39 hours George Washington's commanding officer sent President Dwight Eisenhower the message: POLARIS - FROM OUT OF THE DEEP TO TARGET. PERFECT. Less than two hours later a second missile from the submarine also struck the impact area 1,100 n. m. downrange.


1974: During the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, Operation Nike, the transport of the 300 Greek Commandos of the 1st Commando Battalion (A' MK) and its equipment from Souda, Crete, to Nicosia airport in Cyprus, takes place. On the night of 21 July, at 22:30 hours, 15 ageing Nord 2501 Noratlas, of the 354 Transport Squadron Pegasus, take off at night, with no fighter escort, fly in radio silence, at very low level, with minimum lights and no visual contact between aircraft, land in Nicosia, unload the force and take-off right away for the return to Greece. Near the Nicosia airport, they encountered heavy anti-aircraft fire, which led to the destruction of two Noratlas and the death of 33 Commandos and crew members. For a much more thorough and in detail review, please refer to OPERATION "NIKI" 1974-A Suicide mission to Cyprus-by Mihail Solanakis (http://koti.welho.com/msolanak/kyprosengl.html).

The Commandos of A' MK with their CO, Major Georgios Papameletiu in 1974

1977: The four-day Libyan-Egyptian War begins. Tension between the two countries had increased during April and May 1977 as demonstrators attacked the embassies of both countries. On 21 July, gun battles between troops on the border began, followed by land and air attacks on both sides (three Libyan Brigades clashed with three Egyptian Divisions). The mediation by president of Algeria Houari Boumedične and PLO leader Yasser Arafat, led to a ceasefire and an agreed armistice on 24 July. The outcome was a clear Egyptian victory. Libyans lost 400 dead and wounded. 60 tanks were destroyed. 20 Libyan Mirage V, 1 MiG-23MS aircraft were destroyed on the ground during an Egyptian strafing attack. Egyptian casualties accounted for 100 dead and wounded. 4 Egyptian MiG-21, 2 Sukhoi Su-20 aircraft were lost.


07-22-2010, 04:31 AM
838: During the Byzantine-Arab Wars (a series of wars between the Arab Caliphates and the East Roman or Byzantine Empire between the 7th and 12th centuries AD), the Battle of Dazimon occurs. Emperor Theophilos (or Theophilus) personally led a Byzantine army of 25,000 men against the 20,000-strong Muslim army of the Persian General of the Abbasid Caliphate, Haydar bin-Kavus Afshin, commonly known as Afshin. Afshin withstood the Byzantine attack after which he counter attacked and won the battle. The Battle of Dazimon is notable for illustrating the difficulties faced by the Byzantine military of the time against horse-archers.
Emperor Theophilos

1298: During the First War of Scottish Independence (1296–1328), the Battle of Falkirk occurs. Led by King Edward I of England, the English army of some 12,500 infantry and 2,500 cavalry, defeated the 6,000 Scots led by Sir William Wallace. After the battle Wallace resigned as Guardian of Scotland.
The Statue of William Wallace in Aberdeen, Scotland

1499: During the Swabian War of 1499 (fought between the Habsburg Holy Roman Empire and the Old Swiss Confederacy), the Battle of Dornach occurs. Some 6,000 Swiss troops, pikemen mostly, defeated the army of the Holy Roman Empire which led to the de-jure recognition by Roman Emperor Maximillian of the de-facto independence of Switzerland from the Holy Roman Empire.
1949 Commemorative Swiss coin of the 1499 battle of Dornach

1812: During the Peninsular War, the Battle of Salamanca occurs. A 52,000-strong Anglo-Hispano-Portuguese army under the Duke of Wellington, defeated the 50,000 French of Marshal Auguste Marmont. The CO of the 1st French Division, Major Gen. Maximilien Sébastien Foy, wrote in his diary for the battle that Wellington defeated an army of 40,000 men in 40 minutes.

1943: Patton’s US 7th Army captures Palermo, the capital of Sicily and surrounds 45,000 Italian troops in western Sicily.

07-23-2010, 04:07 AM
1941: Brest-Litovsk (today's Brest, Belarus) is taken by German troops after a month-long siege.

1942: OKH issues Directive No. 45 for Operation Braunschweig, the capture of the Caucasus. Army Group A (Generalfeldmarschall Wilhelm List), once having destroyed the enemy in the Rostov area, was to secure the entire eastern coastline of the Black Sea, simultaneously capturing Maikop and Grozny and the advance to Baku (Operation Edelweiss). Army Group B (Generalfeldmarschall Fedor von Bock) would continue east to seize Stalingrad and the advance down the Volga to Astrakhan. This meant that the two would advance on diverging axes and a large gap would develop between them. This was aggravated by the return of Generaloberst Hermann Hoth's 4th Panzer Army to Army Group B.

1944: Soviet Capture of Pskov; the Red Army captures the last important Russian city, Pskov, 150 miles to the SW of Leningrad on Russian-Estonian border. According to the findings of the Extraordinary State Commission for the Investigation of Nazi atrocities, 290,000 civillians died in Pskov.
The Statue of the Hero of the Soviet Union, Alexander Matrosov, in Pskov, Russia

1974: During the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, Turkish forces launch a major night assault that lasts until early in the morning of 23 July (03:30 hours) against the ELDYK (=Hellenic Forces of Cyprus) Camp. The attack is supported by 81mm and 4.2" mortars. Greek losses accounted for 11 dead, 45 wounded.
In the middle of the morning of 23 July, two Commando Coys (42nd, 43rd LOK) from the Greek 1st Commando Battalion (A' MK), are ordered to man perimeter defensive positions in and around the Nicosia International Airport. 41st LOK (Commando Coy) was held as reserve/counterattack force. They are supported by seven LMGs, one belt-fed M2 0.50 HMG and antitank teams with M67 90 mm recoilless rifles. One M40, 106 mm recoiless rifle (ELDYK) and five old Marmon Herrington (Cypriot National Guard) are at their disposal. In the Mediterranean summer heat (40°C/104°F) the Turks not knowing of the Commando deployment and presuming that the only force defending the airport was the previous deployed lightly-armed Cypriot National Guard detachment of 30-40 men plus 100-120 infantry of the ELDYK force, commenced an initial battalion level advance (ca 700 men) supported by two M-47 tanks, against the Greek positions. The Battle for the control of the Nicosia International Airport begins. The M-47s were engaged first, by the antitank teams. Using the M67 90 mm recoilless rifles, the teams disabled both Turkish tanks. The battle would last until early in the afternoon when a UN battalion of Canadian soldiers (BGen Clay Beattie) escorted by APCs, arrived, stopped the battle and took control of the airport. Greek casualties accounted for 1 dead (Master Sergeant Athanasios Photopulos) and 1 wounded (a Commando lost his right arm). Turkish losses are unknown (presumably at least 12 killed).
Cyprus conflict: Turkish infantry advance

1983: The Sri Lankan Civil War begins with the killing of 13 Sri Lanka Army soldiers by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. In the subsequent government-organised pogrom of Black July, about 1,000 Tamils are slaughtered, some 400,000 Tamils flee to neighbouring Tamil Nadu, India and many find refuge in Europe and Canada. The Civil War would last until May 18, 2009, and claim the lives of 80,000 - 100,000 Sri Lankans overall.

07-24-2010, 05:08 AM
1148: During the Second Crusade, the Siege of Damascus begins. 50,000 Crusaders from the Holy Roman Empire, France, Flanders, as well as Templar and Hospitaller Knights, laid siege to Damascus for four days. Nur ad-Din Zangi arrived with Muslim reinforcements on 27 July, and the Crusaders had no choice but to abandon the city.

1943: Operation Gomorrah takes place when 746 RAF bombers drop 2,300 tons of incendiary bombs on Hamburg in 48 minutes, during which only 12 aircraft are lost. This tonnage is as much as Germans dropped in the five heaviest raids on London. Fires are visible for 200 miles. More than 30,000 people are killed. This is the first operational use of Window, (radar-jamming foil *****s dropped by aircraft).

07-25-2010, 04:25 AM
1139: During the Reconquista, the Battle of Ourique occurs. The forces of Portuguese Prince Afonso Henriques defeated the Almoravid Muslim army led by Ali ibn-Yusuf, near Ourique (Baixo Alentejo Province, southern Portugal). Immediately after the battle, King Afonso I of Portugal called for the first assembly, consisting of representatives from all of Portugal's provinces, at Lamego, where he was given the Crown from the Bishop of Braga, to confirm the Portuguese independence from the Kingdom of León and Castille.
Pope Alexander III, sends the royal crown to Dom Afonso Henriques, the first King of Portugal

1261: Byzantine forces under Alexios Strategopulos, recapture Constantinople which for the last 57 years (since its capture by the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade in 1204) had been the seat of the Latin Empire of Imperium Romanić. On August 15, the day of the Dormition of the Mother of God for the Orthodox Christians, Emperor Michael VIII Palćologus, entered the city in triumph and was crowned at the Hagia Sophia.
The "national anthem" of the Byzantine Empire. It's a hymn dedicated to the City's Champion General, Mary, the Mother of God: To thee, the Champion General, we thy City exclaim victory hymns and thanksgiving as ones rescued out of sufferings, O Theotokos (=Mother of God); Having kept the state unassailed, free us also from every peril, that we may cry unto thee: Rejoice, thou Bride Unwedded. The hymn was probably composed in 626 AD by Patriarch Sergius on the occasion of the Byzantine victory over the Avars who laid siege to Constantinople while Emperor Heraclius and the bulk of the army were on campaign against Sassanid Persia

1814: During the Anglo-American War, the Battle of Lundy's Lane, in present-day Niagara Falls, Ontario, occurs. A British army of 3,500 men with 8 guns, under Lieutenant General Sir Gordon Drummond, was attacked by the 2,500-strong US army (6 guns), under Major General Jacob Brown. It was one of the bloodiest battles of the war, and one of the deadliest battles ever fought on Canadian soil. There is some dispute about the actual outcome of the battle. Some historians say that the Americans retreated, based upon General Drummond's report that the British ultimately held the field. Others state that the British retreated during the night but recaptured the position in the morning after the Americans retreated because of exhaustion and lack of supplies. Both views may be regarded as correct.
Lundy's Lane is mentioned in the second verse of the unofficial Canadian patriotic anthem, "The Maple Leaf Forever":
At Queenston Heights and Lundy's Lane our brave fathers, side by side
for freedom, homes, and loved ones dear, firmly stood and nobly died.
And those dear rights which they maintained, we swear to yield them never.
Our watchword evermore shall be, the Maple Leaf forever!

1943: Benito Mussolini is arrested by order of the Italian King. Marshal Badoglio, a First World War hero becomes Prime Minister, introduces martial law and incorporates the Fascist militia into the ordinary armed forces, thus ending the Fascist regime in Italy. Hitler orders German divisions rushed South in to Italy to disarm their former allies. Allied forces begin to face stiff resistance as they approach Messina.
Marshal Pietro Badoglio

1944: The US VII Corps launches Operation Cobra in an attempt to breakout from the southern end of the Cherbourg peninsula, near St. Lô. The II Canadian Corps launches Operation Spring, an offensive operation South of Caen. One of the bloodiest days for the Canadian Army during WWII: 1,500 casualties, including 450 killed.

1944: Narva, the third largest city in Estonia, is evacuated by the Germans, who take up position along the Tannenberg position to the West. Soviet forces cut the road between Dvinsk and Riga in Latvia. The Soviet Second Tank Army reaches the Vistula, 40 miles West of Lublin, Poland. Lviv, in Western Ukraine is surrounded and Soviet forces converge on Brest-Litovsk.

07-26-2010, 04:44 AM
811: During the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars, the Battle of Pliska occurs. Following the sack of the Bulgarian capital, Pliska, that took place three days earlier, a 60-80,000-strong Byzantine army under the Emperor Nikephoros (or Nicephorus) I, entered the Varbica Pass, the shortest way for their return to Constantinople. Bulgarian Khan, Krum, mobilised his people (including the women) to set traps and ambushes in the mountain passes and at dawn of 26 July, they rushed down and started to kill the panicked and totally confused Byzantines. The Byzantines fruitlessly resisted for a short time and perished. Emperor Nicephorus was killed in the battle. According to legend, Krum had the Emperor's skull lined with silver and used it as a drinking cup.
The statue of Khan Krum in Plovdiv, Bulgaria

1469: During the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of Edgecote Moor, occurs. The battle pitted the forces of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, against those of King Edward IV. Its outcome was a clear Lancastrian victory and is considered to be an important turning point in the course of the war.
King Edward IV of England

07-26-2010, 05:34 AM
Well, i guess others can contribute to this too?

26.th of July last major offensive by USSR in Continuation war, Battle of Ilomantsi, starts. It is started by two divisions (176th & 289th). Their plan was to take control the road that crosses at Ilomantsi and then advance to the flank of Finnish VI AK (troops of 4th, 8th and 4th division) that had already stopped Soviet offensive.

The Finns had three units, exhausted 21th brigade, Cavalry Brigade and Osasto Partinen that consisted of two battalions. These units were led by Jäger Major General Erkki Raappana who had already been granted Mannerheim Cross.

His units first encircled these two divisions in two motti's and then split these to smaller motti's. Three Naval Rifle brigades (69th 70th 3th), one armored brigade and one pioneer brigade came to the aid for the two divisions, but their attacks were repelled.

The battle ended in 13th of October when remnants of the two divisions broke trough and fled to the east.

Finnish troops captured over 100 artillery pieces and around 100 mortars after the battle.

07-27-2010, 04:23 AM
1214: Battle of Bouvines: A conclusive medieval battle, important to the early development of the French state by confirming the French crown's sovereignty over the Norman lands of Brittany and Normandy. A 15,000-strong French army of Philip II Augustus, King of France, defeated a 25,000-strong allied army of Otto IV of Germany and count Ferrand of Flanders so decisively, that Otto was deposed and replaced by Frederick II Hohenstaufen. Ferrand was captured and imprisoned.
Additionally, the defeat led to their ally, John, King of England being forced to sign Magna Carta by his discontented barons.
The coronation of Philip II Augustus as King of France, in the presence of Henry II of England

1302: During the Byzantine-Ottoman Wars, the Battle of Bapheus (outside Nicomedia, today's İzmit) occurs. A Byzantine force of some 2,000 men, half of whom were recently hired Alan mercenaries, under Georgios Mouzalon, met an Ottoman Turkish army of some 5,000 light cavalry under Osman I, himself. The battle ended in a crucial Ottoman victory, cementing the young Ottoman state and heralding the final capture of Byzantine Bithynia by the Turks.
Osman or Othman, the leader of the Ottoman Turks, and the founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire

1689: During the Glorious Revolution (the overthrow of King James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians with an invading army led by the Dutch stadtholder William of Orange who, as a result, ascended the English throne as William III of England together with his wife Mary II of England) the Battle of Killiecrankie occurs. It's fought between Highlander clans and Irish, supporting King James VII of Scotland (also known as James II of England) and Highlander and Lowlander troops supporting King William of Orange. Although it was a stunning victory for the Jacobites, it had little overall effect on the outcome of the war and left their leader (John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount Dundee) dead.
King William III of England

1720: During the Great Northern War, the Naval Battle of Grengam occurs. It's fought in the Ĺland Islands, between Sweden and Finland. A group of Swedish ships under Vice Admiral Carl Georg Siöblad attacked the Russian fleet under General Admiral Mikhail Mikhaylovich Golitsyn and, in a pitched battle, had their four frigates, the 34-gun frigate Stor Phoenix, the 30-gun Vainqueur, the 22-gun Kiskin and the 18-gun Danska Örn, captured by Russian sailors.
The victor, Prince Mikhail Mikhaylovich Golitsyn

1880: During the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the Battle of Maiwand occurs. The battle ended in defeat for the British Army (Brigadier General George Burrows) and victory for the Afghan followers of Ayub Khan. The Afghan victory at Maiwand was at a cost of anywhere between 2,050 to 2,750 Afghan warriors killed and probably about 1,500 wounded. On the other side, about 969 British/Indian soldiers were killed and 177 more wounded, this represented approximately 75% of their combat force. The Battle of Maiwand was one of the few occasions in the 19th century where an Asian army defeated a Western power. Following his victory at Maiwand, Ayub Kahn was able contain the British in Kandahar until he was decisively defeated outside the city on September 1.
E Battery, Royal Horse Artillery, escaping from the overwhelming Afghan attack at the Battle of Maiwand

1953: The United States, North Korea and China sign an armistice, which ends the Korean War but fails to bring about a permanent peace. To date, the Republic of Korea (South) and Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (North) have not signed a peace treaty. A total of 629,000 on both sides died in battle, or from battle-related injuries, during the Korean War.

07-28-2010, 04:16 AM
1364: The Battle of Cŕscina: An engagement between the Pisan troops who had the help of the 3,000 cuirassiers of the English mercenary Sir John Hawkwood (or according to the Italian chronicles, Giovanni Acuto) against the 11,000 infantry and 4,000 knights of the Florentine army under Galeotto Malatesta. The outcome was a clear Florentine victory thanks to their good flexibility and effective tactical deployment. The victory led to the death of a thousand Pisan soldiers and the capture of another 2,000 fighters.
Michelanglo was commissioned a celebrative painting but he unfortunately never executed it. His student, Aristotele da Sangallo made a black and white painting, based on Michelangelo's cartoon

1809: During the Peninsular War, the two-day Battle of Talavera ends. A 21,000-strong Anglo-Portuguese army under Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, combined with a 35,000-strong Spanish army under Gregorio García de la Cuesta y Fernández de Celis, fought a 46,000-strong French army led nominally by Napoleon's elder brother and King of Spain, Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte (his military advisor, Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan exercised command). The French suffered most in this hard-fought battle, losing 7,400 killed or wounded. Equivalent Spanish casualties were about 1,200 and British 5,500. After this battle Wellesley was created Viscount Wellington of Talavera.
The Duke of Wellington

1821: José de San Martín declares the independence of Peru from Spain and is voted the Protector of the newly independent nation.

1914: Emperor Franz-Joseph of Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.

07-29-2010, 05:21 AM
1014: During the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars, the Battle of Kleidion (or Clidium) occurs. A Byzantine force led by Emperor Basil II, while desperate after the heavy casualties they suffered in the futile attempts to assault the Bulgarian thick wooden wall, built to prevent further enemy invasions, General Nikephoros (or Nicephorus) Xiphias and his troops, managed to find a path which led them into the Bulgarians' rear. As a result the Byzantines infiltrated and attacked the rear of the 20,000-strong Bulgarian army, achieving a major victory. Bulgarian Tsar Samuel himself barely escaped, only breaking free through the bravery of his son Gabriel-Radomir, who mounted his father on his own horse and took him to safety in Prilep. Byzantine historian Ioannes Skylitzes records that Basil completely routed the Bulgarian army and, according to John Skylitzes's account of the battle, took 15,000 prisoners. Basil divided the prisoners into groups of 100 men, blinded 99 men in each group and left one man in each with one eye so that he could lead the others home; this was done in retaliation for the death of Basil's friend and General, Theophylaktos (or Theophylactus) Botaniates, who was killed by Samuel's son and heir to the Bulgarian throne Gabriel-Radomir. For this action, Basil gained the nickname Bulgaroktonos (Greek: Βουλγαροκτόνος), "the Bulgar-slayer". Samuel could not bear the sight of his mutilated soldiers. He died of a heart attack on 6 October, 1014.
Emperor Basil II, the Bulgar-slayer

A 14th c. Byzantine m****cript depicting the Battle of Kleidion (upper half) and the death of Tsar Samuel before his mutilated soldiers (lower half)

1030: During the Norwegian Succession Wars (fought between the King and his allies, against rival nobles) the Battle of Stiklestad (in sagas, Stiklarstađir) occurs. According to sagas, King Olaf II Haraldsson crossed with his army, the country of Sweden, and arrived at Stiklestad (80 km/50 miles N of Trondheim) in Norway. At Stiklestad, Olaf met an army led by Hĺrek from Tjřtta consisted of more than 7,000 men. According to the Icelandic historian, Snorri Sturluson, the battle cry of Olaf's men was Fram! Fram! Kristmenn, Krossmenn, Kongsmenn (=Forward, forward, Christ's men, Cross men, King's men), while that of the opposing army was Fram! Fram! Bonder (=Forward, forward, farmers). In the battle, Olaf was killed. He is the Perpetuus Rex Normanni, the Eternal King of Norwegians.
Olaf is venerated as a saint - Olav den Hellige - and he is the patron saint of Norway

1693: During the Nine Years' War (fought between King Louis XIV of France, and a European-wide coalition, the Grand Alliance, led by the Anglo-Dutch Stadtholder-King William III, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, King Charles II of Spain, Victor Amadeus II of Savoy, and the major and minor princes of the Holy Roman Empire) the Battle of Neerwinden occurs. An 80,000-strong French army under Marshal, François Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, duc de Piney, called de Luxembourg, assaulted the 50,000-strong allied army (English-Scottish-Dutch) under King William III of England.
Although it was a French victory, the battle was quite costly for both sides, the French losing 9,000 men to the Allies' 19,000, and the French failed to follow up on their victory, allowing William to escape.
Marshal Luxembourg

1967: Off the coast of North Vietnam, the USS "Forrestal" (CV-59) catches on a devastating fire, caused by an unusual electrical anomaly, that killed 134 sailors and injured 161. It was the worst U.S. naval disaster since World War II.

07-30-2010, 03:31 AM
1945: Japanese submarine I-58 sinks the USS "Indianapolis" (CA-35). The ship had delivered critical parts for the first atomic bomb at a US air base at Tinian on July 26th and was cruising the Philippine Sea when she was attacked by the submarine. Of 1,196 crew aboard, approximately 300 went down with the ship. The remaining crew of 880 faced exposure, dehydration and shark attacks as they waited for assistance while floating with few lifeboats and almost no food or water. The Navy learned of the sinking when survivors were spotted four days later by the crew of a PV-1 Ventura on routine patrol. Only 317 sailors survived.
The USS Indianapolis memorial in Indianapolis, IN

2006: During the Lebanon War, the Qana airstrike occurs. It was an attack by the Israeli Air Force (IAF) on a three-storey building near the South Lebanese village of Qana. 28 civilians were killed, of which 16 were children. According to the Israel Defense Forces, the bombing was an attempt to stop Katyusha rockets being fired by Hezbollah into northern Israel from the village over a two-week period. Israel halted air strikes for 48 hours following the attack, amid condemnations by the UN General Secretary Kofi Annan, several countries and non-governmental organizations.

07-31-2010, 04:22 AM
30 BC: During the last War of the Roman Republic (fought between the forces of Cleopatra and Mark Antony against Octavian's. With Octavian's victory, the Roman Republic becomes Imperium (=Empire), annexes Egypt and is united under Octavian's rule. Octavian becomes Augustus), the Battle of Alexandria occurs. A 12,000-strong Roman and Egyptian army under Mark Antony managed to resist Octavian's assault (30,000 men) and narrowly win the battle.
Marcus Antonius

904: Leo Tripolites, a Muslim convert and renegade, leads an Arab fleet of 54 ships and sacks Thessalonica, the second most important city in the Byzantine Empire. According to the Orthodox cleric and Thessalonian Ioannes Cameniates, a witness of the event, Leo made himself master of Thessalonica and took the general in charge of the imperial garrison, Niketas and the imperial governor, Chatzilacius, prisoners. 22,000 (other sources claim 30,000) Thessalonians died, or captured alive and sold as slaves. 1,200 Thessalonians (amongst them Cameniates, Niketas and Chatzilacius) were bought by the Byzantines back and they were eventually freed, in Tarsus, Cilicia.

1423: During the Hundred Years' War, the Battle of Cravant occurs. A 4,000-strong combined Anglo-Burgundian army under Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury, defeated a combined Franco-Scottish force numbering some 8,000 men, led by Charles VII, the Dauphin of France and John Stewart, Earl of Buchan. The success at Cravant began the peak of English arms in the Hundred Years' War.

1944: The British VIII Corps begins Operation Bluecoat, an assault towards the river Vire. XXX Corps (7th Armoured, 43rd and 50th Divisions) objectives were Villers-Bocage, Aunay-sur-Odon and finally Mont Pincon. The British pushed the front line back by 13 km (8 miles). The U.S. 4th Armoured Division captures Avranches, having advanced 56 km (35 miles) and taken 20,000 prisoners since the 25th July.

1972: Operation Motorman, a large operation is carried out by the British Army in Northern Ireland in order to retake the "no-go areas" (areas controlled by Irish republican paramilitaries) that had been established in Belfast and Derry. Thousands of British troops, supported by tanks and armoured cars, swept into the area and began dismantling the barricades with bulldozers. The IRA offered no resistance in the face of this overwhelming force, having been warned by the build up of military equipment and personnel that a major operation was being planned.
Two people, 15 year old Daniel Hegarty and IRA Volunteer Seamus Bradley were shot dead by British troops during the operation.

2007: Operation Banner, the British Army's emergency operation in Northern Ireland after 38 years, and the longest-running British Army operation ever, comes to an end.

08-01-2010, 04:32 AM
1664: During the Ottoman Wars in Europe, the Battle of Saint Gotthard occurs. It's fought between a 30-40,000-strong Habsburg army led by Raimondo, Count of Montecúccoli, Jean de Coligny-Saligny, Margrave Leopold Wilhelm of Baden-Baden, the Dutch Prince Georg Friedrich of Waldeck and Wolfgang Julius von Hohenlohe-Neuenstein and an Ottoman army of some 60-90,000 men under Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha. The Ottomans were defeated, losing ca 22,000 men, but were able to negotiate the Peace of Vasvár, which was highly favorable to them.

1798: During the French Revolutionary Wars, the two-day Naval Battle of Aboukir Bay begins. A French fleet of 13 ships of the line, under Vice-Admiral François-Paul Brueys d'Aigalliers, Comte de Brueys, is defeated by a British fleet of some 13 ships, under Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté. French lost two ships, suffered 6,000 sailors killed or wounded and 3,300 captured. French Admiral Brueys was also killed. British casualties accounted for 218 killed, 677 wounded. Nelson suffered a head wound 8 cm/3" long with the cranium exposed for 2.5 cm/1". He suffered pain from the injury for the rest of his life and was badly scarred.

1894: The First Sino-Japanese War begins, fought from 1 August 1894 – 17 April 1895 between the Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan, primarily over control of Korea. The war ends in a Japanese victory and a significant loss of prestige for the Qing Dynasty. Korea becomes independent from China. China loses the influence of the Korean Peninsula to the Empire of Japan. Qing Dynasty China cedes Taiwan, Penghu, and the Liaodong Peninsula to the Empire of Japan.

1927: The Nanchang Uprising, the first major Kuomintang-Communist engagement of the Chinese Civil War occurs. August 1st is commemorated as the anniversary of the founding of the People's Liberation Army.

1944: The Warsaw Uprising, a struggle by the 38,000-strong Polish resistance to liberate Warsaw from Nazi German occupation during World War II, begins. They receive no support from Soviet forces who are already on the eastern bank of the Vistula opposite the city. The uprising will end on 2nd October with the city almost totally destroyed. General Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski signed the capitulation of the remaining Polish forces (Warszawski Korpus Armii Krajowej or Home Army Warsaw Corps) in the German headquarters in the presence of general von dem Bach, on 3 October. According to the capitulation treaty, the Home Army soldiers were to be treated in accordance with the Geneva Convention and the civilian population was to be treated humanely. The next day the Germans began to disarm the Home Army soldiers. Most of them were later sent to POW camps in various parts of Germany. At the same time the civilian population (approximately 700,000) was resettled to concentration camps west of Warsaw.
General Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, CO of the Polish Home Army

08-02-2010, 04:17 AM
338 BC: Battle of Chćronea: The liberty of the old Greek city-states was blasted at Chćronea, Bœotia by the victory of Philip II of Macedon. Over one thousand Athenians fell, and 2,000 were made prisoners. A great number of Bœotians perished also, and many more were captured by the Macedonians. This battle implied the passing of the Greek system of city-states and the formation of Kœnon (=meaning common, commonwealth and interpreted as military monarchy), the large associations of cities. Macedonian hegemony in Greece and the Aegean islands is secured.
In the battle, the Theban elite unit (Sacred Band) was surrounded by Alexander's 2,200 cavalry. From the 300 Thebans of the Sacred Band, 254 were killed. The Lion of Chćronea was built by the Thebans to honour their Sacred Band's dead. A few years back, archaeological excavations brought to the light the remains of 254 men, burried in seven layers

216 BC: During the Second Punic War (the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic lasted from 218-201 BC), the Battle of Cannć occurs. The 56,000-strong army of Carthage under Hannibal, decisively defeated a numerically superior army of the Roman Republic (86,000) commanded by the consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro. It is regarded as one of the greatest tactical feats in military history to this day and, in terms of the numbers killed (according to Livy: 45,500 Romans and allied infantry, 2,700 Roman and allied cavalry), the second greatest defeat of Rome (second only to the Battle of Arausio, in 105 BC where Rome lost to the Cimri and the Teutoni 80,000 troops, as well as another 40,000 auxiliary troops).
Hannibal Barca is one of the greatest military masterminds in history. His most famous campaign took place during the Second Punic War when he caught the Romans off guard by crossing the Alps

1943: Rebellion in the Nazi death camp of Treblinka II, Poland. The prisoners in the work details rebelled. They seized small arms, sprayed kerosene on all the buildings and set them ablaze. In the confusion, a number of guards were killed but many more prisoners perished. Of 1,500 prisoners, about 600 managed to escape the camp, but only 40 are known to have survived until the end of the war.

1943: The Japanese destroyer "Amagiri" (DD-45) sinks Motor Torpedo Boat USS PT-109 in the Solomon islands, which is commanded by Lieutenant John F. Kennedy.

1944: As part of the Soviet 1st Belorussian Front, the First Polish Army (Pierwsza Armia Wojska Polskiego) gains a Vistula bridgehead, 40 miles to the south of Warsaw.

1964: The Gulf of Tonkin Incident occurs: North Vietnamese gunboats allegedly fire against the U.S. destroyers, USS "Maddox" (DD-731) and the USS "Turner Joy" (DD-951).

1990: Iraq invades Kuwait, eventually leading to conflict with coalition forces in Operation Desert Storm.

08-03-2010, 04:14 AM
881: During the Norman Invasion of France, the Battle of Saucourt-en-Vimeu (near Abbeville, Picardy), occurs. A Carolingian French army under Kings Louis III and Carloman II of Western France (they were elected jointly kings of the Franks in 879) defeated the Danish forces of pagan Viking warriors. Viking casualties were enormous; ca 8,000 men perished. The battle is immortalised in the old poem Ludwigslied (=Song of Ludwig), written in the West Franconian dialect which is assumed to have been the language of the Carolingian court.

1645: During the Thirty Years' Wars, the Battle of Nördlingen occurs. A Franco-German army of ca 12,000 men led by Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, defeated the 12,000-strong Imperial-Bavarian army led by Franz Freiherr von Mercy and Count Johann von Werth. The Franco-German losses were 5,000 killed, wounded, and captured. The Bavarian-Imperial army suffered similar losses.

WWI-1914: Germany declares War on France.

WWI-1916: During the First Suez Offensive (an Ottoman offensive aimed at the control or destruction of the Suez Canal, thereby denying the use of the waterway to the Allies and in doing so aiding the Central Powers) the two-day Battle of Romani begins. An 18,000-strong Ottoman army, under the command of Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein, attacked the British Empire defences (10,000 troops under General Sir Archibald James Murray) at Romani, Egypt. At the time of the Battle of Romani, Allied available forces comprised two British infantry divisions (the 42nd Division and the 52nd Lowland Division) and the Anzac Mounted Division, under General H.G. Chauvel, containing the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Light Horse Brigades, the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade and the 5th Mounted Brigade (British Yeomanry). By the time the Turks retreated, their casualties were 1250 dead and an estimated 4000 wounded. The British had taken 3950 Turkish prisoners. Total British casualties were 1130 of which 202 were killed.

1958: Operation Sunshine, the nuclear submarine USS "Nautilus" (SSN-571) travels beneath the Arctic ice cap.

08-04-2010, 04:21 AM
1265: During the Second Barons' War (a civil war in England between the forces of a number of barons led by Simon de Montfort, against the Royalist forces led by Prince Edward) the Battle of Evesham occurs. It's fought between a 5,000-strong Baronial army under Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester and Sir Peter de Montfort, and a Royal army of some 10,000 men under Prince Edward (the future King Edward I of England), nom de guerre Longshanks and Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford and 7th Earl of Gloucester, nom de guerre Red. In the battle, Monfort's army was surrounded and both Monforts died fighting. Simon de Montfort's dead body was mutilated; his head, hands, feet and ********s cut off.
Simon de Monfort's death and mutilation

1578: During the Moroccan-Portuguese War of 1415-1580, the Battle of Alcazar occurs. A 23,000-strong Portuguese army led by the King of Portugal Sebastiăo I, with hundreds of volunteers from Castile and Italy, mercenaries from Flanders and Germany and 3-4,000 Moorish allies of the legitimate Sultan of Morocco, Abu Abdallah Mohammed II, was defeated at Ksar El Kebir, between Tangier and Fez, by a Muslim army of 25,000 Moroccans under Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik I (uncle of the Sultan and contestant to the throne) and the 15,000 Ottoman Janissaries of the Ottoman Governor of Algiers, Ramazan Pasha. Both Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik I and Abu Abdallah Mohammed II died in the battle. Sebastiăo was also killed. This initiates a succession crisis in Portugal because the 24-year old king was unmarried and had sired no heir.
Dom Sebastiăo of Portugal

1704: During the War of the Spanish Succession, Gibraltar is captured by a joint Anglo-Dutch force under Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Rooke.

WWI-1914: Germany declares war on neutral Belgium and invades in a right flanking move designed to defeat France quickly. This violates a treaty signed by Prussia respecting the neutrality of Belgium, whose territories were bound to maintain inviolate. As a result of this invasion, Britain and its Empire declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary. Australia, Canada and New Zealand follow suit and join the war. U.S President Woodrow Wilson declares policy of American neutrality.

1940: The Italians begin their invasion of British Somaliland. Using some 25,000 troops, they push the small British garrison back towards the port of Berbera.

1995: Operation Storm, a large-scale military operation carried out by Croatian Armed Forces, to gain control of parts of Croatia which had been claimed by separatist ethnic Serbs, begins. Three Croatian generals, Ante Gotovina, Ivan Cermak and Mladen Markac, alleged to have been involved in the planning and execution of Operation Storm, were indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and are on trial in the Hague on charges of operating a joint criminal enterprise for the purpose of permanently removing the Serb population from the Krajina by force and of crimes against humanity.

08-05-2010, 05:09 AM
910: The Battle of Tettenhall occurs. The allied forces of Mercia and Wessex, led by the King of the Anglo-Saxons (=Anglorum Saxonum Rex) Edward the Elder and Ealdorman Ćthelred, defeat the last major Viking army sent by the Danes to raid England.

1305: Sir William Wallace who led Scottish resistance to England, is captured by the English with the help of Sir John de Menteith, a Scottish nobleman loyal to the English king.
The trial of Wallace at Westminster

1388: During the Anglo-Scottish Wars, the Battle of Otterburn occurs. It's fought between a 3,000-strong Scottish army under Sir James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Douglas and Mar and a 3,000-strong English army under Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland. It was a decisive Scottish victory. English casualties numbered around 1,500 dead, wounded or captured. Based on the events of the Battle of Otterburn, is the third Ballad of Chevy Chase (The Battle of Otterburn) a 14th c. poem (printed about 1540).

1716: During the Ottoman-Habsburg War of 1716-1718, the Battle of Petrovaradin, near Novi Sad, in Serbia, occurs. A 83,300-strong Habsburg army (including Austrians, Hungarians and Croatians) led by Prince Eugene of Savoy, defeated a 120-150,000-strong Ottoman Turkish army under the Silahdar Damat Ali Pasha, the Grand Vizier himself. Barely 50,000 Ottomans returned to Belgrade. The Grand Vizier was also killed. A church commemorating this event was built on Tekije, on the hill over battlefield, and is dedicated to Our Lady of Tekije, also known as Snowy Mary. The church is special, because it has both Catholic and Orthodox altars. The site is place of pilgrimage on every 5 August.

1870: During the Franco-Prussian War, the Battle of Spicheren occurs. France lost the battle; the quality of its military commanders and their lack of initiative mainly to blame. Prussian casualties were relatively high due to lack of planning and the effectiveness of the French Chassepot rifle.

WWI-1914: The German minelayer SS "Königin Luise" lay a minefield about 40 miles of the Thames Estuary (Lowestoft). She is attacked and sunk by the HMS "Amphion". 46 of the 100 crew were rescued by the British ships. Königin Luise was the first German Naval loss of the war.
The Königin Luise

1941: German troops capture Smolensk and take 310,000 Red Army prisoners as the remnants of 16th and 20th Armies surrender.

1963: The US, UK and USSR sign the Treaty banning Nuclear Weapon Tests In The Atmosphere, In Outer Space And Under Water. It was signed by the governments of the Soviet Union (represented by Andrei Gromyko), the United Kingdom (represented by Sir Alec Douglas-Home) and the United States (represented by Dean Rusk), named the Original Parties, at Moscow on August 5, 1963 and opened for signature by other countries.

08-06-2010, 04:12 AM
1284: During the Genoese-Pisan War, the Naval Battle of Meloria occurs. A Genoese fleet of 98 war galleys led by the genoese admiral Oberto D'Oria, defeated a 74-strong Pisan fleet under Podestŕ (=Chief Magistrate) Alberto Morosini. The Pisan fleet was nearly annihilated, ca 10,000 sailors either perished or captured and Podestŕ Morosini was captured alive.
The flag with the Cross of San Zorzo (=St George) of the Repúbrica de Zęna (=Republic of Genoa)

1824: During the Greek War for Independence, the Naval Battle of Mycale, in the Mycale straits, between the island of Samos and the W coast of Turkey, occurs. A 100-strong Turkish fleet under Hosref Pasha, was defeated by a Greek fleet of 40 warships under Admiral Georgios Sakhtures. A Turkish Frigate and a Tunesian Brig were sunk with all hands on board. Greeks suffered two killed (the Hydreans Ioannes Mavroiannes and Georgios Tsambrales). The losses of the Ottomans were 700 killed, drowned or captured.
The personal banner of the Hydrean Admiral Georgios Sakhtures. The inscription reads Liberty or Death

1870: During the Franco-Prussian War, the Battle of Wörth occurs. Troops from Prussia, Baden, Bavaria and Württemberg (75,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry with 300 arty pieces) commanded by Crown Prince Friedrich and directed by his Chief of Staff, General Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal, defeated the French (32,000 infantry, 4,850 cavalry with 100 arty pieces) under Marshal Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de Mac-Mahon, 1st Duke of Magenta. The losses of the Germans were 9,270 killed and wounded and 1,370 missing. French losses accounted for 8,000 killed and wounded, 12,000 missing and captured. Thirteen French regiments in all lost over 50% of their strength.

WWI-1914: Serbia declares war on Germany. Austria declares war on Russia.

WWI-1915: As part of the Battle of Gallipoli, the Allies mount a diversionary attack, the Battle of Sari Bair. The main operation started on 6 August with the landing of five fresh divisions (10th Irish, 11th, 13th, 53rd Welsh, 54th East Anglian) under General Sir Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton.

WWI-1917: As part of the Romanian campaign, the Battle of Mărăşeşti occurs. The German Field Marshal Anton Ludwig August von Mackensen, launched an all-out attack against the 220,000 Romanians at Mărăşeşti. The fighting lasted until 8 September, when both sides ran out of fresh units. Romania lost ca 27,000 men, including 610 officers, while Germany lost over 47,000.
The Mausoleum of Mărăşeşti. It contains the remains of 5,073 Romanian soldiers and officers killed in the First World War

1921: During the Greek Minor Asia Campaign, the Greek A' and C' Army Corps, cross Sakarya river and begin their march through the salty desert - the 1,600 sq km/618 sq mile Lake Tuz (=Salt Lake) dries up during summer and exposes an average of 30 cm/12" thick salt layer - for Ankara. The troops suffer from the blazing heat and the lack of water.
Greek troops crossing the salty desert

1944: The U.S. XX Corps enters Laval and continues south-east. The U.S. 4th Armoured Division advances to Vannes and Lorient, while the U.S. 6th Armoured Division, on their right flank, is headed for the westernmost point of the Brittany Peninsula and the ports of Brest. North of them, 8th U.S. Infantry Division is passing along the northern coastline of the peninsula.
Supplies for Brest. Trucks leaving LST near Morlaix for Brest

1945: U.S. B-29 Enola Gay drops a 3-metre/10-foot long atomic bomb Little Boy on Hiroshima, Japan, killing an estimated 140,000 people in the first use of a nuclear weapon in warfare and wiping out 10 sq km/3.8 sq miles.

1964: Following the Cypriot government's allegations that the Kokkina-Mansoura area in Tellyria on the NW Cypriot coast was the landing spot for arms and other supplies from Turkey and that it was a center for carrying out a plan to spread and intensify the Turkish-Cypriot rebellion in Cyprus (sic), President Makarios orders the National Guard to begin operations against the Turkish-Cypriots of Tellyria.
The Commandos of the 31st Commando Battalion of the Cypriot National Guard with a captured Turkish flag during the operations in Tellyria

08-07-2010, 06:01 AM
322 BC: During the Lamian War (fought between Athens and its allies against the Macedonians), the Battle of Crannon occurs. The Athenian and allied forces were finally defeated by General Antipater's 40,000 infantry, 3,000 slingers and archers, 5,000 cavalry. Although the allied forces were not routed, and suffered just 500 dead, the outcome was decisive enough to compel the Athenians and her allies to sue for peace on Antipater’s terms. The Athenians were made to dissolve their government and establish a plutocratic system in its stead, whereby only those possessing 2,000 drachmas or more could remain citizens. This was done in the belief that the poorer elements of the society had compelled the war in the first place. Demosthenes was forced to commit suicide by Antipater for his role in supporting the war against the Macedonians and his Philippic orations (Demosthenes' declamations full of bitter and accusatory invective against Philip II of Macedon).
Death of Demosthenes

1714: During the Great Northern War, the Naval Battle of Gangut occurs between the 99-strong Imperial Russian fleet commanded by Count Fyodor Matveyevich Apraksin and the Swedish small naval detachment consisting of 11 ships led by Schoutbynacht (equivalent of a Rear Admiral) Nils Ehrenskiöld sent to intercept the Russians. Gangut was the first important victory of the Russian fleet in its history. The victory is even nowadays celebrated by the Russian Navy, which has a long tradition of always having one vessel named Gangut.
The victor, Count Apraksin

1819: During the Venezuelan War of Independence, the Battle of Boyacá occurs. It's fought between the 3,400-strong Revolutionary army (including the British volunteers of the British Legion) under Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios, commonly known as Simón Bolívar and the 3,000-strong army of Spanish Royalists under Spanish Colonels José María Barreiro and Francisco Jiménez. The battle lasted for just two hours and it was a triumph for the revolutionists. Bolívar credited the victory to the British Legion declaring that those soldier liberators are the men who deserve these laurels.

1933: The first of many massacres committed by the Iraqi government during the systematic targeting of Assyrians of Northern Iraq, takes place. Over 3,000 Assyrians are slaughtered in the village of Simele. The day becomes known as Assyrian Martyrs Day.

1941: Stalin appoints himself Generalissimo of the Red Army.

1942: The Battle of Guadalcanal begins – United States Marines initiate the first American offensive of the war with landings on Guadalcanal and Tulagi in the Solomon Islands.

1944: The German 2. - 116. - 1. SS and 2. SS Panzer divisions, with 145 tanks to the East of Mortain launch Operation Lüttich, to counter-attack against the U.S. 3rd Army’s sweep to the South. The Germans move against Avranches and achieve some success at Mortain. Assisted by RAF Typhoons, the Americans are able to stop the Germans by the afternoon. U.S. XV Corps is turned north to meet the Canadians in Falaise.
German Armoured Column destroyed at Mortain, during Operation Lüttich

1952: A coy from the Greek Expeditionary Force in Korea, attacks and takes Hill 167 near the Imjin River during the Korean War.

1998: The United States embassy bombings in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya kill approximately 212 people.

08-08-2010, 06:10 AM
1588: Queen Elizabeth I of England delivers her famous speech to the land forces assembled at Tilbury, Essex, to repel the antipipated invasion of the Spanish Armada:
My loving people,
We have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit our selves to armed multitudes, for fear of treachery; but I assure you I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear, I have always so behaved myself that, under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and good-will of my subjects; and therefore I am come amongst you, as you see, at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live and die amongst you all; to lay down for my God, and for my kingdom, and my people, my honour and my blood, even in the dust. I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm; to which rather than any dishonour shall grow by me, I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field. I know already, for your forwardness you have deserved rewards and crowns; and We do assure you in the word of a prince, they shall be duly paid you. In the mean time, my lieutenant general2 shall be in my stead, than whom never prince commanded a more noble or worthy subject; not doubting but by your obedience to my general, by your concord in the camp, and your valour in the field, we shall shortly have a famous victory over those enemies of my God, of my kingdom, and of my people.

1647: During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in England, Ireland, and Scotland between 1639 and 1651), the Battle of Dungan's Hill occurs. It was fought between the armies of Confederate Ireland and the English Parliament. The Irish army under Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara, was intercepted on a march towards Dublin by an English Parliamertarian army led by Colonel Michael Jones, and destroyed.

WWI-1918: As part of the Hundred Days Offensive that ultimately led to the end of World War I, the Battle of Amiens begins. Allied forces (5 divisions of the Australian Corps, 5 divisions of the Canadian Corps, 5 divisions of the British III Corps, 3 divisions of the British Cavalry Corps, 12 divisions of the French First Army) begin an offensive at Amiens under the supreme command of General Ferdinand Foch. Generalquartiermeister Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff's force (10 active divisions, 5 reserve divisions, and 365 aircraft of the German Eighteenth Army) caught in surpise and began to return fire after five minutes. Allied forces advanced over seven miles on the first day, one of the greatest advances of the war.

1943: Greek destroyer RHNS "Pindos" (L-65) under Cdr. Chrestos Phuphas, and British destroyer HMS "Easton" (L-09) under Lt. Charles Wickham Malins, sink the German submarine U-458, in the Mediterranean, SE of Pantelleria, Italy.
The Pindos (left) and the Easton

1944: The Canadian II Corps, launches Operation Totalize South of Caen. They broke through the German front lines and captured vital positions deep in the German defences.

1945: USSR declares War on Japan.

1964: In retaliation for the offensive operation launched by the Cypriot National Guard against the Turkish-Cypriots of the Kokkina-Mansoura enclave, Turkish warplanes of the Turkish Air Force bomb NG positions on the NW coast of the island.

1990: Iraq occupies Kuwait and the state is annexed to Iraq. This would lead to the Gulf War shortly afterward.

08-09-2010, 04:25 AM
48 BC: During Cćsar's Civil War (one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire, between Gaius Julius Cćsar and the Senate), the Battle of Pharsalus occurs. It's fought at Pharsalus (today's Pharsala in Thessaly, Greece) between Gaius Julius Cćsar and his allies (ca 22,000 legionaries, 5,000-10,000 Auxiliaries and Allies, and Allied Cavalry of 1800), and the army of the republic (ca 40,000-60,000 legionaries, 4,200 Auxiliaries and Allies, and Allied Cavalry of 5,000-8,000) under the command of Gnaeus Pompey the Great. Its oucome was a decisive Cćsarian victory. Cćsar’s victory took him to the pinnacle of power, effectively ending the Republic.
Gaius Julius Cćsar

378: During the Gothic War (a series of battles fought between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Goths from 376/377 – 382), the Battle of Hadrianople (today's Edirne, European Turkey) occurs. A 20–30,000-strong Roman army led by the Roman Emperor Valens is defeated by the 40-60,000 Goths under Fritigern. The Roman army was routed and the Emperor himself was abandoned by his guards. His fate is unknown; he probably died anonymously on the field.
The meeting between Fritigern of the Gothic Tervingi, the victor of Hadrianople and Emperor Valens on the Danube

1944: Greek Submarine RHNS "Pipinos" (Y-8), under Lt. Cdr. Constantine Lutras, sinks in Samos island harbour the Italian destroyer under German colours, Calafatini - she was captured by the Germans at Pirćus on 9 September, 1943 and since then served in Kriegsmarine as Torpedoboot Ausland (= foreign torpedo boat) - and the small freighter Orion a former Greek lighthouse tender, captured by the Germans.
Rear Admiral Gregorios Mazevires, Vice Chief of Royal Hellenic Navy, at the ship's christening in 1943 - Liverpool, UK

1945: U.S. B-29 Bocks Car drops atomic bomb Fat Man on Nagasaki, Japan. Two-thirds of the city of 250,000 inhabitants is destroyed and 113,000 people die.

1945: The Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation begins. Soviet Army massed at the Manchurian border sweeps into northern China and northern Korea overwhelming the Japanese defences.

08-10-2010, 04:39 AM
955: Otto I the Great, King of the Germans, defeats the Magyars (=Hungarians) in the Battle of Lechfeld. The Hungarians led by horka (=military leader) Bulcsú and the chieftains Lél and Súr invaded Otto's kingdom with a force of ca 10-25,000 men. Otto, commanded his 8,000 heavy cavalry himself. The Germans lost about 3,000 in the battle. The Hungarians had about 1,000 killed in the battle, about 1,500 killed by local farmers, maybe 2,000 fleeing Hungarians killed by German reserve-troops. All in all, between 4,000 and 5,000 killed. After Lechfeld, the Hungarians completely ceased all campaigns westwards.
Otto I, King of the Germans with his spouse Editha

991: During the Viking invasions of England, the Battle of Maldon occurs. Near Maldon, beside the River Blackwater in Essex, England, the Ealdorman of Essex Byrhtnoth, led his English forces against the 2,000 or 4,000 Vikings of Óláfr Tryggvason, the later King Olaf I of Norway. The English were defeated and Byrhtnoth was killed in the battle (it took three men to kill him because he was well over 1.82 m/6 ft in height).
Byrhtnoth guarding Maldon

1557: During the Habsburg-Valois War (fought between Henry II of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) the Battle of Saint-Quentin occurs. The French forces under the Duke de Montmorency were overwhelmed and Montmorency was captured by the Spanish forces under the command of the Duke Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy and the Count of Egmont in an alliance with English troops. The French were defeated.
The victor, Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy

1904: During the Russo-Japanese War, the Naval Battle of the Yellow Sea occurs. The Imperial Japanese Fleet (4 battleships, 2 armored cruisers, 8 protected cruisers, 18 destroyers, 30 torpedo boats) commanded by the Fleet Admiral and Koshaku (=Marquis) Heihachiro Togo, engaged the Imperial Russian Navy's First Pacific Squadron (6 battleships, 4 protected cruisers, 14 destroyers), commanded by Rear Admiral Wilgelm Karlovich Vitgeft, off Shantung peninsula, China. The nearly seven hours of naval combat coupled with the estimated 7,382 fired shells, had produced, 226 killed and wounded on the Japanese side, 343 killed and 101 wounded on the Russian side. Admiral Vitgeft was killed. Tactically, the battle had been a draw, since no fleet suffered any capital ship losses. Strategically the battle had been a Japanese victory, since the Russian fleet never again attempted to break out into the open sea.
The victor, Admiral Togo

08-11-2010, 04:06 AM
1898: During the Spanish-American War, U.S. troops (from the 5th Cavalry, 11th Infantry and 19th Infantry, under Brigadier General Theodore Schwan) entered Mayagüez, Puerto Rico. Spanish troops encircled the city yet a battle never occurred, and the invading troops were well-received.

1921: During the Greek Minor Asia Campaign, the Greek A', B' and C' Corps commence offensive operations on the entire front, against the Turks occupying positions eastwards across the Sakarya River and northwards against the Turkish lines on the Ilica, a shallow tributary of the Sakarya.

1944: U.S. troops capture Nantes and Angers and drive South across the Loire.

1975: Governor Mário Lemos Pires of Portuguese Timor abandons the capital Dili, following a coup by the Timorese Democratic Union (UDT) and the outbreak of civil war between UDT and Fretilin.
The last Portuguese governor of Portuguese Timor, Lemos Pires

08-12-2010, 04:23 AM
1099: During the First Crusade, the Battle of Ascalon (today's Ashkelon, Israel) occurs. A 10,000-strong Crusader army under Godfrey of Bouillon, accompanied by Robert II, Count of Flanders, defeated a Fatimid army of ca 30,000 men under al-Malik al-Afdal ibn Badr al-Jamali Shahanshah, the vizier of the Fatimid caliphs of Egypt. Although the battle of Ascalon was a crusader victory the city itself remained under Faitimid control. The Battle of Ascalon is often considered the last action of the First Crusade.
The sword of Godfrey of Bouillon, displayed at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem

1121: As part of the Georgian-Seljuq Wars, the Battle of Didgori occurs. The strength of the Seljuq Turkish army is variously put, by the medieval Islamic, Georgian, Armenian and European sources from 200,000 to 605,000, led by Najm ad-Din Ilghazi ibn Artuq. The Georgian army has traditionally been estimated at 40,000 Georgians, 15,000 Kipchaks, 500 Alans and 100 Frankish Crusaders under King David IV of Georgia. In a pitched three-hour action, the Seljuq troops were completely overrun and routed, leaving a huge amount of booty and prisoners to the victors.
King David IV of Georgia is venerated as a saint by the Georgian Orthodox Church

1164: As part of the Crusades, the Battle of Harenc occurs. An allied army from the County of Tripoli (under Raymond III of Tripoli), the Principality of Antioch (under the Prince of Antioch, Bohemond III), the Byzantine Empire (under the governor of Cilicia, Constantine Calamanos) and Armenia (under Toros II the Great, Prince of Armenia and Mleh I, his younger brother) is defeated by the Muslim forces of the Seljuq Atabeg (=Governor) of Syria, Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud ibn Imad ad-Din Zangi. According to the historian Ali 'Izz al-Din Ibn al-Athir al-Jazari, 10,000 crusaders were killed.

1281: The fleet of Qubilai Khan, composed of more than four thousand ships bearing nearly 140,000 men, is destroyed by a major typhoon while approaching Japan. The Japanese believed that the god Raijin (=god of thunder and lightning in Japanese mythology) was the god who turned the storms against the Mongols and named these winds Kamikaze (=divine wind; kami is the word for god, spirit, or divinity, and kaze for wind).

1332: During the Second War of the Scottish Independence, the Battle of Dupplin Moor occurs. An army of 10 - 15,000 men of Bruce loyalists under Domhnall II, Earl of Mar and Sir Robert Keith, is defeated by the 1,500 - 3,000 English and Balliol (=followers of Edward Balliol claimant to the Scottish throne) rebels. A few weeks after the battle, Edward Balliol was crowned king at Scone, backed by Edward III of England.
Edward Balliol as Toom Tabard (=empty jacket)

1499: As part of the Ottoman-Venetian War of 1499-1503, the Naval Battle of Zonchio begins. It took place on four separate days: August 12, 20, 22 and 25. An Ottoman fleet consisted of 67 galleys, 20 galliots and 200 smaller vessels under Kemal Reis, defeated the Venetian fleet of 47 galleys, 17 galliots and circa 100 smaller vessels under the command of Antonio Grimani.

1687: During the Great Turkish War (a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and contemporary European powers during the second half of the 17th century), the Second Battle of Mohács oocurs. The forces of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, commanded by Charles Léopold Nicolas Sixte, the Duke of Lorraine, defeated the forces of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV, commanded by the Grand-Vizier Sari Süleyman Paşa. The losses of the Habsburg Imperial army were very light, about 600 men. The Ottoman army suffered huge losses with an estimated 10,000 deaths, as well as the loss of most of its artillery (about 66 guns) and much of its support equipment. The disintegration of the Ottoman army allowed Imperial Habsburg armies to conquer Slavonia in Eastern Croatia and Transylvania in Romania.
Charles V, duc de Lorraine

1806: Jacques Antoine Marie de Liniers et Bremond, a French officer in the Spanish military service, and a viceroy of the Spanish colonies of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, retakes the city of Buenos Aires from the British.
William Carr Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford, 1st Count of Trancoso, 1st Marquess of Campo Maior, surrenders to Santiago de Liniers during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata

1944: Waffen SS troops massacre 560 people in Sant'Anna di Stazzema, Tuscany, Italy. The 2nd Battallion of SS-Panzergrenadier-Regiment 35 of 16th SS Panzergrenadier Division Reichsführer-SS, commanded by SS-Hauptsturmführer Anton Galler, killed in groups with machine guns in open air and with hand grenades in basements, hundreds of rounded-up civilians. The youngest victim was the 20-day old, Anna Pardini.
The Memorial to the Massacre

1944: Alençon was the first French city to be liberated by the Free French, under General Leclerc, after minor bomb damage.
The statue of General Leclerc in Alençon

1953: The Soviets detonate their first thermonuclear weapon, with a force equivalent to 400 kilotons of TNT.

1976: During the Lebanese Civil War, the Massacre of Tel al-Zaatar occurs. Syrian and Christian Phalangist forces massacre 1,000 - 3,000 Palestinians, mostly civilians, of the Tel al-Zaatar Palestinian Refugee camp.

2000: The Oscar class submarine K-141 "Kursk" of the Russian Navy explodes and sinks in the Barents Sea during a military exercise with 118 hands.

08-13-2010, 05:08 AM
1521: Tenochtitlán (present day Mexico City), the seat of the Aztec empire falls to conquistador Hernán Cortés. 240,000 Aztecs are estimated to have died during the siege, which lasted eighty days.

1704: During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Battle of Blenheim occurs. A 52,000-strong allied army under John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy, defeated the 56,000-strong Franco-Bavarian army led by Camille d'Hostun de la Baume, the duc de Tallard, Ferdinand, comte de Marsin and Maximilian II Emanuel, the Kurfürst (=Prince-Elector) of Bavaria. A combination of deception and brilliant administration from the allied part, culminated in a crushing defeat for the Franco-Bavarian forces: Over 30,000 killed, wounded and missing.
Part of the Battle of Blenheim tapestry at Blenheim Palace by Judocus de Vos. In the background is the village of Blenheim. The foreground shows an English grenadier with a captured French colour

1920: During the Polish-Soviet War, the Battle of Warsaw begins (it lasted until 25 August). Red Army forces commanded by Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky suffered defeat from the counterattacking Polish forces led by Józef Klemens Piłsudski. Estimated Soviet losses were 10,000 killed, 500 missing, 30,000 wounded, and 66,000 taken prisoner, compared with Polish losses of some 4,500 killed, 10,000 missing, and 22,000 wounded.

1937: During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Battle of Shanghai begins. It lasted until 26 November and it was an engagement of ca one million troops, on both sides. The battle ended in a Japanese tactical victory.

1944: 7,000 German troops, supported by the Luftwaffe and artillery, burst through the Cretan defences and take the mountainous town and a stronghold of the Cretan resistance, Anoghia. The town had been earlier evacuated by the civilian population and left completely razed by the Germans. Only the church buildings were spared. German and Cretan losses were severe.
Anoghian andartes (=guerillas)

The Monument to the battle

1961: The construction of the Berlin Wall, a barrier constructed by the East Germans that completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding Communist East Germany and East Berlin, begins. At midnight, 12-13 August, East German troops and workers began to tear up streets running alongside the border to make them impassable to most vehicles, and to install barbed wire entanglements and fences along the 156 km (97 miles) around the three western sectors, and the 43 km (27 miles) that divided West and East Berlin.
Hans Conrad Schumann is defecting to the West - 15 August, 1961

08-14-2010, 04:13 AM
1385: During the Portuguese Interregnum (a period of civil war in Portuguese history that began with the death of King Ferdinand I of Portugal in 1383, who left no male heirs, and ended with the accession to the throne of King John I in 1385) the Battle of Aljubarrota occurs. About 6,500 men commanded by King John I of Portugal and his general Nuno Álvares Pereira, with the support of English allies, defeated a 31,000-strong Castilian army under John I of Castile. The result was a decisive victory for the Portuguese, ruling out Castilian ambitions to the Portuguese throne, ending the 1383-1385 Crisis and assuring John as King of Portugal. The House of Aviz was established.
Dom Joăo I of Portugal

1598: During the Nine Years' War (fought between the forces of Gaelic Irish chieftains Hugh Ó Neill of Tír Eoghain, Hugh Roe Ó Donnell of Tír Chonaill and their allies, against the Elizabethan English), the Battle of the Yellow Ford occurs. It was fought between the Gaelic native Irish army under Aodh Mór Ó Néill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone and Aodh Ruadh Ó Domhnaill, ruler of Tyrconnell and a crown expeditionary force from Dublin under Henry Bagenal. It was an Irish victory as crown forces lost about 900 killed at the battle.
Aodh Mór Ó Néill - anglisised, Hugh the Great O'Neill

1921: During the Greek Minor Asia Campaign and following some very hard fighting, the Greek A' Corps secures the area of Tobur Oğlu, the Greek B' Corps (with its V Division as the spearhead) occupies the area of Kale Grotto and the C' Corps advances towards lake Sapanca.

1944: The First Canadian Army and the Polish 1st Armoured Division (1 Dywizja Pancerna) launch Operation Tractable against the Wehrmacht's Army Group B, towards Falaise.

1945: The Japanese Cabinet decide at a morning meeting in Imperial Palace to surrender to allies. An 8:10 pm reply to the allied ultimatum is handed to the Swiss Foreign Minister by the Japanese Minister in Berne. Truman calls a Press Conference at midnight to announce the Unconditional Surrender of Japan. USAAF B29s launch the last air raid of the war against Kumagaya.
Truman and Cabinet after Japanese Surrender

1974: Following the collapse of the tripartite (Cyprus, Greece, Turkey) negotiations during the Geneva conference in Switzerland, Turkish government gives the green light for Operation Attila II, the second stage of the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Turkish forces, have been massively reinforced to the strength of two infantry divisions and supporting elements with additional 40 M48 Tanks. At 06:30 hours, ELDYK (=Hellenic Forces of Cyprus) camp was hit by Turkish artillery and airforce. ELDYK forces were supported by Cypriot National Guard artillery fire, provided by the NG 187th artillery battalion equipped with soviet 100mm guns. At 10:00 hours, the camp was attacked by infantry, and at 11:00 hours by tanks, but both attacks were repelled. At 15:00 a new attack was repelled. ELDYK lost 1 killed and 7 wounded. Turkish casualties were comparatively heavy.
Greek ELDYK troops watch for possible Turkish movement. The tank on the background is a destroyed Turkish one - August 1974

08-15-2010, 04:54 AM
1309: Rhodes surrenders to the Knights of the Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem. The Knights establish their headquarters on the island and rename themselves the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem and of Rhodes.
The Knight's Castle at Rhodes

1461: The Empire of Trebizond, surrenders to the forces of Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II. This is regarded by some historians as the real end of the Byzantine Empire. Emperor David Megas (=Grand) Comnenus (or commonly, Megalocomnenus) is exiled and later murdered.

1599: During the Nine Years' War, the Battle of Curlew Pass occurs. It's fought between an English force under Sir Conyers Clifford and an Irish force led by Aodh Ruadh Ó Domhnaill (anglicised - Red Hugh O'Donnell). The English were ambushed and routed while marching through a pass in the Curlew Mountains, near the town of Boyle, in northwestern Ireland. The English forces suffered heavy casualties (ca 500 killed). Losses by Irish forces were not recorded but were probably minimal.
Gaelic Chieftain overlooking Curlew Pass

1760: During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Liegnitz occurs. A 30,000-strong Prussian army commanded by King Frederick II the Great of Prussia, defeated an Austrian army of some 25,000 men under Baron Ernst Gideon von Laudon.
The victor, Frederick the Great

1863: The two-day Anglo-Satsuma War (Royal Navy was fired on from the town of Kagoshima while the British were trying to exact a payment from the feudal domain of Satsuma) begins with the British bombardment of Kagoshima. The naval bombardment claimed just five lives among the people of Satsuma and 13 lives among the British. The short conflict became the starting point of a close relationship between Satsuma and Britain, which became major allies.
One of the Cannons used for the defence of Satsuma. A young Heihachiro Togo, the later Admiral of the Imperial Japanese Navy, was manning one of the cannons

WWI-1914: The Battle of the Frontiers - a series of battles fought along the eastern frontier of France and in southern Belgium shortly after the outbreak of World War I - begins.
http://img514.imageshack.us/img514/3272/battleoffrontiersmap.thdotjpg (http://img514.imageshack.us/i/battleoffrontiersmapdotjpg/)

Uploaded with ImageShack.us (http://imageshack.us)

1920: During the Russo-Polish War, the two-day Battle of Ossów ends. It was part of the Battle of Warsaw and was fought between the Polish 18th Infantry Division, reinforced with the newly-created 221st and 236th Infantry Rgt of the Volunteer Army, and the 79th Rifle Brigade and 2nd Rifle Division of the Red Army. The battle was one of the first skirmishes won by the Poles.
The Memorial to the 22 dead of the Red Army whose remains were found in 2008 - Battle of Ossów

1940: The Italian submarine Delfino (Lieutenant Giuseppe Aicardi) torpedoes and sinks the Greek light cruiser Elli in the island of Tenos' harbour during peacetime, killing 9 sailors and wounding 29. One woman died of heart attack. The torpedoing of Elli marks the most serious Italian provocation prior to the outbreak of the Greco-Italian War in October.
Explosion after the first torpedo's impact against the quay of Tenos' harbour on 15 August, 1940. Greek light cruiser Elli can be seen in the right; seconds later she'll be hit by the second torpedo

1942: The last of 6 remaining merchant of the Pedestal convoy, the tanker SS "Ohio", with 10,000 tons oil on board is towed into Malta by three British warships.
The Tanker "Ohio" arriving at Grand Harbour, Valletta, Malta on August 15th, 1942

1944: The allies launch Operation Dragoon, a combined assault on the South coast of France from Toulon to Nice. 9,000 airborne troops are landed, along with 90,000 by sea. Six towns and 2,000 prisoners are taken. About 200,000 Germans (23 divisions) are in the 40-mile/64-kilometre long, 11-mile/18-kilometre wide (at narrowest point) Argentan-Falaise gap, but start to pull out as Anglo-Canadian troops resume the attack to the North.

1945: Japan Surrenders. The Japanese Government resigns and Korechika Anami, the War Minister commits suicide. MacArthur becomes the Supreme Commander for Allied Powers in the Pacific.
http://img405.imageshack.us/img405/4549/745pxamericanmilitarypedotjpg http://img130.imageshack.us/img130/7095/760pxwarendsdotjpg

1947: Pakistan and India gain Independence from the British Raj and join the British Commonwealth.

1984: The PKK in Turkey begins armed attacks.

08-15-2010, 11:32 AM
Amazing photo of the torpedo strike on the Greek ship. What are the odds of being able to snap such a photo, especially when the event wasn't expected?

Interesting about Rhodes. Beautiful place. You can walk around inside the moat (it's a nice trail going around the fortifications now), and it's full of huge stone cannonballs that had once been fired at the city walls.

08-15-2010, 11:46 AM
Amazing photo of the torpedo strike on the Greek ship. What are the odds of being able to snap such a photo, especially when the event wasn't expected?
The island of Tenos is the centre for religious celebrations every year on August 15 for the Orthodox Christians in Greece:
Dormition of the Holy Virgin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dormition_of_the_Theotokos)
therefore it's not rare to have photographers ready to take snapshots from the celebrations. Since the photo is an official one from the Hellenic Navy archives (the inscription reads "Navy History Service - 42403") I'd say it's genuine.
PS: Beautiful photos indeed

08-15-2010, 01:01 PM
Hi All! I'd need some help! In Hungary-Europe, a small group made a German Shepherd Rescue Team and started to build an animal home. Now we decided to write a book about Military Dogs-Heroes, true stories from nowadays. I know that lot of german shepherds take parts in military exercises. I'm looking for soldiers who works with dogs, and can help us with some stories. I hope with this book we can finish our animal home. Please tell me some advices where to start, or who should I ask?

08-16-2010, 04:20 AM
1513: As part of the Holy League under the on-going Italian Wars, the Battle of Guinegate (today's Enguinegatte, France) occurs. English and Imperial troops from the Holy Roman Empire, under Henry VIII and Maximilian I surprised and routed a body of French cavalry under Jacques de La Palice. It's also called the Battle of the Spurs because of the haste of the French horse to leave the battlefield.
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King Henry VIII of England (left) and Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I

1869: During the War of the Triple Alliance (a military conflict in South America fought from 1864 to 1870 between Paraguay and the allied countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay) the Battle of Campo Grande occurs. 20,000 men from Brazil and Argentina under the French Prince and Emperor consort of Brazil, Louis Philip Marie Ferdinand Gaston d'Orléans, Count of Eu, defeated the Paraguayan forces made up of 6,000 soldiers, many of them children, led by Bernardino Caballero Melgarejo. At the end 2,000 Paraguayans were dead and 1,200 captured. The Allied forces suffered 26 dead and 259 wounded. General Caballero fled along with part of his troops.
Child-soldiers of Paraguay

1870: During the Franco-Prussian War, the Battle of Mars-La-Tour occurs. Two Prussian Corps under General Reimar Constantin von Alvensleben, encountered the entire French Army of the Rhine, commanded by General François Achille Bazaine, and successfully forced the French to retreat into the fortresses of Metz. The Battle of Mars-La-Tour is notable for one of the very few successful cavalry charges of modern warfare. Major-General Friedrich Wilhelm Adalbert von Bredow, ahead of his 12th Cavalry Brigade (7th Cuirassiers, 19th Dragoons and 16th Uhlans), charged into and broke through the French gun lines in what it is called Von Bredow's Death Ride. Of the 800 horsemen who had started out, only 420 returned. Among the wounded was Leutnant Herbert von Bismarck, son of the Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck.

1914: The three-day Battle of Cer begins. It's fought between the 180,000 Serbs under Field Marshal Stepa Stepanović and the 200,000 Austro-Hungarians of General Liborius Ritter von Frank. The Serbian Army was victorious, pushed the Austro-Hungarian Army back across the Drina river, and completely thwarted their war plan. Around 18,500 Austro-Hungarian officers and other ranks were killed or wounded and around 6,500 were captured. The Serbian Army lost around 4,785 other ranks and 250 officers.

1929: The Western Wall Uprising or the Buraq Uprising was a series of demonstrations and riots that began on August 16, when a long-running dispute between Muslims and Jews over access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem escalated into violence. During the week of riots, at least 116 Arabs and 133 Jews were killed and 339 wounded.

1941: XLVI Panzerkorps of Panzergruppe 4 (Generaloberst Erich Höpner) takes Novgorod on the road to Leningrad. German and Romanian forces of Army Group South capture Nikolaev, an important Soviet naval base on the Black Sea.

1943: U.S. troops enter Messina in NE Sicily in a final push to clear the island. Axis evacuation of 100,000 troops has been completed.

1944: General de Lattre de Tassigny’s French First Army begins to land in force in southern France. Hitler orders the withdrawal of all German forces in southern France. The French Resistance steps up its attacks on German posts along the Swiss border, assaulting Machilly, Saint-Julien and Valleiry. The first two surrender with minimal bloodshed, but the 20 German customs officers at Valleiry are shot out of hand by resistants following their surrender, along with two French women who were with them. A German relief column arrives too late, shooting seven civilians and burning 20 houses in retaliation.
General Jean Joseph Marie Gabriel de Lattre de Tassigny, was CO of the French First Army in WWII and CO of the French troops in Indochina during the First Indochina War

1974: During the Turkish invasion of Cyprus and the Turkish Operation Attila II, Turkish forces advance in force southwards, engaging and pushing back the Cypriot 212th National Guard Battalion. The Greek Commando Emmanuel Bikakes, a EM-69 90mm AT PAO (M67 90mm Recoilless Rifle in U.S. nomenclature) operator, engaged four (other sources claim six) Turkish tanks. He knocked out the first tank at a range of 300 metres/328 yards and the second at 270 m/295 yards. He kept changing positions and engaging the tanks and he knocked out the last one at the astonishing range of 750 m/765 yards. A tank-on-tank battle also occurred in the northern sector of Nicosia, with three National Guard T-34/85 tanks in hull-down position, engaging and destroying a single Turkish M-47 tank.
Commando Bikakes; his CO nominated him for the Gold Medal for Valour. Bikakes died tragically in the '90s in a car accident

1974: During the Turkish invasion of Cyprus and the Turkish Operation Attila II, the Turkish Air Force begin pounding the Greek positions around the ELDYK camp at 08:30 hours. Two Turkish battalion-level formations, supported by armor and artillery, commence advancing against the ELDYK camp. By noon both Turkish formations had completely encircled the camp. At 13:00 hours the first Turkish elements enter the Greek camp and the battle was generalized. ELDYK forces (two infantry coys), facing annihilation are ordered to regroup southwards, through the Turkish lines. 1st Lt Soterios Stavrianakos, CO of the Engineer coy, took the initiative in staying back with one Engineer platoon (35 sappers) and one MG team (the latter under WO Constantine Kentras) to cover the withdrawal. A desperate battle began. At 13:30 hours the camp is in Turkish hands. Casualties were heavy for both sides. ELDYK's losses accounted for 80 killed (including 1st Lt Stavrianakos and WO Kentras), 22 wounded, 5 missing. Turkish losses were comparatively heavy. The Turkish forces also attacked the 336th National Guard Battalion (Major Demetrios Alevromagheiros) inside Nicosia (Aghios Pavlos quarter), advancing some 100 metres, but with some 50 killed and wounded. 336 suffered 12 killed.
Turkish troops celebrate their victory; the photo is taken inside the ELDYK camp after its capture by the Turks

08-17-2010, 04:48 AM
480 BC: During the Second Persian invasion of Greece, the three-day Battle of Thermopylć begins. 300 Spartans led by their King Leonidas, 700 Thespians under their leader Demophilus and 400 Thebans, attempt to defend the middle gate from the invading Persians, the narrowest part of the pass of Thermopylć, where the Phocians had built a defensive wall some time before. After a desperate fight, the Persians finally break through on the third day, at the expense of 20,000 casualties according to Herodotus. On the Greek side, the Thespians committed themselves to a fight to the death, the Spartans perished after the Persians rained down arrows until every last Spartan was dead and the Thebans, according to Herodotus, defended themselves to the last, those who still had swords using them, and the others resisting with their hands and teeth.

480 BC: During the Second Persian invasion of Greece, the three-day Naval Battle of Artemisium (or Artemision) begins. 271 Greek warships (triremes mostly) from Athens, Corinth, Sparta and other minor Greek city-states, led by the Spartan Navarch (=Admiral) Eurybiades engaged a ca 800-strong Persian fleet, off the northern tip of the island of Eubœa. The battle was fought coinstantaneously with the Battle of Thermopylć and it was a tactical stalemate: The Greeks did not defeat the Persian navy, neither did the Persians destroy the Greek fleet. However, as the poet Pindar put it, Artemisium was where the sons of the Athenians laid the shining foundation-stone of freedom.
The HNS "Olympias" is a reconstruction of an ancient Athenian trireme. 127 similar Athenian ships, fought at Artemisium

986: A Byzantine army of 30,000 men under the young and inexperienced Emperor Basil II, is destroyed in the pass of Trajan's Gate, near Ihtiman, Bulgaria, by the Bulgarians of Tsar Samuil and his brother Aron. The Byzantine emperor Basil II narrowly escaped. Bardas Skleros (or Sclerus) the Byzantine general and contestant to the throne, who led a wide-scale rebellion in Minor Asia, from 976-979, takes advantage of the defeat and organises a new rebellion.
The Trajan's Gate, today
The commemorative plaque marking the 1020th (2006) anniversary of the Bulgarian victory

WWI-1914: Russia invades East Prussia and the Battle of Stallupönen occurs. The Russian General Paul von Rennenkampf's forces marched into East Prussia, following cavalry probes conducted five days earlier, the same day that the German General Hermann von François, commander of I Corps - attached to General von Prittwitz's Eighth Army - brought them to action. Launching a frontal attack, the aggressive François drove the Russians back to the frontier, snapping up 3,000 prisoners in the process. German casualties accounted for 1,297 killed and wounded. The Russians lost 5,000 men.
The conqueror of Stallupönen, General Hermann von François

1942: Butaritari atoll was the site of the Makin Raid on 17 August, when two companies of the 2nd Marine Raider Battalion/165th Infantry, landed from the submarines USS "Argonaut" (SM-1) and USS "Nautilus" (SS-168), as a feint to draw Japanese attention away from the planned invasion route through the Solomons. While they annihilated the local garrison, comprised 806 Japanese troops, they failed in their initial objectives of taking prisoners and gathering intel.

1943: 597 RAF bombers attack Peenemunde on the Baltic coast, the birthplace of the V weapons. 376 B-17 and B-24 heavy bomber aircrafts of the US 8th Air Force carry out double raids against the ball-bearing plants at Schweinfurt and the Messerschmitt fighter works at Regensburg, losing 80 aircraft in the process.

1943: German and Italian forces successfully evacuate Sicily across the Strait of Messina, with little interference by the Allies. This allows Montgomery and Patton enter Messina. The whole of Sicily is now in allied hands. The shelling of the Italian mainland from Messina begins.

1944: The 16th Infantry Rgt of the EDES (=National Republican Greek League) resistance group under Col Demetrios Camaras, attacks the 254 German troops occupying the town of Menina, Epirus and after a two-day battle, captures the town. German losses accounted for 87 killed. 109 were captured prisoners. Greek casualties accounted for 25 dead, 40 wounded.
A EDES coy - 1944

1944: In retaliation for their clash with Greek ELAS insurgents, on 6, 7 and 8 March 1944, in the suburb of Pirćus, Kokkiniá (a Communist stronghold), during which dozens of German troops and Greek members of the collaborationist Security Battalions, and ca 100 ELAS fighters were killed, the roundup of Kokkiniá occurs. 4,000 German troops and Greek members of the Security Battalions (under their CO, Colonel Ioannes Plytzanopulos), raid Kokkiniá and mass arrest 20,000 Kokkinians who are held for hours at the Hosia Xenia square, the central town square of the suburb. The operation aimed at reducing the insurgent present in the area. Hundreds of people got beaten up badly. 315 Kokkinians, identified as being active members of the resistance, were executed on sight.
Diamanto Kumbakes was amongst the executed; as she was brought into the execution ground, she shouted brothers and sisters! keep your head up! thousands will avenge us!

1962: East German border guards kill 18-year-old Peter Fechter, a bricklayer, as he attempts to cross the Berlin Wall into West Berlin becoming one of the first victims of the wall.
The dead body of Peter Fechter lying next to the Berlin Wall - 17 August, 1962

1974: The Turkish operations in Cyprus, end. Turkish forces captured 38% of the island's area. Turkish casualties during the Cyprus conflict accounted for 498 killed, 1,200 wounded. Turkish-Cypriots lost 70-340 killed, 1,000 wounded. Greek casualties (ELDYK mostly) accounted for 88 killed, 148 wounded, 83 missing (presumably dead). Cypriot National Guard losses accounted for 309 killed, 1,141 wounded, 909 missing (presumably dead). The front line became the border, as it remains today. Some 160,000 - 200,000 Greek-Cypriot refugees fled to the south.
Lt. Gen Nurettin Ersin (1st from the left, front row), the head of the Turkish Operation Attila, the invasion of Cyprus, and Maj. Gen Betrettin Demirel (2nd from the left, front row) CO of the 39th Division and head of the amphibious invasion of Pentemilli, with staff officers

08-18-2010, 04:50 AM
1870: During the Franco-Prussian War, the Battle of Gravelotte, the largest battle of the war was fought, about 9.5 km/6 miles west of Metz, Lorraine. The combined German forces, under Field Marshal Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke, numbering about 210 infantry battalions, 133 cavalry squadrons, and 732 heavy cannons totaling 188,332 officers and men, were defeated by the French Army of the Rhine under Marshal François Achille Bazaine, numbering about 183 infantry battalions and 104 cavalry squadrons, backed by 520 heavy cannons, totaling 112,800 officers and men.
Still, the battle was a Prussian strategic victory in that it succeeded in blocking Bazaine's way to Verdun.

1965: During the Vietnam War, Operation Starlite begins. The operation is launched in the Van Tuong peninsula in Quang Ngai Province. 5,500 US Marines destroyed a Viet Cong stronghold, scoring a resounding victory. During the operation, which lasted six days, ground forces, artillery from Chu Lai, close air support, and naval gunfire combined to kill nearly 700 Vietcong soldiers. U.S. losses included 45 Marines dead and more than 200 wounded. It was the first major US operation of the war.

1966: During the Vietnam War, the Battle of Long Tan occurs. It's fought between the D Company of the 6th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (6RAR), part of the 1st Australian Task Force (1 ATF), and the Viet Cong (VC) 275 Regiment and elements of the D445 Local Forces Battalion. D Company was supported by other Australian units, as well as New Zealand and United States personnel. It is the most famous battle fought by the Australian Army during the Vietnam War. Australian losses accounted for 18 killed, 24 wounded. The Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army lost, according to Australian estimations, 245 killed, 100-150 wounded. 3 NVA/VC captured.

1976: In the Korean Demilitarized Zone at Panmunjeom, the axe murder incident occurs. A 100-foot (30 m) poplar tree was near the UNC checkpoint 3 and the Bridge of No Return. The tree limited visibility in the direction of checkpoint 4 for the soldiers working at checkpoint 3. So, five South Korean civilian workers were dispatched to trim the tree under the supervison of a UNC guard force. Suddenly, two North Korean officers and dozens of KPA soldiers appeared demanding that they should stop the trimming. When the workers continued and ignored the request, another group of North Korean guard forces arrived by truck and began attacking the South Korean workers and soldiers by wielding clubs and axes. During the incident, the JSA Company Commander, Captain Arthur Bonifas, and 1st Lieutenant Mark Barrett, were brutally axed to death by North Koreans.

08-19-2010, 02:15 AM
1812: During the Anglo-American War, the single ship action between the USS "Contitution" and the HMS "Guerriere" occurs. The American 44-gun Frigate with 450 crew, under Captain Isaac Hull, defeated and sank the Royal Navy's 38-gun Fifth Rate Frigate with 272 crew, under Captain James Richard Dacres.

1942: Operation Jubilee, a raid-in-force against the port of Dieppe, conducted by some 6,100 British and Canadian troops occurs. It ends in disaster. In less than 10 hours of battle, the British and Canadian forces lose 1,380 killed, 1,600 wounded, 2,000 made prisoner. The RAF loses 107 aircraft and the Royal Navy lose a destroyer. Germans loses are 345 dead or missing and 268 wounded, with total Luftwaffe losses being just 40 aircraft. Civilian casualties are put at 48 dead and 100 wounded.

1960: In Moscow, downed American U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers is sentenced to ten years imprisonment by the Soviet Union for espionage.

1981: The First Gulf of Sidra Incident occurs. United States fighters VF-41 "Black Aces" F-14As, "Fast Eagle 102" (CDR Henry "Hank" Kleeman/LT David "DJ" Venlet) (BuNo 160403) and "Fast Eagle 107" (LT Lawrence "Music" Muczynski/LTJG James "Amos" Anderson) (BuNo 160390) intercept and shoot down two Libyan Sukhoi Su-22 fighter jets over the Gulf of Sidra. The Americans fired AIM-9L Sidewinders; the first kill is credited to Fast Eagle 102, the second to Fast Eagle 107. Both Libyan pilots ejected.

08-20-2010, 05:30 AM
636: During the Byzantine-Arab Wars, the five-day Battle of Hieromyax (or Yarmuk) ends. Most early Muslim accounts place the size of the Muslim forces between 25,000 and 40,000, under Khalid ibn al-Walid, nd the number of Byzantine forces between 40,000 and 80,000, under the Byzantine Emperor Flavius Heraclius Augustus, commonly known as Heraclius. The result of the battle was a complete Muslim victory which permanently ended Byzantine rule south of Anatolia. The Battle of Yarmouk is regarded as one of the most decisive battles in military history and it marked the first great wave of Islamic conquests after the death of Muhammad, heralding the rapid advance of Islam into the then Christian Levant.

917: During the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars, the Battle of Achelous occurs. It's fought between the ca 60-000 Bulgarians under Tsar Simeon I and the 30,000-60,000 Byzantines under General Leo Phocas. The battle of Achelous was one of the worst disasters that ever befell a Byzantine army, and one of the greatest military successes of Bulgaria.

1941: German 11. Armee (Generaloberst Eugen Ritter von Schobert) captures Kherson on the Black Sea and opens the gate to the Crimea.

1944: The allies seal the Falaise gap, with blocking forces taking 4,000 prisoners. However, the Germans in the Falaise pocket break out along a single road and stream out of the pocket for six hours before the pocket is resealed. The Allies estimate that 10,000 Germans have died in the pocket and 50,000 prisoners taken. Although one German division (77th Infantry Division) is annihilated, 26 extremely weak divisions do escape the pocket. The U.S. 79th Division reaches the west bank of the Seine above Paris. Free French forces rise in Paris, while de Gaulle is reported in France.

1944: The Soviets launch an offensive into Romania with 900,000 men (96 divisions), 1,400 tanks and 1,700 aircraft. Advances up to 12 miles are reported as the Russian plan to surround 23 German divisions (360,000 men) takes shape.

1953: The Soviet Union publicly acknowledges that it had tested a hydrogen bomb; it was their first Sloika design test, Joe 4, with a yield equivalent to 400 kilotons of TNT (only 15%–20% from fusion).

1968: 200,000 Warsaw Pact troops and 5,000 tanks invade Czechoslovakia to end the Prague Spring of political liberalization. During the invasion, 72 Czechs and Slovaks are killed, hundreds are wounded. Alexander Dubček, the leader of Czechoslovakia and head of the Prague Spring, called upon the people not to resist in order to avoid bloodshed. He was arrested and taken to Moscow with several of his colleagues.

1988: Iran accepts United Nations (UN) Security Council Resolution 598, leading to a 20 August 1988 cease-fire thus ending Iran-Iraq war which lasted nearly eight years, from September of 1980 until August of 1988.

1998: In retaliation for the August 7 bombings of American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, the United States military launches cruise missile attacks against alleged al-Qaida camps in Afghanistan and a suspected chemical plant in Sudan.

08-21-2010, 04:37 AM
1689: During the Jacobite Rebellions (a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in the British Isles occurring between 1688 and 1746 aimed at returning of the House of Stuart, to the throne) the Battle of Dunkeld occurs. It was fought between a 4,000-strong army formed by Jacobite clans, under Alexander Cannon, supporting King James VII of Scotland and a government regiment (1,200 men) of covenanters, under William Cleland, supporting William of Orange, in the streets around Dunkeld Cathedral, Dunkeld, Scotland. The Jacobites routed, having lost around 300 men. Losses on the government side are unclear, but included the 27-year Colonel Cleland, who is buried in the cathedral.
The Dunkeld Cathedral

1808: During the Peninsular War, the Battle of Vimeiro occurs. It's fought between an Anglo-Portuguese army of 20,500 men, under Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington and the 14,000 French of Jean-Andoche Junot, 1st Duc d'Abrantčs. The French lost 2,000 killed and wounded. Vimeiro marks the first Anglo-Portuguese victory of the Peninsular War. With the Convention of Sintra, signed 10 days later, the defeated French army was transported back to France by the Royal Navy, complete with its guns and equipment and the loot it had taken from Portugal.

1942: During the Guadalcanal Campaign, the Battle of the Tenaru occurs. On the night of August 20-21 1942, the men of US Marines 2d Bn/1st Marines occupying the west bank of the Tenaru creek, were attacked by Japanese forces, known as Ichiki's First Element, under Colonel Kiyonao Ichiki, CO of the 28th Infantry Regiment, approaching from the east. Fighting lasted throughout the night and into the next morning. The Marines, reinforced by 1st Bn/1st Marines, destroyed much of Ichiki's command. Japanese lost ca 800 killed.

1963: The Xa Loi Pagoda Raids occur. They were a series of synchronized attacks on various Buddhist pagodas in the major cities of South Vietnam shortly after midnight on 21 August, 1963. The raids were executed by the Army of the Republic of Vietnam Special Forces under Colonel Le Quang Tung, and combat police, who took their orders directly from Ngo Dinh Nhu, the younger brother of the Roman Catholic President Ngo Dinh Diem. Over 1,400 Buddhists were arrested, and estimates of the death toll and missing ranged up to the hundreds.

1991: The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, initiated by a group of hard-line members of the Communist Party (КПСС) to take control of the country from Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev, collapses.

08-22-2010, 04:34 AM
1138: During the Scottish Invasion of England, the Battle of the Standard occurs. 10,000 Scots under King David were defeated by a 16,000-strong, mixed Norman-English force of barons and civil militia under William le Gros, 1st Earl of Albemarle. The two armies met near Northallerton, North Yorkshire. The battle is known under that name, because the holy standard of St. Cuthbert was carried into battle on a cart. The consequences of the battle were minor insofar as the balance of power. The Scots remained a threat in the north.

1485: During the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of of Bosworth Field occurs. It's fought between the House of Lancaster and the House of York for the throne of England. The battle was won by the Lancastrians. Their leader Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, became the first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty (Henry VII). His opponent Richard III, the last king of the House of York, was killed in the battle. Bosworth Field marks the end of the Plantagenet dynasty.
King Henry VII of England, holding the Tudor Rose

1791: The slaves of the French colony of Saint-Domingue (today's Haiti) rose in revolt under François-Dominique Toussaint L'ouverture and plunged the colony into civil war.
Toussaint L'ouverture

1864: With the signing of the First Geneva Convention by the representatives of twelve countries (Baden, Belgium, Denmark, France, Hesse, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Prussia, Spain, Switzerland, Württemberg; Norway and Sweden signed in December), the Red Cross is formed.

WWI-1914: 27,000 French soldiers are killed on this single day in an offensive thrust to the east of Paris, towards the German borders.

1922: Michael Collins, Commander-in-Chief of the Irish Free State Army, is shot dead at Béal na mBláth, County Cork, during the Irish Civil War.

1942: Under heavy pressure from the US, Brazil declares war on Germany and Italy.
The FEB (=Brazilian Expeditionary Force) patch

1978: The Sandinistas of the Sandinista National Liberation Front, the Socialist Revolutionaries of Nicaragua, capture the National Palace of Nicaragua.
Daniel Ortega, the Leader of FSLN with Castro

08-23-2010, 05:40 AM
1328: The Battle of Cassel occurs. It's fought between a French royal army commanded by the French King, Philippe VI and the peasant Flemish rebels under the Flemish peasant leader Nicolaas Zannekin. The battle decisively ended the Flemish revolt and brought Flanders under French control.

1514: The Battle of Chaldiran occurs. An Ottoman army of ca 60-212,000 janissary, under the Ottoman Sultan Selim I, defeated a Persian Safavid army of ca 12-40,000 men under Ismail Abul-Mozaffar bin Sheikh Haydar bin Sheikh Junayd Safawi, the Shah of Iran.

1572: During the French Wars of Religion (a period of civil infighting and military operations, primarily fought between French Catholics and Protestants, called Huguenots) the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre occurs. Traditionally believed to have been instigated by Catherine de' Medici, the mother of King Charles IX, the massacre was a targeted group of assassinations, followed by a wave of Roman Catholic mob violence, both directed against the Huguenots. Death toll varied from 2,000 by a Roman Catholic apologist to 70,000 by the contemporary Huguenot, Maximilien de Béthune, duc de Sully.

1595: During the Habsburg-Ottoman War, the Battle of Călugăreni occurs. A 16,000-strong Wallachian army under the Prince of Wallachia, Michael the Brave, defeated the 100,000 Ottomans of Sinan Pasha. The casualties are estimated at least 1,000 men for Wallachians while the Ottoman casualties are thought to be in the range of 10,000 to 15,000. Michael the Brave knew that he still was greatly outnumbered, and during the night he retreated northward.
Michael the Brave, the victor of Călugăreni

1813: During the War of the Sixth Coalition (the sixth attempt by several European powers to contain Napoleonic France) the Battle of Großbeeren occurs. The 60,000 French under Marshal Nicolas Charles Oudinot, 1st Comte Oudinot, 1st Duc de Reggio are defeated by the combined 80,000-strong Prusso-Swedish army under the Swedish Crown Prince Karl Johan. The French lost ca 4,500 killed and wounded while the allies suffered 1,000 killed and wounded. Napoleon was furious with Oudinot: It is truly difficult to have fewer brains than the duke of Reggio!
The monument to the battle at Großbeeren, Brandenburg

1839: With the treaty of Nanking that ends the First Opium War, Hong Kong is formally ceded to the United Kingdom.
The signing of the Nanking Treaty

WWI-1914: Japan declares war on Germany and attacks the German colony of Tsingtao in China.

WWI-1914: The BEF (=British Expeditionary Force) starts its retreat from Mons after suffering some 5,000 casualties.

1942: OKH (=Oberkommando des Heeres) orders that Leningrad should finally be captured after a siege which has lasted a year. The Luftwaffe begins a 48-hour long air raid on Stalingrad, that involves over 4,000 sorties into the city. The city erupts into a sea of flames along its 40 km/25 miles length as oil storage tanks pour their flaming contents into the Volga. Thousands of civilians perish in the flames. The 6. Armee (Generalfeldmarshall von Reichenau) punches a hole in Soviet 62nd Army's defenses as the XIV Panzerkorps (General Hube) crosses the Don River at Vertyachiy and reaches the Volga at Rynok, north of Stalingrad. An 8 km/5 miles wide gap is torn between Vertyachiy and Peskovatka that allows the 6. Armee to reach Volga. Hoth's 4.Panzer-Armee is held up by stiff Red Army resistance south of Stalingrad at Tinguta. The Germans make further progress on the Kuban peninsula on the Black Sea. A platoon of 1. Gebirgsjäger Division hoists the Swastika flag on the top of Mt. Elbrus, the highest peak in the Caucasus.

1943: The Soviet Steppe Front, liberates Kharkov (today's Kharkiv, Ukraine), thus ending Operation Polkovodets Rumyantsev, while the 5th Guards Tank Army beats off the consequent German counter-attack.

1944: King Michael I of Romania dismisses Marshall Antonescu, his head of state and brings his country over to the Allied side.
Antonescu and Hitler

1958: During the Taiwan Strait Crisis, at 5:30pm on August 23, 1958, PLA forces began an intense artillery shelling of the small archipelago of Quemoy comprised several islands administered by the Republic of China (ROC). ROC forces in Quemoy dug in and returned fire. In the subsequent bombardments, roughly 2,500 ROC troops and around 200 troops on the PLA side were killed.

08-23-2010, 06:05 AM
1813: During the War of the Sixth Coalition (the sixth attempt by several European powers to contain Napoleonic France) the Battle of Großbeeren occurs. The 60,000 French under Marshal Nicolas Charles Oudinot, 1st Comte Oudinot, 1st Duc de Reggio are defeated by the combined 80,000-strong Prusso-Swedish army under the Swedish Crown Prince Karl Johan. The French lost ca 4,500 killed and wounded while the allies suffered 1,000 killed and wounded. Napoleon was furious with Oudinot: It is truly difficult to have fewer brains than the duke of Reggio!The crown prince Karl Johan was none other than turncoat and general most hateable guy of the times, Bernadotte ;)
He "took over" from von Bülow after the battle and wrote it up as his victory, despite the vact that Bülow had actually violated his orders by not withdrawing and engaging the french..
Also they reenact this battle every year, so right now there's a battle going on there :)

08-24-2010, 05:03 AM
49 BC: During the Cćsar's Civil War (one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire, fought between Cćsar and his followers - the Populares - and the Senate and its followers - the Optimates - supported by Gnćus Pompey the Great) the Battle of the Bagradas River occurs, in N. Africa. A Populares' army led by Quintus Scribonius Curio is defeated by the combined forces of Optimates under Publius Attius Varus, the Roman governor of Africa, and the Numedians led by their King Juba I. Curio fought to his death, along with his army, rather than attempting to flee to his camp.

1511: The Portuguese naval general officer, Afonso de Albuquerque, with 17 or 18 ships and 1,200 men, subdued the port city of Malacca which controls the strategic strait of Malacca, the narrow, 805 km/500-mile stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula (Peninsular Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
Fidalgo (=nobleman) Afonso

1814: During the Anglo-American War, the Burning of Washington occurs. British troops (ca 4,500) under Maj. General Robert Ross, invade Washington DC occupy it and set fire to many public buildings amongst them the White House and the United States Capitol.

1821: The Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821) ends, with the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico. Representatives of the Spanish crown and the Mexican General Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Aramburu sign the treaty which recognized Mexican independence.

1942: Battle joined in the Eastern Solomons with the Japanese trying to land reinforcements on Guadalcanal. US forces beat off the Japanese Combined Fleet sinking the carrier Ryujo, but suffering damage to the carrier USS "Enterprise" (CV-6).
The Ryujo

1949: The North Atlantic Treaty, signed on April 4, 1949, is ratified by the 12 countries that signed it (Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, United Kingdom, United States). NATO goes into effect.

1968: Opération Canopus; France's first two-stage thermonuclear test, at Fangataufa atoll. The test made France the fifth country to test a thermonuclear device (2,600 Kt) after the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and China.

The crown prince Karl Johan was none other than turncoat and general most hateable guy of the times, Bernadotte ;)
He "took over" from von Bülow after the battle and wrote it up as his victory, despite the vact that Bülow had actually violated his orders by not withdrawing and engaging the french..
Also they reenact this battle every year, so right now there's a battle going on there :)
So, it's good ol' Friedrich von Bülow again. Thanks JCR

08-25-2010, 04:26 AM
1537: The Honourable Artillery Company was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1537 by King Henry VIII. It is the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior in the Territorial Army.
The Regiment's badge; its motto: Arma Pacis Fulcra (=Armed Strength for Peace)

1580: During the War of the Portuguese Succession (fought from 1580 to 1583 between the two main claimants to the Portuguese throne, António, Prior of Crato, proclaimed initially as King of Portugal, and Philip II of Spain, who eventually succeeded in claiming the crown reining as Philip I of Portugal), the Battle of Alcântara occurs. A 14,800-strong Spanish army (including 1,800 horse) under Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba and the commander of the Duke of Alba's bodyguard, Sancho d'Avila, defeated a 8,500 Portuguese force (500 horse) commanded by António, Prior of Crato and his lieutenant, the Count of Vimioso.
Dom Filipe I of Portugal

1758: During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Zorndorf occurs. 43,000 Russians under Count Wilhelm von Fermor, advanced within 100 km (62 miles) of Berlin in order to join the Austrians of Count Leopold Joseph von Daun. The Prussian King, Frederick II the Great, ahead of his 36,000-strong army, moved and attacked the Russians at Zorndorf, 10 km (6 miles) southeast of Küstrin. The Prussians lost 12,800 men, the Russians lost over 18,000 men. The battle appeared inconclusive, however. Although the Russians kept the battlefield on the following day, Fermor was the first to retreat towards Landsberg. His retreat prevented the Russians from reaching their Austrian allies and allowed Frederick to claim the battle as his victory.
Frederick II the Great of Prussia

1830: The Belgian Revolution begins. After a performance at the Brussels opera, the Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie, riot erupted, quickly followed by uprisings elsewhere in the country against the rule of the Northern Provinces (=Netherlands) over the Southern (=today's Belgium).
Daniel Auber's La Muette de Portici (=The Mute Girl of Portici), a sentimental and patriotic opera which led the crowd to pour into the streets after the performance, shouting patriotic slogans

1898: 700 Greek Christian-Cretans slaughtered and 77 British guards (including the British Consul) killed, in reprisal attacks by Turkish and Turkish-Cretan mobs, for the Cretan Insurrection of 1897 in the city of Heraklion. The Great Powers (United Kingdom, France, Austria-Hungary, Russia, Italy, Germany) decided that Ottoman Turkey could no longer maintain control of the island and intervened.
Flag of the Cretan Revolutionaries. The inscription reads Union or Death (Union with Greece)

1941: Panzergruppe 2 (Generaloberst Guderian), along with the 2. Armee (Generaloberst von Weichs), attack southeast from their positions around Gomel and Bryansk, in an attempt to link up with units of Heeresgruppe Süd (=Army Group South) and encircle Kiev. Panzergruppe 1 (Feldmarshall von Kleist) begins a breakout towards the north from its bridgeheads across the Dnieper, with the aim of linking up with units of Heeresgruppe Mitte (=Army Group Centre) east of Kiev. The German 6. Armee (Feldmarshall von Reichenau) engages the bulk of the Soviet forces gathered around Kiev to stop them from retreating.

1942: The Battle of Milne Bay, Papua, begins. Two thousand Japanese land at Milne Bay, South East of Port Moresby and advance up Kokoda Trail. They are confronted with 9,000 (half non-combat personnel) Australian troops.

1942: Battle of Eastern Solomon's continues with a Japanese destroyer being sunk off Santa Isabel.

1944: French armour reaches Paris (Leclerc's 2e Division Blindée) as the 5,000-strong German garrison surrenders. De Gaulle enters Paris.

1991: The Battle of Vukovar begins. An 87-day siege of the Croatian city by the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), supported by various Serbian paramilitary forces, between 25 August-November 18, 1991.

08-26-2010, 04:01 AM
1071: The Battle of Manzikert, the first battle of the Byzantine-Seljuq Wars, occurs. A 20,000-strong Byzantine army under the Byzantine Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes (including the 500 Frankish and Norman mercenaries under Roussel de Bailleul - commonly known as Frangopulos, some Oghuz and Pecheneg mercenaries and a contingent of Bulgarian, Georgian and Armenian troops led by the Armenian General Nicephoros Basilaces) was defeated by some 20-30,000 Seljuqs under their Sultan, Muhammad bin Da'ud Chaghri, commonly known as Alp Arslan (=Heroic lion). The Byzantine Emperor was captured alive. Alp Arslan, treated him with generosity, and terms of peace having been agreed to, dismissed him, loaded with presents and respectfully attended by a military guard. This famous conversation is recorded to have taken place after Romanos IV was brought as a prisoner before the Sultan:
-Alp Arslan: What would you do if I was brought before you as a prisoner?
-Romanos: Perhaps kill you, or exhibit you in the streets of Constantinople.
-Alp Arslan: My punishment is far heavier. I forgive you, and set you free.
The decisive defeat of the Byzantine army and the capture of the Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes played an important role in undermining Byzantine authority in Anatolia and Armenia.

1278: László IV of Hungary and Rudolph I of Holy Roman Empire, with 30,000 troops, defeat the 25–30,000 troops under Přemysl (=the Ploughman, the mythical ancestor of the Přemyslid dynasty) Ottokar II of Bohemia in the Battle of Marchfield near Dürnkrut in (then) Moravia.
Ottokar's camp was plundered, he himself was found slain at the battlefield.

1303: Allahudeen Khilji, the Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate, of Khalaj (Turco-Afghan) origin, leads a huge army and captures Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India.

1346: During the Hundred Years' War, the Battle of Crécy occurs. An Anglo-Welsh army of 9,000 to 10,000 troops, commanded by Edward III of England defeated an allied force of 35,000 to 100,000 troops comprised French, Genoese mercenaries, Basques from the Kingdom of Navarre, Czechs from the Kingdom of Bohemia and Majorcans from the Kingdom of Majorca, under the French King Philip VI. The combination of new weapons and tactics have caused many historians to consider this battle the beginning of the end of classic chivalry. The English losses were given as a few hundred while the French had lost their ally, the King of Bohemia (Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, nome de guerre the Black Prince, took the King's feathers and motto, Ich Dien (=I serve) as his own and this can be seen today in the Prince of Wales' crest), 11 princes, an Archbishop, about 1,200 knights and over 8,000 others.
King of Bohemia's Crest

WWI-1914: The Battle of Tannenberg begins. It was fought by the Russian First and Second Armies (General Aleksandr Vassilievich Samsonov)and the German Eighth Army (Generalfeldmarschall Paul von Hindenburg) and ended on the 30th August. The battle resulted in the almost complete destruction of the Russian Second Army. The Russians lost 78,000 killed or wounded; 92,000 made prisoners.

WWI-1914: Following Mons, the British Expeditionary Force fights a rear-guard action at the Battle of Le Cateau. Le Cateau was an artilleryman's battle, demonstrating the devastating results which modern quick-firing artillery using airbursting shrapnel shells could have on infantry advancing in the open.

WWI-1914: The German colony of Togoland in West Africa, surrendered to the Entente forces who had invaded it unopposed on 6 August.

1922: During the Greek Campaign to Minor Asia, the Turkish Büyük Taarruz (Great Offensive) begins. The major Greek defence positions of Afyonkarahisar held by the Greek A' Corps were overrun within a few hours.

1941: German losses on Eastern Front reach 440,000, more than in the entire war before the beginning of Operation Barbarossa on 22nd June.

1942: The Massacre of Chortkiv, Western Ukraine occurs. At 2:30 am in the morning the German Schutzpolizei started driving Chortkiv's Jews out of their houses, split them in groups of 120, packed them into freight cars and deported 2,000 local Jews to the Belzec death camp. Five hundred Jewish sick and children were murdered on the spot.

1957: Soviet Union announces the first successful long flight, of 6,000 km/3,728 miles, of the R-7 Semyorka, the world's first true ICBM (= Intercontinental Ballistic Missile).

1966: SWAPO (South West Africa People's Organization) guerrilla forces launched an attack against a unit of the South African Police, and South African Air Force, at Omugulugwombashe, Namibia. It was the first armed battle in the Namibian War of Independence.

08-27-2010, 03:41 AM
479 BC: During the Second Persian Invasion of Greece, the Battle of Platća occurs. Spartans, Athenians, Corinthians, Megarans along with hoplites from 18 minor Greek city-states (110,000 according to Herodotus, ca 40,000 according to modern consensus), under the Spartan General Pausanias, fought the Persian army at the final battle on Greek soil of the Persian Wars, in the triangular ledge of Platća, 1,000 feet (300 m) above sea level, on the northern side of Mount Cithćron. The Persians, numbering some 300,000 according to Herodotus, 70-120,000 according to modern consensus, under the Persian military commander Mardonius, were decisively defeated. Herodotus claims that the Greeks as a whole lost only 159 men. Plutarch, who had access to other sources, gives 1,360 Greek casualties. Persian casualties numbered in the tens of thousands.

479 BC: During the Second Persian Invasion of Greece, the Battle of Mycale occurs. It took place on the slopes of Mount Mycale, on the coast of Ionia, opposite the island of Samos. The battle was fought between an alliance of the Greek city-states, including Sparta, Athens and Corinth, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I, on the same day as the Battle of Platća. 110-250 Greek ships, with 40,000 men under the Spartan Leotychidas, defeated the Persian forces comprised 300 ships and 60,000 men, under Tigranes. The Persians, seeking to avoid a battle, beached their fleet below the slopes of Mycale, and, with the support of a Persian army group, built a palisaded camp. The Greeks landed the heavily armoured hoplites and in the battle that followed, routed the Persians. Over the next 30 years, the Greeks, primarily the Athenian-dominated Delian League, would expel (or help expel) the Persians from Macedon, Thrace, the Aegean islands and Ionia. Peace with Persia finally came in 449 BC with the Peace of Callias, finally ending the half-century of warfare.

410: The sacking of Rome by the Visigoths under Alaric I, ends after three days.

663: The Battle of Baekgang; the Korean forces of Baekje or Paekche (one of the three Kingdoms of Korea, together with Goguryeo and Silla), and their allies, the Japanese of Yamato, fought the allied forces of Silla and the Tang Dynasty of China. The Battle of Baekgang was Japan's greatest defeat in its premodern history. Japan's losses were enormous, at least 10,000 killed. The victory gave Silla control of all former Baekje lands in Korea.

1793: During the French Counter Revolution, the three-year War in the Vendée begins. The war was fought between Catholics and Royalists on the one hand and Republicans on the other in the Vendée, a coastal region in western France. In 1986 Reynald Secher wrote a controversial book entitled: A French Genocide: The Vendée, in which he argued that the actions of the French republican government during the revolt in the Vendée (1793–1796), a popular mostly Catholic uprising against the anti-clerical Republican government during the French Revolution, was the first modern genocide.

1810: The Naval Battle of Grand Port, fought between squadrons of frigates from the French Navy and the Royal Navy from 20-27 August, in the island of Mauritius, SW Indian Ocean, ends. The battle was a disaster for the British; one ship was captured after suffering irreparable damage, the grounded ships were set on fire to prevent their capture by French boarding parties and the third vessel was seized as it left the harbour by the main French squadron from Port Napoleon, Mauritius, under Commodore Jacques Hamelin. The British defeat was the worst the Royal Navy suffered during the entire Napoleonic war, and it left the Indian Ocean and its vital trade convoys exposed to attack from French frigates.

1813: During the War of the Sixth Coalition, the two-day Battle of Dresden ends. A 214,000-strong coalition army from Austria, Russia and Prussia, under the Austrian Field Marshal Karl Philipp Fürst zu Schwarzenberg was defeated by the 135,000 French commanded by Napoleon himself. The Coalition lost some 38,000 men and 40 guns. French casualties totaled around 10,000.
The opposing forces on August 26

The opposing forces on August 27

1896: The Anglo-Zanzibar War occurs; it consisted of one battle lasting approximately 45 minutes. Believed to be the shortest war in recorded history, the Anglo-Zanzibar War began at 9:00 AM on August 27, 1896, and lasted for 37 to 45 minutes. Zanzibar’s only warship, the ageing HHS "Glasgow" (a royal yacht belonging to the Sultan of Zanzibar), was sunk by two shells.

1916: Romania enters the war on the side of the Allies. Romania's military forces, numbering 600,000 men, were quickly set in motion after the declaration of war by Romania on Austria-Hungary. Romania dispatched three armies across the Carpathians into Transylvania.

1941: Heeresgruppe Nord (=Army Group North) (von Bock) captures Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.

1944: The Canadians cross the Seine around Rouen. The remaining 1,800 Germans at Toulon surrender as the French claim a total of 17,000 captured for just 2,700 French casualties.

1979: An IRA bomb kills British World War II admiral Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma and 3 others while they are boating on holiday in Sligo, Republic of Ireland. Another bomb near Warrenpoint, Northern Ireland kills 18 British soldiers.

08-28-2010, 04:37 AM
489: Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths, invades Italy with the approval of the eastern emperor Zeno. On 28 August, Theodoric defeats Odoacer, the King of Italy, at the Battle of Isonzo, forcing his way into Italy.
A 5th c. Theodoric Solidus

1189: During the Third Crusade, the 25,000 crusaders of Guy de Lusignan, King of the crusader state of Jerusalem, begin the Siege of Acre.

1542: During the Turkish–Portuguese Conflicts of 1538–1557, the Battle of Ofla in Ethiopia occurs. About 290 Portuguese musketeers and 23 Ethiopians under Cristóvăo da Gama are scattered by the several thousand Ottomans led by the Somali Imam and General of Adal who invaded Ethiopia, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi. Cristóvăo da Gama was captured and brought to Ahmad al-Ghazi's camp, where he was tortured in an attempt to force him to convert to Islam. In the end Ahmad al-Ghazi chopped off Gama's head.
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi

1640: During the Bellum Episcopale (=Bishop's War), a political and military conflict, which occurred in 1639 and 1640 centred around the nature of the governance of Church of Scotland, and the rights and powers of the crown, the Battle of Newburn occurs. A 24,000-strong Scottish Covenanter army under Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven, defeated a 15,000-strong English Royalist army under Edward Conway, 2nd Viscount Conway, 2nd Viscount Killultagh.
The conqueror of Newburn, Alexander Leslie

1824: During the Greek War for Independence, the Naval Battle of Gherontas occurs. In 1824, Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II, unable to supress the revolted Greeks alone, asked for help from Mehmet Ali Pasha the Vali (=governor) of Egypt, Syria & Arabia. Mehmet Ali, assigned to his son Ibrahim the task to handle the Greek question according to his wills. Ibrahim brewed a bold plot with determination:
Ibrahim's plan envisaged an annihilating victory of the Turco-Egyptian fleet over the revolted Greeks in the Aegean, as requirement for a succesful landing operation on Greece (on the Peloponnese specifically). Thus, on 6 June, the Ottoman fleet destroyed completely the island of Kassos and on the 21st, the island of Psara. According to Ibrahim's plan, the next "victim" would be Samos. Hosref Pasha, with 40 frigates and corvettes, set sail for Samos and on 17 July, the Ottoman fleet was sighted off Samos. The Greek fleet, with only 21 warships and 4 fireships, did its best to avoid the Ottomans draw close to Samos, engaging them in a series of harassing battles for a week. Hosref withdrew his fleet and returned to Bodrum, in Minor Asia. There he waited for the Egyptian fleet to arrive. And indeed, on 19 August, the Egyptians arrived as planned. Ibrahim divided his fleet into two groups. One group (under the Egyptian Ismael Gibraltar) would attack sections of the main Greek line and destroy them before other ships could come to their aid. The other group (under Hosref Pasha) would attack the enemy, break through their lines and then cut off the retreat of the enemy fleet. The Turco-Egyptian fleet numbered 25 frigates, 25 corvettes, 50 brigs and 300 freighters with 2,500 guns, assembled along the Bodrum coast.
The Greek fleet assembled around the islands of Patmos, Leros and Lipsi with 70 warships (800 guns). The ships came from Hydra, Spetsć & Psara. On 22 August, the Greek Admiral Andreas Miaoules arrived from Hydra onboard his flagship Kimon.
The statue of Admiral Miaoules at Hydra

On 28 August, early in the morning, 22 Greek warships left the Gherontas bay, moving on silent, searching for the Ottoman flagship. Guessing that the rest of the Greek fleet must be nearby, Ismael Gibraltar with his fleet, set out from Bodrum to engage the Greeks (his plan was to break through the Greek line and with his massive force - compared to the force confronted him - to crush the Greeks). As he did so, Miaoules with the rest of the Greek fleet appeared out of the blue. Ismael Gibraltar, immediately made the signal to change routes and ordered his ships to attack the Greek flagship. Papanikoles, with his fireships, runned to the enemy frigates to defend the flagship. The Ottomans broke the line, trying to avoid the visible danger. Papanikoles' effort to burn the enemy frigates, failed though (due to the wind). The Spetsan Lekkas Matrozos with his fireship, tried to attach his vessel on a Turkish brig but he failed too. In a similar effort, Andreas Pipinos was seriously wounded. Hosref Pasha, with his fleet, entered the battle, trying to block the Greeks combine their forces. The two Greek forces united though and the battle started. Ibrahim ordered his ships to steer and take advantage of the gap created between enemy vessels. Hosref Pasha, watching this, and to show that the Turks are no less courageous than the Egyptians, ordered his ships to do the same. Thus, the Turkish and Egyptian ships, engaged with the Greeks in a general melee.
The Turks though, were unaware that they were about to put themselves against the most skilful sea captain of the Aegean - Andreas Miaoules.
Miaoules, knowing that the Greek vessels are smaller and more agile than the large ships of the Turks, signaled his ships to divide into two squadrons. The first squadron would engage the Egyptians, the second the Turks. He also ordered the 17 fireships to enter the battle. The Spetsan fireships under Lazaros Mussus, attacked the Egyptians. The Hydran fireships, under Georgakes Theokhares, attacked the Turks. The Hydran Georgios Vatikiotes on a small fireship, blew up a large Turkish frigate with 1,100 crew with all hands on-board. Panic spread amongst the Turco-Egyptian fleet. In the evening, Hosref Pasha accepted his defeat and sailed back to Bodrum. Ismael Gibraltar, withdrew to Crete. Thus, Samos was saved. The combat was so unequal, that the French Admiral and writer Julien de la Gravičre, comments on the battle of Gherontas:
Perhaps, seamanship has nothing more interesting to display other than the events that took place at the Gherontas battle.
The Ottoman defeat led ultimately to the Greek control of the Aegean Sea. The Greeks were thus able to provide troops and provisions to the mainland from the islands without the fear of the Ottomans.

WWI-1914: The First Naval Battle of the Great War, the Battle of Heligoland Bight, fought at the North Sea, occurs. The 54-strong British Grand Fleet under Admiral of the Fleet David Richard Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty, ambushed the Hochseeflotte (=German High Seas Fleet) under Admiral Franz Ritter von Hipper. Three German light cruisers and one destroyer were sunk. Three more light cruisers were damaged, 712 sailors killed, 530 injured and 336 taken prisoner. The British suffered one light cruiser and three destroyers damaged, 35 killed and 40 wounded. The battle was regarded as a great victory in Britain, where the returning ships were met by cheering crowds.
Admiral Beatty

1924: The August Insurrection, an unsuccessful uprising of the anti-Soviet Georgian Patriots begins, aimed at restoring the independence of Georgia from the Soviet Union. The insurrection was suppressed by the Red Army and CheKa troops under orders of Joseph Stalin and Sergo Ordzhonikidze. Several thousand citizens of Georgia were purged.
Ordzhonikidze, Stalin & Mikoyan

1943: The Danish government refuse a German ultimatum, as the sabotage campaign run by the Danish Resistance, reaches a crescendo.

1944: The last German garrison at M****illes surrenders to the French, who take 37,000 prisoners for 4,000 French casualties.

1988: During the Ramstein Airshow, three aircraft of the Frecce Tricolori demonstration team collide and the wreckage falls into the crowd. 75 are killed and 346 seriously injured.
Graphic video-warning! (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qoWKoiE0hi4)

1991: Following the failed coup d'état attempt by a group of members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet Union collapses – Mikhail Gorbachev resigns as Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party.

08-29-2010, 05:37 AM
1350: During the Hundred Years' War, the Battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer (=the Spanish on the Sea) occurs. An English fleet of 50 ships commanded by Edward III, the King of England, with his son, Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Prince of Aquitaine nom de guerre the Black Prince, defeated a Castilian fleet of 40 ships commanded by the Franco-Castilian Charles d'Espagne at the Southern coast of England, off Winchelsea. Between 14 and 26 Castilian ships were captured, and some were sunk, while 2 English vessels were sunk and many suffered heavy losses.

1521: Belgrade is finally captured by Ottoman Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent and his 250,000 soldiers. Most of the city was razed to the ground and its entire Christian population was deported to Istanbul, to the area since known as the Belgrad Ormanı (=Belgrade forest).

1526: During the Ottoman Wars in Europe, the Battle of Mohács occurs. A 35-40,000-strong Hungarian army under the King Lajos II of Hungary and Bohemia, was defeated by the 55-65,000 Ottomans led by Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent. The Hungarian King was killed in the battle. The Ottoman victory led to the partition of Hungary for several centuries between the Ottoman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, and the Principality of Transylvania. The death of Lajos II marked the end of the Lithuanian Jagiellon dynasty (their dynastic claims were absorbed by the Habsburgs).
The last King of the House of Jagiellons, King Lajos II

1541: The Ottoman Turks capture Buda, the capital of the Hungarian Kingdom. The West and North portions of Hungary recognized a Habsburg as king and were named Royal Hungary, while the Central and Southern counties were occupied by the Sultan. The East was ruled by the son of Zápolya under the name Eastern Hungarian Kingdom which after 1570 became the Principality of Transylvania.

1665: During the Northern Wars, the Swedes enter Warsaw unopposed, under their King Karl X Gustav. Jan II Casimir, the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, fled to Silesia. He was regarded a weak king and even members of Polish nobility encouraged Karl Gustav to claim the Polish crown.
Karl X Gustav of Sweden

1756: Frederick II the Great, the King of Prussia, with his well-prepared army crossed the frontier and preemptively invaded Saxony, thus beginning the Seven Years' War which lasted until 1763.
Prussian Infantry advance

WWI-1916: The Greek D' Corps surrenders to the Germans. Its troops board trains and are moved to Görlitz, Germany, where they will remain until the end of the War. Bulgarian troops occupy Eastern Macedonia and Thrace regions of Greece.
The Greeks at Görlitz

WWI-1918: The New Zealanders of the New Zealand Division, captured Bapaume (east of Amiens, south of Arras), breaking through the Le Transloy-Loupart trench system. By 08:30 hours a company (Capt. H. C. Meikle) of the 3rd Rifles had entered Bapaume.

1944: The British begin the Race for Amiens. U.S. troops liberate Soissons, 96 km (60 miles) Northeast of Paris. Montelimar is taken by the French who also cross the Rhone in several places. The Canadians enter Rouen.

1944: The Soviets capture the Romanian oilfields at Ploesti, Romania and enter Hungarian occupied Transylvania.

1944: The Slovak Uprising begins. Itwas an armed insurrection organized by the Slovak resistance movement during World War II. It was launched on August 29, 1944 from Banská Bystrica in an attempt to overthrow the collaborationist Slovak State of Jozef Tiso. Although the rebel forces (ca 18,000, later increased to 78,000) were defeated by Nazi Germany, guerrilla warfare continued until the Soviet Army liberated Slovakia in 1945.

1949: The Soviet Union tests its first atomic bomb, known as First Lightning or Joe 1, at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan.

08-30-2010, 04:08 AM
1363: In late August 1363 AD the two main contenders for control of China, Zhu Yuanzhang and Chen Youliang, faced off on Poyang (also called Boyang) Lake, the largest freshwater body of water in China. In the end Zhu Yuanzhang would win the battle and go on to found one of China’s greatest dynasties: the Ming. Accounts say hundreds of boats and around 850,000 sailors from the combined fleets of the Han and the Ming navies met in Lake Poyang. The Han by far had the larger navy, which consisted of 11 squadrons and more than 600,000 men equipped with what the Han called lóu Chuán (楼船, tower ships) which were essentially floating fortresses, crammed with troops.

1799: During the War of the Second Coalition, the Vlieter incident occurs: The surrender without a fight of a squadron of the navy of the Batavian Republic, commanded by Rear-Admiral Samuel Story, during the Anglo-Russian Invasion of Holland to the British navy under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby and Admiral Sir Charles Mitchell, on a sandbank near the Channel known as De Vlieter, near Wieringen.
Sir Ralph Abercromby

1813: During the War of the Sixth Coalition, the two-day Battle of Kulm occurs. 32,000 French troops under General Dominique-Joseph René Vandamme, Count of Unseburg, attacked an army of 54,000 Austrians, Russians, and Prussians under the Russian Field Marshal Mikhail Bogdanovich Barklay-de-Tolli, but were defeated with heavy losses on both sides.

1922: During the Greek Campaign to Minor Asia, the Second Battle of Dumlupınar, which began on the 16 August, ends. It was the last battle in the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922. The Greek forces were organised in the Army of Asia Minor, under Lt. General Georgios Hatzanestes, with a total of 177,000 men in 12 infantry and 1 cavalry divisions. The Turkish forces were organised in the Western Front, under General Ismet Pasha, with a total of 208,000 men in 18 infantry and 5 cavalry divisions. The Turkish plan envisaged the launching of converging attacks on the entire front against the occupied by the Greeks defensive line. The Greek high command although anticipated a major Turkish offensive, failed to estimate correctly the size of the Turkish formations and the exact date of the Turkish attack. When the Turkish attack opened, Greek reinforcements were still underway to the front. In the first three days of the battle, the biggest part of Greek A' and B' Corps, with some 34 infantry battalions and 130 artillery pieces was destroyed as an effective fighting force. The remaining I and VII Infantry Divisions were too weak to hold against the Turkish offensive. At 23:00 hours, on 30 August 1922, Maj. General Frangu ordered his forces (I & VII ID) to retreat further westwards. The end of the battle of Dumlupınar spelt the beginning of the end for the Greek presence in Asia Minor.
To commemorate this victory, 30 August is celebrated as Zafer Bayramı (=Victory Day), a national holiday in Turkey.
http://img251.imageshack.us/img251/5558/ippikodotjpg http://img835.imageshack.us/img835/9347/imageaxdsdotjpg

1942: Rommel begins his final attempt to break through at El Alamein in the Battle of Alam Halfa. However, the 15th Panzer Division fails to break through the 8th Army's lines and sustains heavy casualties losing about 30 tanks forcing the Germans to withdraw back to their start lines.

1945: A Royal Naval force takes Hong Kong.

1995: NATO launches Operation Deliberate Force against Bosnian Serb forces.

08-30-2010, 04:57 AM
August 30, Victory Day, Turkey

Each year on 30th August the people of Turkey celebrate "Victory Day," which honours the success of the Turkish forces in what was to be the final battle of the Turkish War of Independence, and the cessation of links with the Ottoman Empire. The holiday is traditionally dedicated to the Turkish Armed Forces.

The Battle of Dumlupinar was the last battle in the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922), part of the Turkish War of Independence in the closing days of the Ottoman Empire. The battle was fought between 26th August and 30th August 1922, near Afyonkarahisar in Turkey.

Following the battle on the Sakarya River (Battle of Sakarya) in August & September 1921, the Greek forces under General Papoulas retreated to a defensive line extending from the town of Izmir (Nicomedia) to the towns of Eskisehir and Afyonkarahisar. The Greek line formed a 700 km arc, stretching in a broadly North-South direction along difficult hilly ground, with high hills (called tepes) rising out of broken terrain. Most militarists considered it to be easily defensible.

A single track railway line ran from Afyonkarahisar to Dumlupinar (a fortified valley town some 50 kilometres West of Afyonkarahisar surrounded by the mountains Murat Dagi and Ahir Dagi), and thence to Izmir (Smyrna) on the coast. This railway was the main Greek supply route. The Greek HQ at Smyrna was effectively incapable of communicating with the front, or exercising operational control.

The Turkish attacked the Southern flank of the Afyonkarahisar defensive line on the morning of 26th August 1922, watched from the commanding peak of Kocatepe by Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk), CGS Fevzi Pasha, Ismet Inönü and Nureddin.

The Turkish guns silenced the Greek batteries by knocking out their observation posts. The Turkish infantry took advantage of this and advanced against strong opposition and made significant gains.

The breakthrough the next day came when the Turkish 4th Corps under Col. Sami took the 5,000 foot high peak of Erkmentepe, and Fahrettin led his cavalry into the Greek rearguard. The Greeks fell into disarray. General Frangou (commanding the Greek 'I' Division) retreated West from Dumlupinar, losing touch with 'A' Corps. The Greek Corps commanders Tricoupis and Dighenis fell back towards Dumlupinar, but many of their disintegrating forces ran for Izmir.

The Turks closed the ring around Dumlupinar on 30th August with Fevzi and Mustafa Kemal commanding the two encircling columns, and finally secured the victory. The remnants of the Tricoupis and Dighenis Corps, who were trying to escape North from Dumlupinar across the slopes of Murat Dagi, were surrounded on 2nd and 3rd September as they descended to the Banaz valley.

The Turks chased the other fleeing Greeks 250 miles to Izmir. The last Greek troops left Anatolia on 16th September. The Armistice of Mudanya was signed by Turkey, Italy, France and Great Britain on 11th October 1922. Greece was forced to accede to it on 14th October 1922.


Brief history of the whole event- Part 1


08-31-2010, 04:30 AM
1813: During the Peninsular War, British and Portuguese troops besieging San Sebastián, Spain, defeat French occupying troops. The relieving troops lost all self-control and burnt down the city. British rank and file and even high officials ran completely amok, pillaging and burning the city a whole week long, torturing inhabitants suspect of keeping money or gems, raping women and killing an estimate 1,000 inhabitants. Only the street at the foot of the hill (now called 31 August Street) remained intact. The tragedy is remembered every year on 31 August with an extensive candlelit ceremony.

1907: The Anglo-Russian Convention is signed by Alexander Petrovich Izvolsky, Foreign Minister of the Russian Empire and Sir Arthur Nicolson, 1st Baron Carnock, the British Ambassador to Russia. The Convention served as the catalyst for creating the Triple Entente (with the French Third Republic joining the alliance), which was the basis of the alliance of countries opposing the Central Powers in 1914 at the onset of World War I.
The Triple Entente: Marianne (=French Third Republic), Mother Russia, Britannia

1920: During the Polish-Soviet War, the Battle of Komarów occurs. The Soviet 1st Horse Army under Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny sustained heavy casualties and barely avoided being outflanked by six Polish Infantry and Cavalry Regiments under Juliusz Rómmel. The Polish lost approximately 500 killed and 700 horses. It is assumed that the Soviets lost at least 4,000 men during the battle.
Polish Memorial to the Battle

1923: Following the murder, within Greek territory, of the Italian General Enrico Tellini and three of his assistants by unknown assailants, on 27 August, Italian forces bombarded and occupied the Greek island of Corfu on 31 August, killing at least fifteen civilians because Greece was unable to identify the killers. The ulterior motive for the invasion was Corfu's strategic position at the entrance of the Adriatic Sea. Italian forces left Corfu on 27 September.
Corfuans (Corfiots to the locals) watch, as Italian troops parade on the streets of Corfu

1939: The Gleiwitz incident occurs. It was a staged attack by Nazi forces posing as Poles on 31 August 1939, against the German radio station Sender Gleiwitz in Gleiwitz, Upper Silesia, Germany, on the eve of World War II in Europe. A small group of men in Polish Army uniforms seized control of the local Radio broadcasting station and transmitted a short anti German message in Polish. Germany claimed these were acts of Polish aggression.

1944: The British 11th Armoured Division captures Amiens and take the German bridge across the Somme in surprise attack. Montpellier, Beziers, Narbonne and Nice all taken. The U.S. Third Army reaches the river Meuse.

1944: The Soviet 3rd Ukrainian Front captures Bucharest, the capital of Romania and begins to round up members of the Fascist Antonescu government.

1949: During the Greek Civil War, the last Battle fought between the Communist Democratic Army and the Greek Army ends. Operation Torch, the last offensive operation conducted by the Greek Army with eight divisions, two independent brigades, fourteen light infantry regiments, 150 mountain and field artillery guns, 100 planes - including the just arrived 51 Curtiss SB2C Helldiver - against the Communist strongholds of Mount Grammos and Vitsi begins on 2 August. On 27 August, the Army seized Mount Grammos and Communist morale and resistance collapsed. By 31 August the Greek Army was firmly in control of Grammos-Vitsi. The retreat of the 8,000 insurgents of the Greek Democratic Army in Albania after its defeat, marks the end of the Greek Civil War. Greek Army suffered 15,268 men killed in the Civil War, 37,255 wounded, 3,843 missing. Greek Democratic Army lost ca 38,000 insurgents. 5,000 were executed, both sides. 4,289 civilians executed by Communists.
General Thrasybulus Tsakalotos, head of Operation Torch and conqueror of Grammos-Vitsi

08-31-2010, 09:09 PM
1813: During the Peninsular War, British and Portuguese troops besieging San Sebastián, Spain, defeat French occupying troops. The relieving troops lost all self-control and burnt down the city. British rank and file and even high officials ran completely amok, pillaging and burning the city a whole week long, torturing inhabitants suspect of keeping money or gems, raping women and killing an estimate 1,000 inhabitants. Only the street at the foot of the hill (now called 31 August Street) remained intact. The tragedy is remembered every year on 31 August with an extensive candlelit ceremony.

W...T....F?? This doesn't sound like the (disciplined) British at all.

09-01-2010, 04:48 AM
1644: During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in England, Ireland, and Scotland between 1639 and 1651 after these three countries had come under the "Personal Rule" of the same monarch) the Battle of Tippermuir occurs. A Royalist Irish-Scottish army of some 2,000 foot, 150 horse under the Scottish nobleman James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, defeated a 8,000-strong (including 1,000 horse) army of Scottish Covenanters under John Wemyss, 1st Earl of Wemyss. The outcome of the battle proved Montrose's strategic genius and revived the Royalist cause in Scotland.
The conqueror of Tippermuir, James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose

1870: During the Franco-Prussian War, the Battle of Sedan occurs. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and his new French Army of Châlons, comprised 202 infantry battalions, 80 cavalry squadrons and 564 artillery guns, and practically decided the war in favor of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government. The French lost over 17,000 men killed and wounded with 21,000 captured to the Prussian army of 200,000 with 774 guns, commanded by Generalfeldmarschall Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke. The capture of the French emperor left the Prussians without an opposing government willing to make a quick peace. Indeed, two days after news hit Paris of Emperor Napoleon's III capture, the French Second Empire collapsed in a bloodless revolution, leading to the creation of a new provisional government which would carry on the war for five more months sparing no effort to try to change France's fortunes.
French Emperor Napoleon III, surrenders his sword to Prussian King Wilhelm I

1911: The Pisa class, Armoured Cruiser Georgios Averof, built at Orlando Shipyards at Livorno in Italy is commissioned into the Royal Hellenic Navy. She served her country in two Balkan Wars and two World Wars. She's now a floating museum, towed to Phaleron Bay, Pirćus, Greece. The ship is regarded as in active service, carrying the Rear Admiral's Rank Flag. Every Hellenic Navy ship entering or sailing in Phaleron Bay honours the Averof while passing: The crew are ordered to attention (with the "Still to" (http://www.hellenicnavy.gr/upload/salpismata/27-akinisia.mp3) bugle call) and from the relevant Boatswain's pipe every man on decks stands to attention (http://www.hellenicnavy.gr/upload/salpismata/12-prosoxi.mp3), officers saluting, looking to the side where the Averof is in sight.
The ol' Averof as her crew used to call the ship, today

1939: Three German Army Groups begin the invasion of Poland at 4:45am. Massive strikes by the Luftwaffe destroy vital communications and assembly areas, decimating the Polish air force on the ground. Panzer and motorised divisions make deep penetrations into the Polish defences, using tactics soon to be known as the Blitzkrieg. Officially, the first shots of the war are fired from the 280 mm deck guns of the vintage First World War Battleship Schleswig-Holstein. Under the guise of honouring the anniversary of the Battle of Tannenburg, the German Battleship, complete with a hidden cargo of Marine assault troops, was allowed by the Polish authorities to anchor directly off the strategic peninsula of Westerplatte, located at the mouth of the Vistula River in Danzig. At 4:47am, permission was given to the ship to open fire on the island, a strategic point on the Baltic Coast needed to support the troops advancing to the south. Shortly after 4:47am, the ship opened up its massive main guns, firing at near-point-blank range and zero elevation. Needless-to-say, the shells literally pounded the small island, but although the ships guns devastated the target, they inflicted minimal casualties on the Polish stationed within. When the Assault Marines hidden within the Battleship disembarked and launched their main assault on the island, they were repulsed taking heavy casualties. Another assault was launched later in the morning the Assault Marines after more shelling from the Schleswig-Holstein, but this also ended in heavy German casualties. The Westerplatte would prove impossible to take on the first day of World War 2. Lieutenant Wladyslaw Gnys of 2 Krakow Air Regiment shoots down two Dornier 17 Bombers. These were to be the first German airplanes to be shot down in World War 2.

1939: The Wound Badge (=Verwundetenabzeichen) for Wehrmacht, SS, Kriegsmarine, and Luftwaffe soldiers is instituted. The final version of the Iron Cross (= Eisernes Kreuz) is also instituted on this date.
http://img715.imageshack.us/img715/8676/verwundetenabzeichenfrodotjpg http://img716.imageshack.us/img716/5259/ek1classdotpng

1944: The Canadians of the 2nd Division liberate Dieppe.
Royal Hamilton Light Infantry at a grave site in Dieppe, 1 September 1944

1951: The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS treaty) was concluded at San Francisco on 1 September 1951. The treaty bound the signatories to recognise that an armed attack in the Pacific area on any of them would endanger the peace and safety of the others.

1961: The Eritrean War of Independence fought between the Ethiopian government and Eritrean separatists, begins with the shooting of the Ethiopian police by Hamid Idris Awate.
Hamid Idris Awate, the leader of the Eritrean Liberation Army

1982: Korean Air Lines Flight 007 is shot down by Soviet interceptors over the Sea of Japan near Moneron Island just west of Sakhalin island over prohibited Soviet airspace. All 269 passengers and crew aboard were killed, including Lawrence McDonald, a sitting member of the United States Congress.

2004: Beslan school hostage crisis commences when armed terrorists take children and adults hostage in Beslan in North Ossetia, Russia.

09-01-2010, 05:07 AM
W...T....F?? This doesn't sound like the (disciplined) British at all.

Happened with every british siege operation in Spain.
And with every other siege operation in history.

Every Hellenic Navy ship entering or sailing in Phaleron Bay honours the Averof while passing: The crew are ordered to attention (with the "Still to" (http://www.hellenicnavy.gr/upload/salpismata/27-akinisia.mp3) bugle call) and from the relevant Boatswain's pipe every man on decks stands to attention (http://www.hellenicnavy.gr/upload/salpismata/12-prosoxi.mp3), officers saluting, looking to the side where the Averof is in sighThis is called "front (nach backbord/steuerbord)" in german and "passing honours" in english. Is done every time two warships pass each other.
Also this is done with memorials or museum ships: germans render passing honours to Laboe memorial/U995, americans to the USS Arizona.
Russians to the Aurora, I guess.

Btw, the bugle calls/pipe calls are international
The greeks got them from the royal navy, the germans got them from the royal navy etc... :)

09-01-2010, 06:05 AM
Btw, the bugle calls/pipe calls are international
The greeks got them from the royal navy, the germans got them from the royal navy etc... :)
Thanks, didn't know that bugle calls/pipe calls are international...and yes, our Navy is heavy influenced by the Royal Navy (from the rank insignias to the uniforms)

09-02-2010, 04:05 AM
31 BC: During the Final War of the Roman Republic (fought between Cleopatra of Egypt, assisted by Mark Antony, and Octavian) the Naval Battle of Actium, fought on the Ionian Sea, at the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf, Epirus, Greece (near the current Actium NATO AWACS forward operating base) occurs. 250 warships, mostly small liburnian vessels and Hexeres with 16,000 Legionary Marines and 3,000 archers commanded by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a close friend, son-in-law and lieutenant to Octavian, defeated a Ptolemaic fleet of some 230 warships, mostly quinqueremes with some larger Deceres with 2,000 Archers and 20,000 Legionary Marines, commanded by Mark Antony and supported by 60 Egyptian warships of Queen Cleopatra of Ptolemaic Egypt. Mark Antony lost his fleet, his army deserted in large numbers; Octavian had sole and uncontested control of Mare Nostrum and following Mark Antony's and Cleopatra's death, became Augustus Cćsar of Rome.

1898: During the War of the Sudan, the Battle of Omdurman, near Khartoum, Sudan, occurs. A 25,800-strong Anglo-Egyptian army under Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, defeated a 52,000-strong army of Abdullah Ibn-Mohammed, the successor to the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah. Around 10,000 Mahdist Sudanese were killed, 13,000 were wounded, and 5,000 were taken prisoner. Kitchener's force lost 47 men with 382 wounded.

1939: The Luftwaffe raids Warsaw. German troops capture the Jablunka pass in the Tatra mountains. Fighting continued for the strategic peninsula of Westerplatte at the mouth of the Vistula River. A massive attack was launched by 60 Stuka dive bombers of the II and III Stukageschwader Immelmann directed at crushing the garrison. The air assault was not directly followed up by a German attack from the ground and the Polish troops were able to reorganise their defences. Hitler indicates to the UK and France that he would withdraw from Poland provided that he was allowed to retain Danzig and the Polish Corridor. This was dismissed and a joint ultimatum was given to Germany to withdraw its troops from Poland within twelve hours or find itself in a state of war with Britain and France.

1945: The Instrument of Surrender of Japan is signed by Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu and accepted aboard the battleship USS "Missouri" (BB-63) in Tokyo Bay.

Connaught Ranger
09-02-2010, 05:27 AM
1979: An IRA bomb kills British World War II admiral Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma and 3 others while they are boating on holiday in Sligo, Republic of Ireland. May those murdered by terrorists + Rest In Peace +

Actually, he was killed in Mullaghmore, Co. Leitreim,

Leitrim has a very small coastline between County Sligo and County Donegal.

On that day I was leaving Manorhamilton Military Post, County Leitreim, and returning to my Battalion base in Finner Camp, Bundoran, Co. Donegal, which is quite close by to Mullaghmore, It was the day before I was to start training for going overseas with the 46th Irish Battalion U.N.I.F.I.L.

Post #191 :- The final version of the Iron Cross (= Eisernes Kreuz) is also instituted on this date. WRONG! Technically, the last version of the Iron Cross is the 1957 de-Nazified version, official made for issue to German veterans of WW2.

Connaught Ranger.

Connaught Ranger
09-02-2010, 05:42 AM
Happened with every british siege operation in Spain.

Do feel free to add sources to back up your claim.

What happened at San Sebastian was an exception rather than the rule.

The normal "rule" of the day observed in Siege Warfare was after a besieged city was occupied

the victorious troops had 24 hours to do as they wished, after this time looting, rape and mistreatment of the

local population was heavily clamped down on as the British and the Portuguese had no wish for the

local Spanish population to view then in the same vein as the French occupation troops.

Connaught Ranger.

09-02-2010, 06:35 AM
Do feel free to add sources to back up your claim.

What happened at San Sebastian was an exception rather than the rule.

The normal "rule" of the day observed in Siege Warfare was after a besieged city was occupied

the victorious troops had 24 hours to do as they wished, after this time looting, rape and mistreatment of the

local population was heavily clamped down on as the British and the Portuguese had no wish for the

local Spanish population to view then in the same vein as the French occupation troops.

Connaught Ranger.

24 hours of looting and raping is usually enough for one of the smaller cities.
Wellington seems to have been pretty embarassed after each siege, but of course you're right insofar as he tried not to live off the land.

Happy Sedan day everyone!
:) :P

09-02-2010, 07:40 AM
Actually, he was killed in Mullaghmore, Co. Leitreim,

Mullaghmore is in Sligo

Connaught Ranger
09-02-2010, 09:15 AM
Mullaghmore is in Sligo

I stand corrected good Sir, for years I have been under the apprehension that the Leitreim County border started at:- Creevymore as you drive from the Sligo side and beginning at:- Castlegal, when in fact Google-Earth shows the true county borders at:- Crellagh coming from Sligo and at:- Magheracar / Bundoran.

My own fault for posting relying on memory and lack of coffee.:oops:

Connaught Ranger.

Connaught Ranger
09-02-2010, 09:45 AM
24 hours of looting and raping is usually enough for one of the smaller cities.

Wellington seems to have been pretty embarassed after each siege, but of course you're right insofar as he tried not to live off the land.

Please feel free to submit a source for your claims as I originally asked you,

And feel free to post a source for the comment about "Wellington being embarrassed after each siege".

Why would he attempt to "live off the land" when after successfully capturing an enemy town?

S.O.P. for armies of the period was to loot and pillage (with rape thrown in)

by ALL Armies for a standard 24 hours, particularly so those troops who were in the "Forlorn Hope" advance elements attempting to effect an entrance into the enemy fortifications.

And before you go off trying to paint the British Military in a negative manner, take a moment to read up on the Peninsular Wars in general, you might be surprised the French did not leave much, for anybody to live off the land, particularly the Spanish population.

As for the treatment of the Spanish population by the French, taken from Wiki:-

To secure his gains Napoleon pursued a series of intrigues against the Spanish royal family. A coup d'état (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coup_d%27%C3%A9tat) instigated by the Spanish aristocrats forced Charles IV (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_IV_of_Spain) from his throne and replaced him with his son Ferdinand (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_VII_of_Spain). Napoleon removed the royals to Bayonne (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayonne) and forced them both to abdicate on May 5, handing the throne to his brother Joseph Bonaparte (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Bonaparte).

A puppet Spanish council approved the new king, but the usurpation provoked a popular uprising that eventually spread throughout the country. Citizens of Madrid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrid) rose up in rebellion (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dos_de_Mayo_Uprising) against the French occupation on May 2, slew 150 French soldiers, and were not put down until Murat's (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joachim_Murat) elite guard (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Guard) and mameluk (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mamluk) cavalry crashed into the city and trampled the crowds.[16] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peninsular_War#cite_note-15)

The next day, immortalized by Goya (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_Goya) in his painting, The Third of May 1808 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Third_of_May_1808), the French army shot hundreds of Madrid citizens in retaliation. Similar reprisals were repeated in other cities and continued for days, with no military effect but to strengthen the resistance; soon afterward bloody, spontaneous fighting known as guerrilla (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guerrilla) ("little war") erupted in much of Spain; the term "guerrilla" has been used ever since to describe such combat.[17] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peninsular_War#cite_note-16)

The tiny province of Asturias (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asturias) rose up in arms, cast out its French governor on May 25 and "declared war on Napoleon at the height of his greatness."[18] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peninsular_War#cite_note-17) Within weeks, all the Spanish provinces had followed its example.[19] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peninsular_War#cite_note-18) Mobs butchered 338 French citizens in Valencia. Every French ship of the line (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ship_of_the_line) anchored at Cádiz was bombarded and captured (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capture_of_Rosily_Squadron).[20] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peninsular_War#cite_note-19)

Napoleon had unwittingly provoked a total war (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Total_war) against the Spaniards, a mistake from which the French Empire would never truly recover.[21] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peninsular_War#cite_note-20)



After repulsing Soult's counter-offensive through the Pyrenees at Sorauren, Wellington returned to his plan of capturing the well-fortified town and port of San Sebastián before making any attempt to cross the border into France.

Overlooked to the north by Monte Urgull and the Castle of La Mota, San Sebastián stood across a narrow isthmus with its approach from the south protected by a formidably-strong fortification known as the Hornwork. In 1813, it was possible at low tide to reach the eastern face of the town's walls by foot, and it was from this direction that an unsuccessful assault had been made on 25th July.

Over the following month, the town's defences had been reinforced by the construction of a thick, high stone wall behind the repaired breach. Despite everything, it was decided that the second assault would be made against the same point, albeit only after better artillery preparation.

The Battle:-

The bombardment began at 9am on 26th August, the main work being done by 30 guns in two batteries facing the site of the old breach. By the end of the 30th, a breach had been made which extended almost 90 metres north from the southeast corner of the town's walls; further along the wall, a second, much smaller breach had also been made.

The artillery bombardment reopened at dawn on the 31st. By a stroke of good fortune, one shot disabled a mine which had been laid under the main breach. At 10.55am, one hour ahead of low tide, the bombardment lifted and the assault against the main breach began, led by the 1/4th, 2/47th and 2/59th of Robinson's Brigade (5th Division) strengthened by 750 volunteers from the 1st, 4th and Light Divisions.

Leading a 'forlorn hope' of 40 men from the 1/4th, Lt. Francis Macguire was shot dead at the foot of the breach. Wave after wave clambered past to the top of the steep breach only to find the way forward blocked by a sheer drop of at least 6 metres. Swept by terrific frontal and flanking fire, each wave was blown back. The survivors clung to the rubble at the foot of the breach, desperately seeking cover.

http://www.peninsularwar.org/images/tmap_sebastiandotgif (http://www.peninsularwar.org/map_sebastian.htm)Map of the Battle (http://www.peninsularwar.org/map_sebastian.htm)
At 11.35am, 800 men from Bradford's Portuguese Brigade were sent in two columns against the smaller breach. The enemy guns were able to fire just two salvos in the impressively short time that it took the Portuguese to cross 650 metres of tidal flats, and to wade thigh-deep for 180 metres across the river estuary. While one column veered away towards the main breach, the other fought to gain a foothold in the smaller breach.

The impasse was broken by the decision of the Allied commander, Sir Thomas Graham, to order his artillery batteries to open fire against the high curtain which abutted the southern end of the main breach.

Over a 20-minute period from 12.15pm, shells flew over the heads of the Allied infantry crouched beneath the breach to inflict terrible carnage amongst the French troops manning the curtain. As the barrage lifted at 12.35pm, the British infantry surged forwards once more, this time gaining a decisive bridgehead on the high curtain.

As resistance along the curtain fell away - fuelled by the detonation of an ammunition store - troops of the Light Division forced another opening into the town at the northern end of the breach. The Portuguese too were breaking through at the smaller breach. By around 2.15pm, the town was in Allied hands, the French commander, General Emanuel Rey, having led the survivors from the garrison into the temporary security of the castle.
http://www.peninsularwar.org/images/sebastian1dotjpg http://www.peninsularwar.org/images/sebastian2dotjpg
Above: The view across La Concha bay towards Monte Urgull and the Parte Vieja (Old Quarter) of San Sebastián. Above: Wrecked. The monument in the English Cemetery to the memory of the British soldiers who died in the Peninsular and Carlist Wars.

Inside the town, fires which had been started by the artillery bombardment were swept from street to street by high winds, while the horrors inflicted on the inhabitants by battle-crazed Allied troops are said by some to have exceeded those at Badajoz.

Rey finally surrendered on 8th September, after the castle had been subjected to a 2 hour-long bombardment from 61 guns and mortars. French casualties during the siege amounted to some 1,400, while a further 1,300 were taken prisoner when the castle fell. The Allies lost 2,400 killed, wounded and missing during the assault.

San Sebastián Today :-

San Sebastián (Donostia) is a great place to visit and makes an excellent base for touring the Battles of the Pyrenees. There is, however, little evidence today of the events of 31st August 1813. The storming sparked off the worst fire in the town's history, leaving only one street left standing; the street - now named the 31 de Agosto - is filled each anniversary with silent townspeople carrying candles in commemoration of that dreadful day.

The town was completely rebuilt after the fire, creating what is now known as the Parte Vieja (Old Quarter). The town walls were demolished in 1864, and land was reclaimed from the Urumea river. The location of the main breach is now marked only by La Bretxa (The Breach) market.

The Cementerio de los Ingleses (English Cemetery) should be visited, though its once-fine monument to the memory of the British soldiers who died in the Peninsular and Carlist Wars appears to have been terribly vandalized. Walk along the harbour-front to the Aquarium. Climb the steps, then follow the path into the park on Monte Urgull. The cemetery is well-signposted from here.

Further Reading:-
"A History of the Peninsular War, Volume VI" by Sir Charles Oman, published by Greenhill Books 1995, ISBN 1853672262.
"Wellington in the Peninsula 1808-1814" by Jac Weller, published by Greenhill Books 1999, ISBN 1853673811.

Also the following should be pointed out:-

Inside the town, fires which had been started by the artillery bombardment were swept from street to street by high winds, while the horrors inflicted on the inhabitants by battle-crazed Allied troops are said by some to have exceeded those at Badajoz.

Implying that not only were the British involved, but their Portuguese allies as well,

and indicating something might have occurred after the Siege of Badaioz.

Connaught Ranger.

09-03-2010, 04:18 AM
36 BC: During the Roman Republican Civil Wars, the Naval Battle of Naulochus, off Sicily, occurs. The 300-strong Pompeian fleet under Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius is defeated by the 300-strong Octavian fleet commanded by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, who was Octavian's close friend, son-in-law, and lieutenant. Agrippa lost just three ships, while 28 ships of Sextus were sunk, 17 fled, and the others were burnt or captured.
The Harpax, Agrippa's secret weapon in the battle of Naulochus; it was a catapult-shot grapnel invented by himself

863: During the Byzantine-Arab Wars, the Battle of Lalakaon, fought at the banks of the Lalakaon river in Paphlagonia, occurs. The Byzantine army led by Emperor Michael III's uncle, Petronas the Patrician, defeated the Arabs of Umar ibn Abdallah ibn Marwan, surnamed Al-Aqta (=the one-handed), the Abbasid emir of Malatya. Al-Aqta was encircled by the Byzantines and killed in the battle. Only a splinter of his army escaped under his son. He too however was pursued by Machćras, the Cleisurarch (=leader of the Cleisura, a fortified mountain pass) of the Charsianon Thema, and was defeated and captured with many of his men. Byzantine historian Joseph Genesius gives us an interesting account, when he describes the last moments before the soldiers of the Armeniacon (=Armenian) and Charsianon (=named after a fortress in Cappadocia) Themas, attacked the Arabs:
This is about a quarrel amongst the archons (meaning the generals), which of the two armies is more gallant; and then the soldiers of the Armeniacon, the aristocrats of our army, said: "Gallantry is not measured in speechies; let us both rush headlong to the enemy and then we'll see who is the most valiant". The two archons asked the gathered troops: "Men, are you ready to compete with each other, and attack the enemy, so Help us God?" And they answered: "Yes, in the name of our Emperor". And with the thrilling cry "Σταυρός Νενίκηκεν-Stavrós Neníkēken" [The Cross has Conquered], they assaulted the enemy lines"

1260: The Battle of Ain Jalut, a Mongol raid in Palestine, occurs. A 10,000 - 20,000-strong Egyptian Mamluk army under al-Malik al-Muzafar Saif ad-Din Qutuz, the Mamluk Sultan himself, defeated a Mongol army numbering some 20,000 under Kitbuqa Noyan, the Great Khan Hulagu's lieutenant. Kitbuqa was killed by the veteran Mamluk warrior Jamal al-Din Akoush al-Shamsy.

1650: During the English Civil Wars, the Battle of Dunbar occurs. An English Parliamentarian force of 7,500 foot, 3,500 horse, under Oliver Cromwell, decisively defeated a Scottish Covenanters' army of 9,500 foot, 2,500 horse, under David Leslie, Lord Newark. As a result of the destruction of the Scottish army, Cromwell was able to march unopposed to Edinburgh.

1651: During the English Civil Wars, the Battle of Worcester occurs. It was the final battle of the English Civil War. Oliver Cromwell with a Parliamentarian army of 31,000 defeated the Royalist, predominantly Scottish, forces of King Charles II. The 16,000 Royalist forces were overwhelmed by the 31,000-strong New Model Army (consisted of full-time professional soldiers rather than part-time militia) of Cromwell. About 3,000 Royalists were killed during the battle and a further 10,000 were taken prisoner. Around 8,000 Scottish prisoners were deported to New England, Bermuda and the West Indies to work for landowners as indentured labourers while the English prisoners were conscripted into the New Model Army and sent to Ireland.
Oliver Cromwell

1798: During the French Revolutionary Wars (a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states) the Battle of St. George's Caye, fought at the St. George's Caye island off the coast of Belize, occurs. It opened on 3 September and lasted for a week. An invading force from Mexico, comprised 35 vessels with 2,500 soldiers and sailors, attempting to claim Belize for Spain and commanded by Don Arturo O'Neill de Tyrone, was blocked by 4 Sloops, 2 schooners, 7 gunboats, and 700 troops of the local Baymen (=the earliest European settlers of the eventual colony of British Honduras, modern day Belize) under the British Captain John Moss. Following the Spanish defeat, the threat of Spanish attacks decreased significantly. The event is celebrated every 10 September in Belize as St. George's Caye Day or National Day.

1939: After Germany rejects the Anglo-French ultimatum, which called for the withdrawal of all German forces from Poland, the UK and France declare war on Germany.

1943: The new Italian government under Marshal Badoglio signs an armistice with the allies in secret. This allows the allies to launch Operation Baytown, the invasion of mainland Italy. The British Eighth Army crosses the Strait of Messina unmolested.

1944: The British Second Army liberates Brussels. French and U.S. forces enter Lyons.

1994: Russia and the People's Republic of China agree to de-target their nuclear weapons against each other.

09-04-2010, 05:29 AM
476: Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when the Scirian Foederatus General, Odoacer, proclaims himself King of Italy, thus ending Western Roman Empire. The period of both cultural and economic deterioration as well as disruption of Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire, known as Middle Ages, begins.

1812: During the Anglo-American War, the Siege of Fort Harrison occurs. It opened on 4 September and lasted for 11 days. It was the first American land victory in the war of 1812, won by an outnumbered United States force under Zachary Taylor, who would later become the 12th President of the United States, garrisoned inside the fort against a combined Native American force of Miami, Potawatomi, Kickapoo and Winnebago warriors.

1939: The German 3. Armee and 4. Armee join in the Corridor and re-establish the land connection between East Prussia and the Reich that was severed in 1919 as a result of the Versailles Treaty. German troops cross the River Pilica in southern Poland. The German successes in Poland are beginning to wear down the Polish armies, which are now becoming isolated from one another, making the mounting of coordinated counter-attacks increasingly difficult. At Bydgoszcz, 1,000 Poles are murdered, including several dozen Boy Scouts who are shot against a wall by German troops.

1944: The British 11th Armoured Division takes Antwerp, Belgium, and the docks undamaged.
Captured Germans in Antwerp - 10 yr old boy and Major

1967: During the Vietnam War, Operation Swift, a search and destroy mission in the Quế Sơn Valley, carried out by Bravo, Delta, Mike and Kilo Companies of 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines, begins. It ended on 15 September. The ensuing battles killed 114 Americans and an estimated 376 North Vietnamese.

1996: Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo (=Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - People's Army/FARC-EP) attack a military base in Guaviare, starting three weeks of guerrilla warfare in which at least 130 Colombians are killed.

09-05-2010, 05:30 AM
1800: During the Napoleonic Wars, French General Claude-Henri Belgrand de Vaubois surrenders Malta to Great Britain. The British granted Vaubois and the French fair terms and the honours of war, including the right to keep their arms and spoils. General Vaubois and his troops were quickly repatriated to M****illes.
Claude-Henri Belgrand de Vaubois

1807: The Bombardment of Copenhagen with fire bombs and phosphorus rockets by the British, to prevent Denmark from surrendering its fleet to Napoleon, ends. The battle began on 16 August between the British troops led by General William Schaw Cathcart, 1st Earl Cathcart, and the Danish troops and militia under Heinrich Ernst Peymann. The Danish rejected British demands to surrender, so the British fleet under Admiral Sir James Gambier, 1st Baron Gambier, bombarded the city from 2 to 5 September 1807. More than 2,000 civilians and 3,000 militia and troops were killed and 30% of the buildings were destroyed during the battle. The Danish surrendered their fleet (18 ships of the line, 11 frigates, 2 smaller ships, 2 ship-sloops, 7 brig-sloops, 2 brigs, 1 schooner and 26 gunboats) on 7 September.

1839: The First Opium War begins in China. It was the climax of trade disputes and diplomatic difficulties between China under the Qing Dynasty and the British Empire after China sought to restrict British opium traffickers. It ended on 1842 in a British victory.

1905: In New Hampshire, USA, the Treaty of Portsmouth, mediated by US President Theodore Roosevelt, ends the Russo-Japanese War.

WWI-1914: The First Battle of the Marne begins. It was fought between 5 and 12 September 1914. It resulted in an Allied victory of the combined Anglo-French forces under Marshal Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre, against the German Army under Chief of Staff Helmuth Johann Ludwig von Moltke the Younger (nephew of Count von Moltke). The war became a stalemate after the Allies won the Battle of the Marne.

1943: The US paratroops of the 503rd Parachute Regiment land behind about 20,000 Japanese troops at Lae, New Guinea.

1944: The U.S. 3rd Army crosses the Meuse as the British reach Ghent in Belgium.

1944: A German-Hungarian counterattack in the area of Cluj-Napoca in Romania fails.

1969: During the Vietnam War, US Army Lt. William Calley is charged with six specifications of premeditated murder for the death of 109 Vietnamese civilians in My Lai.
A graphic photo taken by US Army photographer Ronald L. Haeberle on 16 March, 1968 in the aftermath of the My Lai massacre showing mostly women and children dead on a road (http://i51.*******.com/k1cbb5dotjpg)

1970: During the Vietnam War, Operation Jefferson Glenn begins. It was the last major operation in which U.S. ground forces participated in Vietnam. The United States 3rd Marine Division, 101st Airborne Division and the South Vietnamese 1st Infantry Division initiate a new operation in Thừa Thięn-Huế Province.

09-06-2010, 04:59 AM
394: The Battle of Frigidus, fought near the river Vipana/Vipacco (that flows for 44 km/27 miles through western Slovenia and northeast Italy) between the army of the Eastern Emperor Flavius Theodosius I the Great and the army of Western Roman ruler Flavius Eugenius, occurs. The defeat of Eugenius and his commander, the Frankish General Flavius Arbogastes commonly known as Arbogast, put the whole empire back in the hands of a single emperor for the last time in Roman history. Eugenius was captured and brought before the emperor. His pleas for mercy went unanswered and he was beheaded. Arbogast escaped the defeat and fled into the mountains, but after a few days' wandering, he concluded escape was impossible and committed suicide. The battle was the last attempt to contest the Christianization of the empire; its outcome decided the fate of Christianity in the Western Empire.
Solidus of Emperor Theodosius I

1634: During the Thirty Years' War, the Battle of Nördlingen occurs. A 34,000-strong Catholic Hispano-Imperial army, comprised forces from Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the Bavarian League commanded by the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III and his cousin the Cardinal of the Catholic Church and Infante of Spain, Fernando, defeated the combined Protestant armies of some 16,300 infantry and 9,300 cavalry from Sweden and their German-Protestant allies of Saxe-Weimar and the Heilbronn League (=an alliance between Sweden, France, and the Protestant princes of Western Germany), under the Swedish-Finnish nobleman Count Gustav Horn af Björneborg and Prince Bernard of Saxe-Weimar. Gustav Horn af Björneborg was captured and his army was destroyed.
http://i51.*******.com/2hn5c3cdotjpg http://i56.*******.com/i3z629dotjpg
The conquerors of Nördlingen, Emperor Ferdinand III and Cardinal-Infante Fernando

1669: During the Sixth Turco-Venetian War, the Siege of Candia (today's Heraclion, Crete), possibly the longest siege in history, lasting for 21 years, ends. The commander of the Venetian forces, the Doge-General Francesco Morosini, surrendered his forces to the Ottoman commander Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha. Crete is ceded to Ottomans.
The Morosini Fountain built in 1628 by the Venetians, in downtown Heraclion, Crete

1885: With a bloodless Revolution, Ottoman autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia, was annexed by the tributary Principality of Bulgaria (=the self-governing entity created as a vassal of the Ottoman Empire by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878).
A traditional Greek Eastern Rumelian Dance; 5% (ca 45,000) of Eastern Rumelia's population comprised ethnic Greeks

1937: During the Spanish Civil War, the Battle of El Mazuco begins. It was fought between the Republican and Nationalist armies and lasted for 16 days. The defence of El Mancuzo and the surrounding mountains by the 5,000 troops of the Asturian People's Army under Colonel Juan Ibarrola Orueta halted the Nationalist advance into eastern Asturias, despite their forces being outnumbered sevenfold. This battle was probably the first use of carpet bombing against a military target.

1941: Hitler’s War Directive No. 35 orders the capture of Moscow after the Ukraine operation has been completed.

1944: The Canadians surround Calais, trapping the German garrison. Liege falls to British troops, while the US First Army pushes East through Belgium, crossing Meuse.
Devastated Liege in 1944

1944: The Soviets advance to the Yugoslav border. They also reach the eastern Carpathians.

1955: A planted bomb on 5 September, by a Turk usher (who was later arrested and confessed) at the Turkish consulate in Thessaloniki, Greece, allegedly the house where Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was born in 1881, incited two-day riots against the Greeks, Armenians and Jews of Istanbul. The riots were orchestrated by the Turkish military's Tactical Mobilization Group, the seat of Operation Gladio's Turkish branch, the Kontrgerilla (=Counter-Guerrilla).
The Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Athenagoras I, mourns at the ruins of a destroyed Christian Church; Hypsomathia (now Samatya), Istanbul, September 1955

1965: Following the Pakistani Operation Grand Slam, an audacious plan drawn up by the Pakistan Army, in May 1965, to attack the vital Akhnoor Bridge in Jammu and Kashmir, at 04:00 hours, on 6 September, 1965, the Indian Army (XI Corps) crossed the International Border on the Western front, marking an official beginning of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. The five-week war caused thousands of casualties on both sides. It ended in a United Nations (UN) mandated ceasefire and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration.
Indian 18th Cavalry on the move, 6 September 1965

1972: During the Munich 1972 Summer Olympic Games, 9 Israeli athletes taken hostage by the Palestinian Black September terrorist group died (as did a German policeman) at the hands of the kidnappers during a failed rescue attempt. 2 other Israeli athletes are slain in the initial attack the previous day.

1976: Soviet Air Defence Forces/11th Air Army/513th Fighter Regiment's pilot, Lt Viktor Ivanovich Belenko, lands a MiG-25 jet fighter at Hakodate on the island of Hokkaido in Japan and requests political asylum in the United States.

09-07-2010, 04:41 AM
70: Roman Emperor Titus Flavius Vespasi**** with a 66,000-strong Roman Army, occupies and plunders Jerusalem. According to the Jewish historian Titus Flavius Josephus, only 97,000 Jerusalemites survived from the million plus inhabitants of the city.

1191: During the Third Crusade, the Battle of Arsuf occurs. A 12,000-strong Crusader force of Anglo-Normans, Templars and Hospitallers under the King of England Richard I Cśur de Lion (=Lionheart), defeated a 20,000-strong Ayyubid army under the Kurdish general Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, commonly known as Saladin. The Christian chroniclers claim Muslims lost 32 emirs and 7,000 men, but it is possible or likely that the true number may have been considerably less than this. Richard's own dead are said to have numbered no more than 700, which included James of Avesnes, Condé, and Leuze, leader of the French, Flemish, and Frisian contingent.

1652: The Guo Huaiyi Rebellion: Around 15,000 Han farmers and militia rebells under the sugarcane farmer and militia leader Guo Huaiyi, revolt against Dutch rule on Taiwan (then Dutch Formosa). The uprising lasted for 5 days. In total some 4,000 Chinese were killed during the five-day uprising, approximately 1 in 10 Chinese living in Taiwan at that time.

1776: During the American Revolutionary War, the first documented record of use in battle of a Submarine, occurs. Sergeant Ezra Lee, took the Turtle submarine out to attempt a - what it proved to be - unsuccessful attack on Admiral Richard Howe's flagship HMS "Eagle" a 64-gun third rate ship of the Royal Navy, moored off Manhattan.
A photo of a full-size model of the Turtle submarine on display at the Royal Navy Submarine Museum

1812: During the French Invasion of Russia, the largest and bloodiest single-day battle is fought, the Battle of Borodino. The French Grande Armée under Emperor Napoleon I the Great, attacked the Imperial Russian Army of Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov. More than 250,000 troops involved and resulted in at least 70,000 casualties on both sides. While Napoleon won the battle of Borodino, some scholars and contemporaries described Borodino as a Pyrrhic victory. The battle was famously described by Leo Tolstoy in his novel War and Peace as a continuous slaughter which could be of no avail either to the French or the Russians.
The famous Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky composed his 1812 Overture masterpiece to commemorate Russia's defence against Napoleon's advancing Grande Armée at the Battle of Borodino

1821: The Republic of Gran Colombia (=Great Colombia; a federation covering much of present day Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador) is established, with Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios, commonly known as Simón Bolívar as the founding President and Francisco José de Paula Santander y Omańa, commonly known as Francisco de Paula Santander, as vice president.
The Flag of the Republic of Gran Colombia in 1821

1822: Dom Pedro I of Brazil declares Brazil independent from Portugal on the shores of the Ipiranga creek in Săo Paulo.
Memorial to the Independence of Brazil, built in the margin of the Ipiranga creek

1939: Polish forces trying to hold the line at the Narew River, start to collapse. Krakow surrenders to German troops. The German 10. Armee (von Reichenau) closes ever nearer to Warsaw. A deeper defensive line is prepared by the Poles at the Bug River, as their battered armies begin a withdrawal toward that line.

1940: The sustained bombing of Britain by Nazi Germany, known as the Blitz, begins. At 16:56, London's air-raid sirens announce the arrival of 375 German bombers and supporting fighters. They come up the Thames to London from the sea and set the London docks ablaze. The day-light raiders are gone by 18:00, but the fires are still burning when the night raiders arrive to inflict more damage at 20:10 during which 306 are killed and 1,337 seriously injured. This will be the first of 57 consecutive nights of bombing. The codeword Cromwell is passed nation-wide, and church bells ring out in warning that a German invasion may be underway.

1944: The British 11th Armoured Division crosses the Albert Canal, to the East of Antwerp. The US Third Army crosses the Moselle. US 9th Air Force fighters, supporting elements of the US 7th Army in southern France, destroy an estimated 500 German vehicles along a 25 km (15 mi) section of road. Germany's armoured forces have been shattered along the Western Front. German Heeresgruppe B has only about a hundred operational tanks.

1965: During the Vietnam War, United States Marines (3rd Battalion, 7th Marines-1st Battalion, 7th Marines) and South Vietnamese forces (2nd Battalion, 4th ARVN Regiment, 3rd Vietnamese Marine Battalion) initiate Operation Piranha on the Batangan Peninsula, targetting the 1st VC Rgt. During Piranha, allied forces killed 178 VC, captured or detained 360 enemy or suspects. Allied losses were two Marines and five South Vietnamese killed, 14 Marines and 33 Vietnamese wounded.

09-08-2010, 05:07 AM
1380: The Battle of Kulikovo, fought near the Don River, between combined Russian armies (50 - 60,000) under the command of the Grand Prince of Vladimir, Dmitri Ivanovich of Moscow and the Mongols of the Golden Horde (100 - 150,000) under the Tumenbashy (=general) Mamai, occurs. Mamai's allies, Grand Prince Oleg of Ryazan and Grand Prince Jogaila of Lithuania were late to the battle. After approximately three hours of battle (from noon to 3 p.m.) the Russian forces were successful, although suffering great casualties, in holding off the Horde's attack. The Russians lost ca 20,000 killed. The Mongol army was annihilated. The defeated Mamai was dethroned by a rival Mongol general, Tokhtamysh.
Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi (=of the Don) is venerated as a Saint by the Russian Orthodox Church. The relief above, depicts the blessing of Grand Prince St Dmitri Donskoi by St Sergei of Radonezh before the Battle of Kulikovo

1449: During the Sino-Mongol War, the Battle of Tumu Fortress occurs. It was a frontier conflict between the Oirat (today's Kalmyks) Mongols and the Chinese Ming Dynasty which led to the capture of the Chinese Emperor Zhengtong. The Ming army of about 500,000 men under the eunuch Wang Zhen, was attacked, routed and almost destroyed by the 30,000 Mongols under the Oirat Khagan (=Emperor) Esen Tayisi. The Chinese emperor was captured, and was sent to Esen's main camp near Xianfu.

1514: During the Fourth Russo-Lithuanian War (a series of wars between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, allied with the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow), the Battle of Orsha occurs. An allied force of less than 30,000 troops from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Kingdom of Poland under the command of the Ruthenian Hetman Konstanty Ostrogski, defeated a Russian army of 13 -15,000 troops commanded by the Boyar Ivan Andreyevich Chelyadnin. Due to Ostrogski's Ruthenian descent, the battle is regarded by Belarusian nationalists as a symbol of national revival.
The conqueror of Orsha, Konstanty Ostrogski

1793: During the French Revolutionary Wars, the Battle of Hondschoote occurs. At Hondschoote, France, 40,000 Frenchmen under General Jean Nicolas Houchard and Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, 1st Comte Jourdan, defeated 24,000 British and Hanoverian troops under Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. The French lost 3,000 killed and wounded while captured 6 flags and all of the Duke of York's artillery. The allied Anglo-Hanoverian army suffered 4,000 killed and wounded. General Houchard was later tried and guillotined for not pursuing the British.
The Monument to the Battle in Hondschoote, Nord, France

1796: During the French Revolutionary Wars, the Battle of Bassano, in Italy occurs. A 20,000-strong French army under Napoleon Bonaparte, defeated a 11,000-strong Austrian army under Dagobert Sigismund, Count Wurmser. Bonaparte executed a double flanking attack and Wurmser’s army collapsed quickly. About 600 Austrians were killed, 3,000 were captured, along with 8 flags, 35 cannon and a pontoon train. About half of the remaining Austrians fled to the east, while Wurmser with another group retreated to the south. The French suffered 400 killed, wounded or missing.
A young Napoleon Bonaparte

WWI-1914: Private Thomas James Highgate (13 May 1895 - 8 September 1914), was the first British soldier to be convicted of desertion and executed during that war.

1939: The Polish government leaves Warsaw for Lublin (Eastern Poland).

1941: Leningrad is now completely surrounded after German troops close the land bridge at Schliesselburg (a fortress built in 1323 by Prince of Novgorod Jury Danilovich on the island of Oreshek).

1943: Eisenhower announces the Italian unconditional surrender.

1944: The first V2 rockets hit London and Paris from mobile bases in Holland.

1944: The mother of seven and head of the resistance group Bumbulina (=the name of a heroine of the Greek War of Independence), the 45-year old Lela Karagiannes, is put before the German firing squad together with 72 other memebers of the resistance, in Athens, Greece. She died singing the Greek National Anthem.
Lela Karagiannes and her statue bust in her hometown, Chalkis, Eubśa

1945: United States troops arrive to partition the southern part of Korea in response to Soviet troops occupying the northern part of the peninsula a month earlier.

1951: The Treaty of Peace with Japan was officially signed by the nations of Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Luxembourg, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, The Philippines, Poland, Saudi Arabia, the Soviet Union, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Syria, Turkey, Uruguay, The UK, The USA, Venezuela, Vietnam in San Francisco, California in formal recognition of the end of the Pacific War.
The Monument to the Treaty of San Francisco in Tokyo, Japan

09-09-2010, 05:19 AM
9: During the Roman-Germanic Wars, the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest occurs. Roman Legio XVII, Legio XVIII and Legio XIX, commanded by Publius Quinctilius Varus, are ambushed and destroyed by the 10,000 - 12,000 warriors from the Germanic tribes of Cherusci, Marsi, Chatti, Bructeri, Chauci and Sicambri under the Chieftain of the Cherusci, Arminius (=Hermann). According to the Roman historian Suetonius, Emperor Augustus was so shaken by the news that he stood butting his head against the walls of his palace, repeatedly shouting Quintili Vare, legiones redde! (=Quintilius Varus, give me back my legions!). Varus had committed suicide by falling upon his sword. In Roman History, the Roman defeat in the battle was known as Clades Variana (=Varian Disaster).
The Hermannsdenkmal, the monument commemorating the Cherusci chieftain Hermann or Arminius at the Teutoburg Forest

1493: During the Hundred Years' Croatian-Ottoman War, the Battle of Krbava field occurs. A Croatian army of the Kingdom of Hungary (Croatia was during this period united under the crown of the Kingdom of Hungary, and the Croatian lords who fought in the battle were subjects of the unified crown) numbering some 8,000 foot, 2 - 3,000 heavy cavalry, under the Ban (=Ruler) of Croatia Emerik Derenčin and the Count of Cetin, Ivan Frankopan Cetinski, was decisively defeated by the 8,000 Akıncı (=irregular light cavalry) of the Ottoman Bosnian Sanjak Bey, Hadım Yakup Pasha. The defeat was resounding. In one single day, around 7,000 Croatian soldiers lost their lives, including Derenčin and Cetinski. Following the battle, scores of Croatian refugees moved toward Austria while others migrated to Italian coastal areas.
The CoA of the unified kingdom of Hungary and Croatia

1513: During the War of the League of Cambrai, the Battle of Flodden Field occurs. An invading Scottish army under the Scottish King James IV numbering some 30 - 34,000 troops, was defeated by the ca 26,000 English soldiers commanded by Sir Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, 1st Earl of Surrey, 13th Baron Segrave, 12th Baron Mowbray. It ended in a victory for the English and was the largest battle (in terms of numbers) fought between the two nations. Surrey's army lost 1,500 men killed. Scottish losses were somewhere between 5 - 10,000. James IV , King of Scots, died in the battle.
The Memorial to the Battle at Flodden Field

1922: The Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922 ends with Turkish victory over the Greeks. The last Units of Greek C' Corps, board ships and abandon Smyrna/İzmir. A' and B' Corps have already been transported to Pirćus, Greece, on 3 September. Greek losses in the 3-year war, accounted for 24,240 dead (KIA and dead from disease), 48,880 wounded, 17,630 made prisoners. Turkish losses accounted for 10,885 KIA, 22,690 dead from disease, 31,173 wounded, 9,000 made prisoners. The first 400 Turkish troops enter and take control of the city of Smyrna/İzmir. The Greek Orthodox Bishop of Smyrna, Chrysostom, is abducted by an angry Turkish mob incited by Nureddin Pasha and according to eyewitness accounts, is tied to a barber chair, cruelly tortured, and put to death.
Bishop Chrysostom of Smyrna, is venerated as a Martyr by the Orthodox Christians, especially of Greece and Cyprus

1939: The 8. Armee (Blaskowitz) captures Lodz and Radom, as the 1. and 4. Panzer-Division reach the outskirts of Warsaw. Further penetrations into the suburbs of Warsaw by the 4. Panzer-Division are repulsed by the city's defenders.

1943: All Italian forces within the German-controlled areas of Italy, southern France, Yugoslavia and Albania are disarmed without opposition and made prisoners of war. In Greece however, in the island of Cephallonia, the largest of the Ionian Islands, the 5,000 officers and other ranks of the Italian 33Ş Divisione Fanteria Acqui (33rd Acqui Infantry Division), are massacred, drowned or otherwise exterminated. It was one of the largest prisoner of war massacres of the war, along with the Katyn massacre of Poles, and one of the largest-scale German atrocities to be committed by Wehrmacht troops (specifically, the 1. Gebirgs-Division) instead of the SS.
General Hubert Lanz, CO of the XXII Gebirgskorps, was sentenced to 12 years imprisonment at the Nuremberg Trials for the Cephallonia massacre, as well as the participation of his men in other atrocities in Greece.
Massacred Italian troops at the village of Troinnata, Cephallonia
The Monument to the Massacre, in Cephallonia, Greece

1943: Operation Avalanche sees the US Fifth Army (Lt. Gen. Mark Clark) land at Salerno, South East of Naples. Taranto is occupied by the British without resistance. Formation of an anti-Badoglio, Republican Fascist Government is formed in northern Italy.

2004: A one-tonne (1.1 ton) car bomb, which was packed into a small Daihatsu delivery van, exploded outside the Australian embassy at Kuningan District, South Jakarta, at about 10:30 local time (03:30 UTC), killing 9 people including the suicide bomber, and wounding over 150 others. It gutted the Greek Embassy on the 12th floor of an adjacent building, where three diplomats there were slightly wounded.

09-10-2010, 05:18 AM
1547: During the Anglo-Scottish Wars, the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh occurs. An English army of tens of thousands (including several hundred German mercenary arquebusiers, a contingent of Italian mounted arquebusiers under Don Pedro de Gamboa and 6,000 cavalry) under Earl Marshal Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, 1st Earl of Hertford, 1st Viscount Beauchamp, 1st Baron Seymour, decisively defeated a Scottish army numbering 22,000 or 23,000 men, while English sources claimed that it comprised 36,000, under the Scottish nobleman James Hamilton, Duke of Châtellerault and 2nd Earl of Arran. It was a catastrophic defeat for the Scots caused by the use of naval artillery (30 warships) by the English for the first time in a land battle in Britain. In Scotland, it was known as Bloody Saturday.
The Monument to the Battle, at Pinkie Cleugh, East Lothian, Scotland

1813: During the Anglo-American War, the Naval Battle of Lake Erie occurs. It was fought in Lake Erie off the coast of Ohio between nine warships of the US Navy commanded by Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, and six warships of the Royal Navy, commanded by Lt. Commander Robert Heriot Barclay. The British suffered 41 killed, 93 wounded, while their entire squadron was captured. The British defeat ensured American control of the lake for the rest of the war, which in turn allowed the Americans to recover Detroit.

1939: German troops achieve a breakthrough at Kutno and Sandomir and reach the Vistula.

1944: The first allied patrol crosses German frontier east of Liege, near Aachen. US First Army (Lt. Gen. Hodges) liberates Luxembourg.

09-11-2010, 05:11 AM
1297: During the First War of Scottish Independence, the Battle of Stirling Bridge on the River Forth in Scotland, occurs. A Scottish force numbering some 2,300 troops (including 300 cavalry) under Sir William Wallace and Andrew Moray, defeated an English force of ca 9 - 12,000 men under John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey and Hugh de Cressingham the treasurer of the English administration in Scotland. The Battle of Stirling Bridge was a shattering defeat for the English. Contemporary English chronicler Walter of Guisborough recorded the English losses in the battle as 100 cavalry and 5,000 infantry killed, including Hugh de Cressingham. Scottish casualties in the battle are unrecorded, with the exception of Andrew Moray. He appears to have been injured in the battle and died of his injuries.

1390: During the Lithuanian Civil War of 1389–1392, the Teutonic Knights launched a five-week Siege of Vilnius. Vilnius' castles were held by Skirgaila the regent of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, commanding combined Polish, Lithuanian, and Ruthenian troops.

1565: The Siege of Malta, one of the bloodiest and most fiercely contested in history, is finally won by the Knights Hospitaller of the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta. The siege was the climax of an escalating contest between a Christian alliance and the Ottoman Empire for control of the Mediterranean.
García Álvarez de Toledo, 4th Marquis de Villafranca (center) gives thanks to God for the lift of the Siege of Malta

1649: During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, the Siege of Drogheda, ends. Drogheda was garrisoned by an English Royalist regiment and Irish Confederates of ca 3,100 men, under Sir Arthur Aston, a native of Cheshire and from a prominent Roman Catholic family. Cromwell had around 12,000 men and 11 heavy, 48-pounder, siege artillery pieces. After breaking into the town, Cromwell's soldiers pursued the defenders through the streets, killing them as they ran. As few as 700 civilians died in the chaotic aftermath of the fall of Drogheda, together with the 2,800 soldiers killed. This massacre became infamous in Ireland and remains so today.

1697: During the Ottoman-Habsburg Wars, the Battle of Zenta, fought south of today's Senta in Serbia, occurs. In a surprise attack, a Habsburg Imperial force comprised 34,000 infantry, 16,000 cavalry from the Holy Roman Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, under the Prince François Eugčne of Savoy, routed the Ottoman army numbering 80 - 100,000 men, under their Sultan Mustafa II Ghazi, who were in the process of crossing the River Tisa. The battle was an amazing victory for the Habsburg Empire; at the cost of 500 men they had inflicted the loss of 30,000 men and captured the Sultan's harem, 87 cannons, the Royal treasure chest and the State Seal of the Ottoman Empire.
Prince Eugčne of Savoy, the Conqueror of Zenta

1709: During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Battle of Malplaquet occurs. A 75,000-strong Franco-Bavarian army under Claude Louis Hector de Villars, Prince de Martigues, Duc de Villars, Vicomte de Melun and Louis François, Duc de Boufflers, Comte de Cagny was defeated by an Anglo-Habsburg army of some 86,000 men under John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, Prince of Mindelheim and Prince François Eugčne of Savoy. By the norms of warfare of the era, the battle was an allied victory, because the French withdrew at the end of the day's fighting, and left Marlborough's army in possession of the battlefield, but with double the casualties (11,000 versus 21,000). Malplaquet was the bloodiest battle of the 18th c. Europe.

1714: During the War of the Spanish Succession, Barcelona surrenders to Spanish and French Bourbon armies. The Catalan Colonel Rafael Casanova i Comes who led the last and failed Spanish-Catalan charge to defend the city of Barcelona from the Franco-Spanish army of the Bourbonic pretender to the throne Philip V, Duke of Anjou, and Josep Moragues i Mas, the Catalan General during the War, are honoured traditionally every year on 11 September, on La Diada, the Catalan National Day.

1758: During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Saint Cast occurs. It was fought on the French coast between British Naval and Land expeditionary forces and French coastal defence forces. The British forces comprised two Royal Navy squadrons consisting of Admiral of the Fleet George Anson, 1st Baron Anson's 31 warships and Commodore Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe's 24 warships, transporting ground forces totaling over 10,000 soldiers under Lt. Gen. Thomas Bligh. The French had some 8 - 9,000 garrison troops and militia spread thinly over the northern coast of France, under Emmanuel-Armand de Vignerot du Plessis de Richelieu, duc d'Aiguillon. The British amphibious expedition failed due to the French artillery; their batteries were well positioned on higher ground commanding the beach and the bay inflicting heavy casualties to the British. 2 - 3,000 were killed and wounded, 700 – 800 made prisoners. The French lost roughly 300 killed and wounded.
Emmanuel de Richelieu, duc d'Aiguillon

1814: During the Anglo-American War, the 5-day Battle of Plattsburgh ends. A British army numbering some 10,000 men under Lt. Gen. Sir George Prévost, 1st Baronet, and a Royal Navy squadron comprised 15 warships under Cpt. George Downie, converged on the lakeside town of Plattsburgh, which was defended by 1,500 regular American troops and 1,900 militia under Brigadier Gen. Alexander Macomb and 14 US Navy warships commanded by Thomas MacDonough. The British casualties during the land engagement were 37 killed, 150 wounded and 57 missing. During the naval battle, the British lost 131 killed, 70 wounded, 317 made prisoners. 4 Royal Navy ships captured. The battle took place shortly before the signing of the Treaty of Ghent which ended the war. The American victory denied the British negotiators at Ghent leverage to demand any territorial claims against the United States.

1829: Don Isidro Barradas, the Spanish General sent to Mexico in 1829, eight years after Mexican independence, to try to reconquer the country for the Spanish Crown, signed the Capitulation of Pueblo Viejo with Antonio López de Santa Anna and General José Manuel Rafael Simeón de Mier y Terán. Santa Anna was hailed as the saviour of the Republic. This was the final consummation of Mexican independence.
Santa Anna

1943: On the morning of 11 September, Allied Naval Commander Expeditionary Force (ANCEF) Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham ordered a small allied squadron to meet the surrendering Italian Fleet off the coast of Malta and escort its warships back into the island. The Allied Forces assembled to meet the Italian Fleet were:
The British
-HMS "Warspite" (03)
-HMS "Valiant" (1914)
-HMS "Faulknor" (1914)
-HMS "Fury" (H76)
-HMS "Echo" (H23)
-HMS "Intrepid" (D10)
-HMS "Raider" (H15)
the Greek
-RHNS "Queen Olga" (D15)
and the French
-FNFL "Le Terrible" (D611)

For the Greeks and the French it was a sign of recognition of the their Navy's contribution to the allied cause in WWII.
For the British this had also a symbolic meaning: Warspite and Valiant were the same vessels present to the surrender of the German Imperial Fleet in 1918.

1944: The 15th Scottish Division crosses the Dutch border, east of Antwerp. A bridgehead is established across Meuse-Escaut canal. The US Third Army (Lt. Gen. Hodges) captures a large part of Maginot Line intact and reach the German border at Trier on the Moselle river. The 1st French Division occupies Dijon.

1945: Forty prominent Japanese are arrested for war crimes. Hideki Tojo, the Japan's Prime Minister who ordered the raid on Pearl Harbour attempts suicide.
A graphic photo showing Hideki Tojo after his attempted suicide during his arrest (http://i54.*******.com/erhkr6dotjpg)

1973: A coup in Chile headed by General Augusto Pinochet topples the democratically elected president Salvador Allende. Pinochet remains in power for almost 17 years.

2001: The September 11 attacks take place in the United States. Airplane hijackings result in the collapse of the World Trade Center in New York City, destruction of the western portion of The Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, and a passenger airliner crash in Shanksville, Pennsylvania.

2004: A Greek military CH-47 Chinook helicopter crashes in the Aegean Sea killing its crew, the Patriarch of Alexandria, Peter VII and 16 other passengers (including journalists and bishops of the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria)

2007: Russia tests the largest conventional weapon ever, the Aviation Thermobaric Bomb of Increased Power (ATBIP), knicknamed Отец всех Бомб (=The Father of all Bombs) or FOAB

09-11-2010, 08:57 AM
Really, really great thread valtrex!!

09-12-2010, 04:57 AM
490 BC: During the First Persian Invasion of Greece, the Battle of Marathon occurs. On the 6th day of the Attic month of Boedromion, a Persian force of somewhere between 20,000 - 100,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry, according to modern estimates, commanded by Dates, was decisively defeated by the 9,000 - 10,000 Athenians and 1,000 Platćans under the Athenian Polemarch (=Warlord) Callimachus. The distance between the two armies at the point of battle was not less than 8 stadia or about 1,500 meters (1,640 yds). The simple signal to advance was given by the General of the Leontis Phyle (=the largest political subdivision in the ancient Athenian state) Miltiades: At them. Herodotus implies the Athenians ran the whole distance to the Persian lines, shouting their ululating war cry, Ἐλελεῦ! Ἐλελεῦ! (=Eleleu; the Athenian hoplite's war-cry. Those going forward into battle would sound the "Eleleu" along with some rhythmic movement; perhaps an evocation of the god of War, Ares, to join their ranks). The Athenian wings quickly routed the inferior Persian levies on the flanks, before turning inwards to surround the Persian centre, which had been more successful against the thin Greek centre. Polemarch Callimachus who commanded the right wing of the Athenian army, was killed during the fighting. Herodotus records that 6,400 Persian bodies were counted on the battlefield. The Athenians lost 192 men and the Platćans 11. The Athenian tragedian Aeschylus considered his participation at Marathon to be his greatest achievement in life (rather than his plays) since on his gravestone he asked the following epigram to be engraved:
This tomb, the dust of Aeschylus doth hide,
Euphorion's son and fruitful Gela's pride
How tried his valour, Marathon may tell
And long-haired Medes, who knew it all too well.
The Tymbus (=Tomb) where the remains of 192 Athenians were buried; it's 9 m (29.5 feet) in height, 185 m (202 yds) in perimeter, 50 m (55 yds) in diameter

1213: During the Cathar Crusade (a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Catholic Church to eliminate the Cathar heresy in Languedoc, France), the Battle of Muret occurs. The French nobleman Simon IV de Montfort, Seigneur de Montfort-l'Amaury, 5th Earl of Leicester headed a Franco-Crusader army of 900 horse, 700 foot and invaded Languedoc in order to destroy the Cathar heresy and incidentally to join the Languedoc to the crown of France. He routed an allied army of some 2,200 horse, 20,000 - 30,000 foot from Aragon and Languedoc under the Aragonese King, Peter II the Catholic. The Aragonese forces were disorganized and disintegrated under the assault of Montfort's squadrons. Peter himself was caught in the thick of fighting, and died as a result of a foolhardy act of bravado. The Aragonese forces broke in panic when their king was slain and the crusaders of Montfort won the day.

1683: During the Ottoman-Habsburg Wars, the two-day Battle of Vienna ends. An army of ca 84,000 troops with 152 cannons from the Holy League, under Ernst Rüdiger Graf von Starhemberg, comprised Austrians, Bavarians, Swabians, Franconians, troops from the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and Zaporozhian Cossacks, defeated an Ottoman army of ca 150 - 300,000 troops with 300 cannons under Kara Mustafa Pasha. The large-scale battle was won by Polish, Austrian and German forces commanded by King of Poland John III Sobieski. The Turks lost at least 15,000 men killed and wounded in the fighting, plus at least 5,000 men captured and all their cannons. The battle marked the historic end of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Europe.
The saviour of Vienna, King John III Sobieski of Poland

1812: During the Anglo-American War, the Siege of Fort Wayne ends. Chief Winamac's forces of Native Americans assaulted the fort garrisoned by 100 Americans under Captain James Rhea. The siege ended suddenly as the attack was broken off, and Winamac's forces crossed the Maumee River and disappeared into the woods. The 2,200-strong William Henry Harrison's - who would later become the 9th US President - relief army marched towards the fort, uncontested by Winamac.
William Henry Harrison in 1812

1814: During the Anglo-American War, the Battle of North Point occurs. A 4,000-strong British force led by Maj. Gen. Robert Ross, defeated a 3,200-strong American militia force from Maryland, commanded by Brigadier Gen. John Stricker. Although tactically a British victory, the battle delayed the British advance against Baltimore, buying valuable time for the defense of the city. The official British Army casualty report, gives 46 killed, including General Ross, and 295 wounded. American losses accounted for 24 killed, 139 wounded and 50 taken prisoner.

1847: During the Mexican-American War, the two-day Battle of Chapultepec begins. The Chapultepec Castle, a 60 m (200 foot) castle guarding Mexico City from the west, was only defended by 400 Mexicans under General Nicolás Bravo Rueda and Lieutenant Colonel Felipe Xicoténcatl, and the castle's garrison of 100 men, including cadets. The American force comprised ca 13,000 Infantry and Voltiguer under General Winfield Scott including 40 Marines under Cpt. Silas Casey and a Brigade of volunteers under the Brigadier Gen. James Shields. Following the Amercan charge, six Mexican military cadets refused to fall back when General Bravo finally ordered retreat and fought to the death. The cadets are known in Mexican history as the Los Nińos Héroes the Child Heroes (or Heroic Cadets).
The Monument to the six Nińos Héroes with Chapultepec Castle in the background

1897: During the Tirah Campaign (an Indian frontier war in 1897–98), one of History's most famous last stands, occurs. 21 Sikhs of the 36th Sikhs defending an army post, fought to the death 10,000 Afghan and Orakzai tribesmen, at Saragarhi, in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, now part of Pakistan. When the gallantry of Saragarhi was recounted to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the recitation drew a standing ovation from the members. Saragarhi Day, is a Sikh military commemoration day celebrated on the 12 of September every year to commemorate The Battle of Saragarhi.

WWI-1916: The 9-day Battle of Kajmakchalan, fought between the Serbian and the Bulgarian Army, opens. The Serbian Šumadija Division I and Drina Division I, were ordered by the Serbian Field Marshal Živojin Mišić to advance against the Bulgarian entrenchments occupying the defence line Kajmakchalan - Stamkov Grob. The Serbian army after suffering huge casualties managed to capture the Prophet Iliya peak of Kajmakchalan, on the height of 2,524 m (8,281 feet), while pushing the Bulgarians toward Mariovo, where the latter formed new defensive lines. Between 26 September and 30 September, the peak changed hands several times; it was finally captured by the Serbian army on 30 September. Serbs suffered ca 5,000 killed and wounded mainly due to the Bulgarian artillery. The Bulgarian losses are unrecorded. The battle remained in history for the extraordinary height it was fought.
The Bulgarians on Kajmakchalan
Bulgarian troops during the Serbian attack

1939: The battle of the Vistula bend flares up near Kutno, the last major engagement of the Polish campaign. The Luftwaffe bombs Krzemieniec.

1942: On 12 September, at 20:10 hours, 130 miles NNE of Ascension Island, RMS "Laconia" was hit by a torpedo on the starboard side, fired by U-boot U-156 (Kapitänleutnant Werner Hartenstein). She was carrying civilians, Allied soldiers and Italian POW and sunk with a heavy loss of life.

1943: Operation Oak; Mussolini, held prisoner by the Badoglio government on the Gran Sasso, is rescued by German paratroopers who land in gliders on top of the mountain. SS Sturmbannführer (=Major) Otto Skorzeny, leads a daring glider attack on the hotel where Mussolini is being held. The Duce is freed and taken to Germany.

1943: Cretan partisans under Kapetán Banduvás attack the Germans occupying the town of Syme, Viannos, Heraclion Perfecture. After a fierce firefight, the guerillas withdraw. German losses accounted for 83 dead and wounded, 13 made prisoners. The insurgents suffered two wounded.
Emmanuel "Manóles" Banduvás; the most famous partisan leader in Crete

1944: German troops evacuate Rhodes and other Greek islands in the eastern Mediterranean.

1980: Military coup d'état in Turkey, headed by Chief of the General Staff General Kenan Evren. The results were devastating: 650,000 people were taken into custody, 230,000 were put on trial. Military prosecutors demanded the death penalty for 7,000 people, 517 of them received the death penalty and 50 were hanged. The military rule revoked the citizenships of more than 14,000 Turks and another 30,000 left the country to seek refugee abroad. In prisons, 299 inmates died of “indeterminate” reasons and 14 died on hunger strike. Torture by security forces claimed 171 lives (figures according to Hürriyet daily news).

09-13-2010, 04:53 AM
533: During the Byzantine-Vandal War, the Battle of Carthage occurs. A Gelimer's Vandal force of some 11,000, was routed by the 15,000 Byzantines under the Byzantine General Flavius Belisarius at Ad Decimum (=Ten Mile Post, literally at the tenth), a marker along the Mediterranean coast 10 miles (16 km) south of Carthage.
http://i55.*******.com/11ax0sidotjpg http://i55.*******.com/66hphwdotjpg

1759: During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of the Plains of Abraham occurs. It was fought between the British Army and Navy, and the French Army, on a plateau just outside the walls of Quebec City, on land owned by a farmer named Abraham Martin. The battle involved ca 5,500 troops on the French side (including militia and native Odawa warriors) under General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de Saint-Veran and approximately 4,800 troops (including Royal Marines) under General James Wolfe on the British side. The battle resulted in similar numbers of casualties on both sides of the field; the French had 644 men killed or wounded, while the British suffered 658 killed or wounded. Wolfe was killed at the height of the battle. Montcalm was wounded in the lower abdomen and died early the next morning. The battle is considered a decisive British victory.

1808: During the Finnish War, fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809, the Battle of Jutas occurs, south of Nykarleby in Ostrobothnia, Finland. Around 1,500 Swedish soldiers under Lt. Gen. Georg Carl von Döbeln defeated a Russian force of some 1,500 troops commanded by General Kosatchkovsky. The battle has become legendary due to Johan Ludvig Runeberg's epic Döbeln at Jutas in the Finnish National Poem Fänrik Stĺls Sägner (=The Tales of Ensign Stĺl), written in Swedish. The first and last stanzas of the poem, translated in Finnish, comprise the Finnish National Anthem.
The Monument to the Battle

1814: During the Anglo-American War and the Battle of Baltimore, the American lawyer and amateur poet, Francis Scott Key, wrote Defence of Fort McHenry while detained on a British ship during the night of 13 September, 1814, as the British forces bombarded Baltimore's Fort McHenry. His brother-in-law, on hearing the poem Key had written, realized it fit the tune of The Anacreontic Song. Later retitled The Star-Spangled Banner, Key's words, accompanied with Stafford Smith's tune, became a well-known and recognized patriotic song throughout the United States, and was officially designated as the U.S. national anthem in 1931.

1882: During the Anglo-Egyptian War, the Battle of Tel el-Kebir occurs. It was fought between the 15,000 Egyptian troops of Colonel Ahmed Orabi and the 18,500 British troops under Maj. Gen. Garnet Joseph Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley. At 05:45 hours, Wolseley's troops were barely three hundred yards (274 m) from the entrenchments and dawn was just breaking, when Egyptian sentries saw them and fired. British troops, charged with the bayonet. The resulting battle was over in an hour. The British lost 57 killed, 380 wounded. The Egyptians lost 1,396 killed, 681 wounded. Lieutenant William Mordaunt Marsh Edwards was awarded a Victoria Cross for his heroism during the battle.

1914: During the Albanian-Northern Epirotan conflict (a short conflict between the newly independent Albanian State and the Greeks of Southern Albania, who revolted and declared Independence) the Battle of Berat occurs. An armed band of some 170 insurgents of Northern Epirus under the Cretan 1st Lt. Antonios Leontokianakes and the Epirotan Pericles Drellias raised the flag of the Independent Northern Epirus and took the Albanian town of Berat. 2,000 Albanian troops assaulted the town and captured Leontokianakes and Drellias alive. The Greek force suffered heavy casualties in the clash. Leontokianakes and Drellias were executed.
The Flag of Independent Northern Epirus

1922: The final act of the Greco-Turkish War, the Great Fire of Smyrna, commences. Turkish forces set fire to Smyrna, four days after they regained control of the city on 9 September.
Traditional Smyrnean folk song

1939: 60,000 Polish troops who are trapped in the Radom pocket surrender.

1943: The Battle of the Dodecanese, for supremacy in the Aegean begins, with an Allied raid on Rhodes. Within five days, the British 234th Infantry Brigade under Maj. Gen. Francis Gerald Russell Brittorous coming from Malta, together with 160 men from the SBS, 130 men from the LRDG (=Long Range Desert Group), A Company from the 11th Btn of the Parachute Regiment and Greek Sacred Band detachments had secured the islands of Kos, Kalymnos, Samos, Leros, Syme and Astypalća, supported by ships of the British and Greek navies.
Greek Commandos of the Sacred Band, on a Dodecanesian island

1944: The U.S. Ninth Army (Lt. Gen. Simpson) is engaged in heavy fighting as the German garrison keeps up its resistance at Brest.

1944: The Soviets reach the Polish-Czechoslovak border. Romania signs an Armistice with the USSR.
Romanian troops in 1944

1968: Albania leaves the Warsaw Pact.
Hoxha's Albania formed a special relationship with Mao's China

09-14-2010, 04:14 AM
1812: After the Battle of Borodino, the chief commander of the Russian Army Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov, against the will of most of his generals, issued an order to retreat from Moscow. At ten in the morning of 14 September, Napoleon was standing among his troops on the Poklonny Hill looking at Moscow spread out before him. Finally he gave the order to enter the city. The French army crossed Moskva River in three columns in Fili, Dorogomilovo and Luzhniki, converging on the city center. Approximately an hour after the French entrance into Moscow, the fires started which culminated in the Moscow firestorm.
Napoleon at Poklonny Hill, overseeing Moscow

WWI-1914: First Battle of Aisne begins. Troops start to construct trenches across the entire length of the western front.

1943: The Greek Submarine RHNS "Katsones" (Y1) while trying to intercept a German troop transport, was attacked and sunk by the German submarine chaser Unterseeboot Jäger (Sub Hunter) "UJ-2101" (ex-Greek minesweeper "Strymon"). 32 men of the crew, including her CO Cdr Vassilios Laskos, went down with her, and 15 were captured. Lt. Eleutherios Tsukalas, the ship's XO, and petty officers Antonios Antoniu and Anastasios Tsigros, managed to swim for 9 hours and reached the island of Skiathos. There they hid and eventually managed to return to Egypt and rejoin the Greek fleet.
http://img62.imageshack.us/img62/2430/katsonis1bdotjpg http://img443.imageshack.us/img443/7531/laskosdotjpg
The Katsones and her last CO, Commander Vassilios Laskos RHN

1943: Heavy fighting continues in the Salerno bridgehead, with another German counter-attack. French commandos land in Corsica to help patriots fighting the Germans.

1943: In retaliation for their clash with the Cretan partisans of Kapetán Banduvás, occured on 12 September, the Germans roundup and execute 352 male inhabitants of Viannos county, Heraclion Prefecture, Crete.

1944: The US First Army (Lt. Gen. Hodges) reaches the Siegfried Line, to the East of Aachen and less than 64 km (40 miles) west of Bonn. Maastricht and Eysden in southern Holland are the first Dutch cities liberated. The US First Army occupies Nancy.

1944: Soviet troops reach the Vistula river in the Praga suburb of Warsaw, as planes drop supplies to the Polish Home Army which is trapped inside the city. Three Soviet Baltic fronts launch an offensive with 900,000 men, 3,000 tanks and 2,600 aircraft against German Heeresgruppe Nord (=Army Group North) (Generaloberst Schörner) which is forced to fall back to defensive positions around Riga, Latvia.

09-15-2010, 04:32 AM
994: During the Byzantine-Fatimid Wars, the Battle of Orontes occurs. A combined Byzantine-Hamdanid (Shi'a Arabs of Iraq and Syria) army under the Byzantine Stratēgós (=General) and Dux (=Duke) of Antioch, Mikhail Burtzes, was defeated by a Fatimid (Shi'a Caliphate of N. Africa) army under the vizier of Damascus, the Fatimid Turk, Manjutakin or Banjutakin at the banks of the River Orontes in Syria. Manjutakin's men succeeded in breaking through the Hamdanids, and attacked the Byzantine force in the rear. The Byzantine army panicked and fled, losing some 5,000 men.
http://img196.imageshack.us/img196/4300/fatimid960dotgif http://img521.imageshack.us/img521/184/800pxflagofthefatimidemdotpng
The empire and flag of the Fatimid Caliphate

1762: During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Signal Hill occurs. In reality it was a small skirmish, the last of the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War. 295 French troops under Guillaume Léonard de Bellecombe, were defeated by the 200 British regulars and militia under Lt. Col. William Amherst. The engagement was brief but fatal. The commander of the French detachment, Guillaume de Bellecombe, was seriously wounded. The British lost 4 or 5 killed, 19 wounded. French casualties were ca 40 killed and wounded.

1814: During the Anglo-American War, the two-day Battle of Baltimore, ends. The British landed a force of 5,000 troops under Major Gen. Robert Ross who marched toward Baltimore. During the march, an American sniper shot and kill General Ross. The city’s defence was under the overall command of Major General Samuel Smith, an officer of the Maryland Militia who headed 3,000 men. The British failed to capture Baltimore, Maryland. It proved to be a turning point in the War of 1812.
The Monument to the Battle

1827: During the Greek War for Independence the Naval Battle of Itea occurs. The Greek steamer named "Kartería" (=Perseverance), manned by Englishmen, Swedes and Greeks, together with a squadron of four smaller ships, under the overall command of the British naval officer and Philhellene, Frank Abney Hastings, attacked the Ottoman Flagship anchored inside the Itea bay, in the Corinthian Gulf, sank her, sank three more Turkish supply ships and destroyed with their guns the coastal batteries defending the bay.
Hastings, a veteran of Trafalgar, died in the harbour of Zakynthos on 1 June, 1828, of complications from wounds he received in the Battle of Aetolikon on 25 May. Maj. Gen. Charles George Gordon who served with him and knew him, wrote: If ever there was a disinterested and really useful Philhellene it was Hastings. He received no pay, and had expended most of his slender fortune in keeping the Kartería afloat for the last six months. His ship, too, was the only one in the Greek navy where regular discipline was maintained

1847: During the Mexican-American War, the Fall of Mexico City occurs. Winfield Scott captures the capital of Mexico.
General Scott's entrance into Mexico City in the Mexican-American War

1894: During the First Sino-Japanese War (fought from 1894 - 1894 for the control of Korea), the Battle of Pyongyang occurs. Imperial Japanese Army's 1st Army Corp, under the overall command of Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, launched a direct attack on the north and southeast corners of the walled city under very little cover. The Chinese defence was strong, but was eventually outmaneuvered by an unexpected flanking attack by the Japanese from the rear. At 16:30 hours, the garrison raised the white flag for surrender. Chinese casualties are estimated at 2,000 killed around 4,000 wounded. The Japanese lost 102 men killed, 433 wounded and 33 missing. Pyongyang fell to Japanese forces by the early morning of 16 September 1894.

WWI-1918: The Armée d'Orient (=Eastern Army) went on the offensive. The Serbian divisions of the ΙΙ Serbian Army supported by the Greek 35th Infantry Regiment of the Greek IV Division, advanced at an incredible speed towards Belgrade via Usküb (now Skopje) in order to dissect the Bulgarian armies. At the right side of the Ι Serbian Army the attack was carried out by the Greek 6th and 12th Infantry Regiments and the French Mounted Brigade of African Chasseurs, of the French 11 Division d'Infanterie Coloniale (=Division of Colonial Infantry). The Serbian Šumadija Division I, routed the Bulgarians occupying the line Golo Bilo-Preslap.

1942: The US aircraft carrier USS "Wasp" (CV-7), while escorting transports carrying the 7th Marine Regiment to Guadalcanal was struck by three torpedoes fired by a Japanese submarine. All three struck in the vicinity of the gasoline tanks and magazines, causing additional explosions and fires. Having expended great effort but unsuccessful in containing the fires, her CO, Captain Forrest Sherman gave the order to abandon ship at 15:20 hours. She sank by the bow at 21:00 hours.

1950: During the Korean War, United States forces land at Incheon. At 06:33 hours, following an intense air, rocket and naval gunfire bombardment, landing craft carrying the first wave of Marines from the 3rd Battalion Landing Team (BLT,) 5th Marine Regiment, reached Green Beach located on the north arm of Wolmi-do and the first amphibious assault by American forces against an enemy since 1 April 1945 at Okinawa was underway. The initial landing was unopposed and the Marines quickly moved inland against scattered and very light resistance.

09-16-2010, 04:35 AM
1919: The American Legion, a congressionally chartered mutual-aid veterans organization of the United States armed forces founded to benefit those veterans who served during a wartime period, is incorporated.

1941: Guderian’s Panzergruppe 2 and Kleist’s Panzergruppe 1 meet E of Kiev, trapping five Soviet Armies.

1943: German counterattacks against the US bridgehead at Salerno are halted. Tito's partisans are reported to have captured Split on Yugoslav coast.

1943: Following the Italian surrender, the bulk of the Italian fleet sailed for Malta. From there, all Italian ships set sail for Alexandria to disarm. Early in the morning of 16 September, the ships arrived to Alexandria. There, Admiral Cunningham escorted by the Greek Vice-Admiral Alexandres, accepted officially the surrender of the Italians. Admiral Alexandres writes in his memoirs:
Cunningham informed me on the 15th, that he intends to wear his own rank flag on the small minelayer "Durby" in order to set out and meet the Italians. He also invited me to do the same and I boarded the minelayer "Kartería" (=Perseverance). I chose Kartería as a symbol of our nation's power of perseverance and because she was the first ever steamer worldwide that took part in a naval engagement, in 1827. Admiral Cunningham with this eloquent gesture, wanted on one hand to abase the Italian Fleet for its unconditional surrender and on the other hand to express his feelings of gratitude towards the Greek Navy. It was an overwhelming experience to be boarded on a small minelayer and accept the surrender of a large Fleet. The Italian ships were sailing before us with black pennants, as sign of defeat. After the ceremony, I said to admiral Cunningham:
-It's been a memorable day for me, I thank you.
Admiral Cunningham replied:
-Yes it has. I hope you'll join me for the surrender of the German Fleet too.
The crew of the Greek destroyer RHNS "Adrias" (L67), watch, as the ships of the Italian Fleet surrender

The C-i-C of the Greek Fleet, Vice-Adm. Constantine Alexandres

1963: Malaya along with the then British crown colonies of Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore, formed Malaysia.

1970: King Hussein of Jordan, declared military rule and moved to quash the militancy of Palestinian organizations and restore his monarchy's rule over the country, in response to a Palestinian fedayeen coup d’état to seize his kingdom. Jordanian tanks attacked the headquarters of Palestinian organizations in Amman; the army also attacked Palestinian camps in Irbid, Salt, Sweileh, Baq'aa, Wehdat and Zarqa. September 1970 is known as the Black September in Arab history.

1982: Sabra and Shatila massacre in Lebanon.

09-17-2010, 04:52 AM
1176: During the Byzantine-Seljuq Wars, the Battle of Myriokephalon (or Myriocephalum) occurs. A Byzantine army comprised somewhere between 25 - 40,000 troops (including an allied contingent of Hungarians sent by Byzantine Emperor Manuel's nephew, Béla III of Hungary and a force supplied by the Crusader Principality of Antioch), under the Byzantine Emperor, Manuel I Komnenos (or Comnenus), was defeated by the Seljuqs of the Sultanate of Rum, under their Sultan Kilij Arslan II. Both sides suffered heavy casualties, though their extent is difficult to quantify. Byzantine defeat is compared to that of Manzikert as it proved that the Empire could not reclaim central Anatolia from the Seljuqs.

1462: During the Thirteen Years' War (fought from 1454 to 1466 between the Prussian Confederation, allied with the Kingdom of Poland, and the Teutonic Order) the Battle of Schwetz occurs. Around 2,000 Polish troops commanded by Piotr Dunin, defeated a 2,700-strong Teutonic Order army under Fritz Raweneck. The Teuton army lost around 1,000 soldiers, including some 300 cavalrymen. Fifty soldiers were captured. The Teutonic commander was also killed in the battle. The Poles lost just 100 soldiers, but 150 later died from wounds. Piotr Dunin was twice wounded.

1631: During the Thirty Years' War, the Battle of Breitenfeld occurs. 31,300 troops from the Habsburg Empire, the German Catholic League (=a loose confederation of Roman Catholic German states formed on 10 July, 1609), Hungary and the kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, under the Brabantine Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly and Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim, were defeated by the 41,500 Protestants from Sweden and Saxony, under the Swedish King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden (widely known as Gustavus Adolphus), Johannes Georg I, Elector of Saxony, the Swedish-Finnish Count Gustav Horn af Björneborg, the Field Marshal from Saxony Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg, Colonel Robert Munro of Foulis, a Scotsman who served in Germany under the banners of Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus, and Swedish General Johan Banér. The battle started at noon and lasted over 6 hours. The imperial line collapsed, over 80% of the imperial forces were either killed or captured. 120 standards of the Imperial and Bavarian armies were taken. Gustav's success against the well-trained Imperial and League forces at Breitenfeld, endorsed his linear tactics.
The conqueror of Breitenfeld, Gustavus Adolphus

1894: During the First Sino-Japanese War, the Naval Battle of the Yalu River occurs. It involved the Japanese (14 warships including two pre-dreadnough battleships) under Admiral Tsuboi Kozo, and the Chinese navies (12 warships including one pre-dreadnought battleship) commanded by Admiral Ting Ju-ch'ang. The Japanese sank five Chinese warships, severely damaged three more and killed about 850 Chinese sailors with 500 wounded. The Chinese severely damaged four Japanese warships and killed about 90 sailors with 200 wounded. Admiral Kozo won distinction at the battle where he displayed innovative tactics and aggressive maneuvers.
The victor, Danshaku (=Baron) Tsuboi Kozo

1900: During the Philippine-American War, the Battle of Mabitac occurs. A Filipino force numbering somewhere between 300 - 800 troops under Juan Cailles, defeated an American force of ca 300 troops from the 37th and 15th Infantry Regiments, commanded by Colonel Benjamin F. Cheatham, Jr. The US Army lost some 21 killed and 23 wounded in the battle (termed a profoundly impressive loss by American General Arthur MacArthur, Jr, the CO of VIII Army Corps who would later become the Military Governor of the Philippines). The Filipinos, in their turn, suffered 11 killed and 20 wounded. Numbered among their dead was Lieutenant Colonel Fidel Sario. General Cailles, in an honourable gesture, allowed Cheatham to retrieve the bodies of his men.
The conqueror of Mabitac, Juan Cailles

1939: The Red Army invades Poland from the East with a million troops on the pretext of protecting Poland's Byelorussian and Ukrainian population. The Polish government seeks asylum in Romania, where it is interned.

1939: The Aircraft Carrier HMS "Courageous" (50) is torpedoed by U-29 (Kapitänleutnant Otto Schuhart) SW of Ireland, killing 515, but 687 sailors survive. Courageous capsized and sank in 20 minutes.

1943: An Allied Flotilla comprised the British Destroyer HMS "Faulknor" (H62) (Cpt. Mervyn Somerset Thomas), the Greek Destroyer RHNS "Vasilissa Olga" (Queen Olga) (D15) (Lt. Cdr Georgios Bletsas) and the British Destroyer HMS "Eclipse" (H08) (Lt. Cdr Edward Mack) sink a German convoy, consisting of the transports "Pluto" (2,000 tons), "Paolo" (4,000 tons) and their escort UJ 2104 near the island of Astypalća.
http://img412.imageshack.us/img412/2783/photo10ddfaulknor1nppetdotjpg http://img291.imageshack.us/img291/8749/rhsvasilissaolgadotjpg http://img163.imageshack.us/img163/9061/eclipseh08dotjpg
The Faulknor, the Queen Olga and the Eclipse

1944: Operation Market Garden begins with First Allied Airborne Army drops at Eindhoven, Nijmegen and Arnhem to secure bridgeheads, as the British Second Army pushes north into Holland from Belgium, to link up. Canadians launch all-out assault on the Boulogne garrison.

09-18-2010, 04:51 AM
324: The final and decisive battle of the second civil war between Licinius and Constantine took place in Asia Minor on 18 September 324. The Βattle of Chrysopolis was a rout and Licinius abdicated his throne. After his conquest of the eastern portion of the Roman Empire, Constantine made the momentous decision to give the east its own capital, and the empire as a whole its second. He chose the city of Byzantium - renamed New Rome/Constantinople - as the site of this new foundation. The battle also opened the prisons throughout the east, and set free all who were suffering for their Christian faith.

1454: During the Thirteen Years' War, the Battle of Konitz occurs. The Teutonic army with around 9,000 horse and 6,000 infantry under Bernard von Zinnenberg, routed the Polish army comprised 16,000 horse, 3,000 infantry under the Polish King Casimir IV Jagiellon. The Polish defeat was complete. 3,000 bodies lied in the battlefield, 300 knights were captured by Teutons. The Teutonic Knights lost only around 100 men.
The large cross that marks the hill where a mass grave with the remains of 2,000 warriors who had died in the battle of Konitz was discovered in 1826

1573: During the Eighty Years' War, the Siege of the Dutch city of Alkmaar begins. Alkmaar successfully withstood a siege by Spanish forces under the leadership of Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba. It was a turning point in the war and gave rise to the Dutch expression Bij Alkmaar begint de victorie (=Victory begins at Alkmaar). The event is still celebrated every year in Alkmaar on 8 October, the day the siege ended.

1759: Shortly after their victory at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, the British capture Québec City.

1812: The 1812 Fire of Moscow dies down after destroying more than three quarters of the city. Napoleon returns from the Petrovsky Palace to the Moscow Kremlin, spared from the fire.

1898: The Fashoda Incident, occurs. A powerful flotilla of British gunboats arrived at the isolated Fashoda fort, East Africa, led by Sir Herbert Kitchener. There they met the French of Major Jean-Baptiste Marchand who had already reached Fashoda in June with orders to secure the area around it as a French protectorate. The incident brought the United Kingdom and France to the verge of war.
French Major Marchand at Fashoda

WWI-1918: The two-day Battle of Dojran begins. The British XII and XVI Corps supported by the Greek Serrć and Cretan Divisions and the Greek 3rd Cavalry Regiment, under the British Field Marshal Sir John Milne, 1st Baron Milne, assaulted the Bulgarian positions near the Lake Dojran. The Allies suffered huge casualties due to their advance on open terrain against Bulgarian fortified positions: They were caught in a crossfire coming from the slopes and machine gun fire coming from the bunkers on the hills. The Allies lost about 14,000 soldiers (4,000 Greeks). The Bulgarians suffered 2,000 killed and wounded; 1,008 made prisoners.
The Bulgarian General Vladimir Minchev - Vazov. He managed to hold the Dojran line against the greatly superior British and Greek forces outnumbering him 5:1. The British paid great honour to General Vazov when he visited London in 1936, as they lowered their national flags in his name. The chairman of the Royal British Legion said in his speech: He is one of the few foreign officers whose name features in our history

1931: Near Mukden (now Shenyang) in southern Manchuria, a section of railroad owned by Japan's South Manchuria Railway was sabotaged. The Imperial Japanese Army, accused Chinese dissidents of the act and responded with the invasion of Manchuria, leading to the establishment of Manchukuo the following year. This Mukden Incident represented an early event in the Second Sino-Japanese War, although full-scale war would not start until 1937. While the responsibility for this act of sabotage remains a subject of controversy, the prevailing view is that Japanese militarists staged the explosion in order to provide a pretext for war.
The Memorial to the Incident in Shenyang, China

1940: Following the Italian Invasion of Egypt on 9 September with five army corps (XX, XXI, XXII, XXIII) and the newly created Gruppo Divisioni Libiche (=Group of Libyan Divisions) under the overall command of Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, the Italian Divisione CC.NN. "23 Marzo" (Blackshirt Division "23 March") of the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (=National Security Volunteer Militia) takes Sid Barani.

1944: The US Ninth Army (Lt. Gen. Simpson) finally takes Brest after a long struggle.

1944: British Submarine HMS "Tradewind" (P329) (Lt. Cdr. Stephen Lynch Conway Maydonof) sinks the Japanese army cargo ship Jun'yo Maru which was headed for Sumatra. She was carrying 4,200 Javanese slave labourers and 2,300 Allied prisoners of war from Batavia to Padang. 5,620 lives were lost in the sinking.
The Tradewind

1947: The United States Air Force becomes an independent branch of the United States armed forces.

1948: Communist uprising during the Indonesian National Revolution in the town of Madiun. An Indonesian Soviet Republic was declared in Madiun, in the western part of East Java, by members of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) and the Indonesian Socialist Party (PSI). It was quashed by Republican forces.

09-19-2010, 03:52 AM
1356: During the Hundred Years' War, the Battle of Poitiers occurs. A 7,000-strong (6,000 foot, 1,000 longbowmen) English army headed by Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Prince of Aquitaine, commonly known as the Black Prince, defeated an army of ca 20,500 Frenchmen (17,000 foot, 3,000 crossbowmen, 500 knights) under the French King John II the Good (Jean II le Bon). The result was a decisive French defeat, and a catastrophe for the nation. They suffered 2,500 killed and wounded, 2,000 made prisoners. King John was captured with his immediate entourage. The English suffered a few hundred casualties. Poitiers was a repeat of the battle of Crécy showing once again that tactics and strategy can overcome a disadvantage in numbers.

1777: During the American War of Independence, the Battles of Saratoga occur. They conclusively decided the fate of the American Revolutionary War, and are generally regarded as a turning point in the war.

1870: During the Franco-Prussian War, the Siege of Paris begins. On 19 September the encirclement of the city was complete by Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke's 240,000 troops and the siege officially began.
Ernest Meissonier's the Siege of Paris

1939: The battle of the Vistula bend ends, with the Wehrmacht taking 170,000 prisoners. Lavrenti Beria, chief of the Soviet NKVD, sets up a Directorate for Prisoners of War and establishes camps for the 240,000 Polish POW in Soviet custody; about 37,000 will be used as forced-labour.
Lavrenti Pavlovich Beria

1944: The British advance from Belgium is now only two miles from the airborne forces at Nijmegen in Holland, but British paratroop forces dropped at Arnhem encounter unexpected heavy German resistance. The Belgian Parliament meets formally in Parliament House, Brussels for first time since May 1940.

2006: The Thai military stages a coup in Bangkok. The Constitution is revoked and martial law is declared.

09-20-2010, 05:30 AM
451: During the Hunnic invasion of Gaul the Battle of Chalons (near today's Châlons-en-Champagne in France) occurs. A coalition army of some 30,000 men led by the Roman general Flavius Aetius and the Visigothic king Theodoric I defeated a 30,000-strong army of the Huns and their allies commanded by Attila. Attila's retreat across the Rhine confessed the last victory which was achieved in the name of the Western Roman Empire. The battle marks the apex of the career of Flavius Aetius.

1187: The Siege of Jerusalem by an Ayyubid army under Saladin begins. It resulted in the recapture of Jerusalem by Saladin on 2 October and the near total collapse of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.

1792: During the War of the First Coalition, the Battle of Valmy occurs. A 47,000-strong French army under Charles-François du Périer Dumouriez and François Christophe de Kellermann, 1st Duc de Valmy, defeated a combined invading force of some 35,000 men comprised Prussians, Austrians, Hessians and French Royalists, under Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, the Prince Friedrich William, Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Kirchberg, the Walloon François Sebastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt and the Prince of Condé, Louis Joseph de Bourbon. Despite the minimal casualties (fewer than 500 total) the battle of Valmy was really the first victory of a European army inspired by citizenship and nationalism, and marked the end of the era of absolute monarchy. The day after this first victory of the French revolutionary troops, on 21 September, in Paris, the French monarchy was abolished and the First French Republic proclaimed.

1854: During the Crimean War, the Battle of Alma, the first battle of the War occurs. A 54,000-strong Anglo-French army with 132 guns, under the French General Armand-Jacques Leroy de Saint-Arnaud and the British General FitzRoy James Henry Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan, defeated General Aleksandr Sergeyevich Menshikov's Russian army comprised 33,000 infantry, 3,400 cavalry with 120 guns, south of the River Alma in the Crimea. Eventually the Russian retreat became a rout. The Russians lost 5,709 killed and wounded. The British lost 2,002 and the French 1,340 killed or wounded.

1870: During the Italian Unification (Risorgimento, the Resurgence) the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy captured the Vatican, thus ending the millennial temporal rule of the popes over central Italy and allowed Rome to be designated the capital of the new nation. For the next 59 years, beginning with Pope Pius IX, the popes refused to leave the Vatican in order to avoid any appearance of accepting the authority wielded by the Italian government over Rome as a whole. They were the prigionieri del Vaticano (=prisoners of the Vatican)

1939: German troops in eastern Poland withdraw to the line agreed upon in the German-Soviet treaty. The Red Army moves in behind them to occupy the formerly Russian territory. The Battle of Grodno between Polish troops and Red Army begins. The Poles inflict 800 Red Army casualties (Soviet counts: 220) and destroy ten tanks, whilst defending the city.

1942: In the Jewish ghetto of Letychiv, Ukraine, established to assist Organisation Todt in providing human labor for the road building project, three separate mass shootings of Jews occurred on 20 and 21 September 1942 where 3,000 Jews were killed (almost half the ghetto) by the Einsatzgruppen.

1943: The British 8th Army occupies Bari in southern Italy. The allies also bomb Venice.

1944: British armoured forces of XXX Corps link up with the US paratroops of the 82nd Division at Nijmegen, capturing the bridge intact.

1970: During Black September, Syrian tanks roll into Jordan in response to continued fighting between Jordan and the fedayeen.

1984: Hezbollah suicide bomber attacks US Embassy in Beirut killing twenty-two people.

09-21-2010, 04:08 AM
1217: During the Livonian Crusade (the German and Danish conquest and colonization of medieval Livonia, the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia), the Battle of St. Matthew's Day occurs. A 3,000-strong combined army of Livonians, Lettigallians and German Crusaders of the military order of Schwertbrüderorden (=Order of the Brethren of the Sword) commanded by the Master of the Order, Volkewîn, defeated the 6,000 Estonians under Lembit of Lehola who attempted to unite the Estonians in order to withstand the German conquest. Estonian casualties numbered from 1,000 - 1,400 (including Lembit).
The Memorial to the battle

1745: During the Second Jacobite Rising, the Battle of Prestonpans, fought near Edinburgh, in Scotland, occurs. A 2,500-strong Jacobite army loyal to the old pretender to the English, Scottish and Irish thrones, James Francis Edward Stuart, led by his son, Charles Edward Stuart, defeated a 2,300-strong army loyal to the Hanoverian George II, led by Sir John Cope. The battle was over in less than 10 minutes with hundreds of government troops killed or wounded and 1,500 taken prisoner.
Hey, Johnnie Cope, are ye waking yet?, a Scottish folk song, written by Adam Skirving, gives an account from the Jacobite viewpoint of the Battle of Prestonpans

1860: During the Second Opium War (a war pitting the British Empire and the Second French Empire against the Qing Dynasty of China, lasting from 1856–1860), an Anglo-French force of 10,000 under Sir James Hope Grant and Charles Guillaume Marie Appollinaire Antoine Cousin Montauban, who would later become comte de Palikao, defeats 30,000 Chinese troops under the Mongol nobleman and General Sengge Rinchen at the Battle of Baliqiao (or Palikao). British and French sources estimated Chinese losses as 25,000 men.

1896: The Sirdar (=British Commander-in-Chief) of the Anglo-Egyptian army, Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, defeated the revolted Sudanese Mahdists and took Dongola in northern Sudan.

1942: The inter-allied information committee estimates that the Germans have so far, executed 207,373 people in occupied Europe.
Greek (http://i52.*******.com/flaaf5dotjpg) and Soviet Partisans executed by the Germans (http://i54.*******.com/10n555xdotjpg)

1944: Polish paratroopers land between Arnhem and Nijmegen as the British force at Arnhem bridge is overwhelmed. Autumn rains impede the allied advance as the US 85th Division takes Firenzwold.
Sosabowski's Polish Paras of the 1st Independent Parachute Brigade

Maj. Gen. Stanisław Sosabowski

1944: The British Eighth Army’s, III Greek Mountain Brigade (Colonel Thrasybulus Tsakalotos) takes the Italian town of Rimini on the Adriatic coast. The 2nd Greek Battalion (1 Company under 1st Lieutenant Constantine Gerakines, 3 Company under 1st Lt Georgios Beligiannes) reached the city center via the Ausa River. The Greek flags that were flying from the balcony of the municipal building signalled a success won by 13 days of rugged fighting against elements of both the 1. Fallschirmjäger-Division and the 162.Turkestanisch Infanterie Division, at a cost of 128 Greeks. At 07:45 hours, the mayor unconditionaly surrendered the city to the III Greek Mountain Brigade with an official protocol that was written in Greek, English and Italian.
On the same day, the German forces of Heeresgruppe E (=Army Group E) (Generaloberst Löhr) evacuate the Peloponnese peninsula in Greece.
The CO of III Greek Mountain Brigade, Colonel Thrasybulus Tsakalotos

The crest of the current Greek III Mechanised Brigade with the honorific title "Rimini" ("ΡΙΜΙΝΙ" in Greek); Motto: Virtue is a weapon no one can ablate (a philosopher Antisthenes' teaching)

1964: The North American XB-70 Valkyrie, the world's first Mach 3 bomber, makes its maiden flight from Palmdale, California.

09-22-2010, 04:42 AM
1236: During the Livonian Crusade, the Battle of Saule, fought probably near today's Šiauliai in Lithuania, occurs. A 3,000-strong Crusader army of Livonians, Rus from the Pskov Republic and Knights from the Order of the Brethren of the Sword, under the overall command of the Order's Master Volkewîn, were defeated by the 4 or 5,000 Lithuanians, Samogitians and Semigallians of the Duke of Samogitia, Vykintas. Some 50 to 60 knights were killed, including their Livonian Master, Volkewîn and 2,700 Livonians and Rus. The battle inspired Curonians, Semigallians, Selonians and other Baltic tribes previously conquered by the Brethren of the Sword, to rebel.
Latvian folk-metal band Skyforger wrote a song Kauja pie Saules (=Battle of Saule), found on an eponymous album, about the battle

1586: During the Eighty Years' War, the Battle of Zutphen occurs. It was fought between a 17,000-strong combined force from the United Provinces of the Netherlands and England, under the English nobleman Peregrine Bertie, 13th Baron Willoughby de Eresby, and the 25,500 Spaniards who sought to regain the northern Netherlands. The battle was won by the Spanish.

1789: During the Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1792, the Battle of Rymnik occurs. It was fought in Wallachia (today's Romania) near the town of Rymnik (now Râmnicu Sărat). The combined forces (ca 25,000) of Russia and Habsburg Empire under the command of the Russian General Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov, acting together with the Habsburg General, Prince Friedrich Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, defeated the 60,000 Ottomans under Koca Yusuf Pasha. For this victory, Suvorov was awarded the title of Count of Rymnik. The victory resulted in the retreat of Ottoman forces from the Danubian Principalities.
The conqueror of Rymnik, Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov

1866: During the War of the Triple Alliance (a military conflict in South America fought from 1864 to 1870 between Paraguay and the allied countries of Argentina, Empire of Brazil, and Uruguay), the Battle of Curupaity occurs. A joint force of the Imperial (Brazilian), Argentine and Uruguayan armies numbering some 20,000 men, under the Argentine Bartolomé Mitre Martinez, attacked the 5,000 Paraguayans defending the trenches on Curupaity under José Eduvigis Díaz. 4,000 of the 20,000 allied (Brazilian and Argentine) troops involved in the attack were lost. Paraguayan losses accounted for 92 killed or wounded.
The Curupaity March, a composition of the Uruguayan musician, nationalized Argentine, Cayetano Alberto Silva

1908: Prince (later Tsar) Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, proclaims Bulgaria's de jure Independence (Bulgaria since 1878 had been de facto an autonomous principality) in the church of Saints Forty Martyrs, in the town of Veliko Tarnovo in Bulgaria, the former capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
The ancient Orthodox Church of Saints Forty Martyrs (built in 1230) in Veliko Tarnovo

Knyaz (=Prince) Ferdinand, proclaiming Bulgaria's Independence in Veliko Tarnovo

1939: Germany and USSR agree on partition of Poland. 217,000 Polish troops who are fighting against the Red Army surrender at Lvov. The NKVD begins rounding up thousands of Polish officers and deporting them to Russia. A Polish regiment repels attacks by forty Soviet tanks and infantry units at the Battle of Kodziowce. Soviet losses amount to hundreds killed and twenty tanks destroyed. Joint victory parade of Wehrmacht and Red Army in Brest-Litovsk.

1941: On Jewish New Year Day, the members of Einsatzgruppe massacre the last 6,000 Jews in Vinnytsya, Ukraine.
28,000 Jews were massacred in Vinnytsya (http://img178.imageshack.us/img178/7536/22vinnitsadotjpg)

1942: Five members of the PEAN (Panhellenic Union of Fighting Greeks) resistance group, Constantine Perrikos, a former Air Force officer, the electrician Antonios Mytilenćos, the Law students Spyridon Galates and Nikolaos Lazares, and the teacher Julia Bimbas, planted a home-made bomb in the basement of the building in downtown Athens, housing the National-Socialists of ESPO (National-Socialist Patriotic Organization) a pro-Nazi group headed by the doctor Spyridon Sterodemos, that at the time recruited Greeks in order to form a SS Greek Legion. The bomb exploded at 12:30 killing 29 ESPO members and 48 German officers. The 37-year old Perrikos was captured and put before the firing squad on 4 February 1943. Bimbas was captured also and she was killed by decapitation. Lazares joined Napoleon Zervas' EDES (=National Republican Greek League) partisans. Mytilenćos managed to escape to Egypt.
Flying Officer, Constantine Perrikos

1943: The British 78th Division (Maj. Gen. D.C.Butterworth) begins landings at Bari on the SE coast of Italy.
The 78th Infantry Division was known as the Battleaxe Division

1944: The British Second Army (Lt. Gen. Dempsey) is now five miles North of Nijmegen, but still six miles from Arnhem. The US First Army (Lt. Gen. Hodges) halts its offensive West of Aachen. German troops holding out in the port city of Boulogne finally surrender to Canadian forces.
German soldiers surrendering to the 31st Field Company, Royal Canadian Engineers (R.C.E.) Boulogne, France - wwii.ca/photos/

1944: The Soviets take Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.

1965: The Indo-Pakistani War (also known as the Second Kashmir War) between India and Pakistan over Kashmir, ends after the UN calls for a cease-fire. India suffered 3,000 killed or wounded, at least 175 tanks destroyed, 60–75 aircraft lost. Pakistan suffered 3,800 killed or wounded, 200 tanks destroyed, 20-73 aircraft lost. Strategic miscalculations by both India and Pakistan ensured that the war ended in a stalemate.

1980: Iraq invades Iran, launching a simultaneous invasion by air and land into Iranian territory, thus opening a 8-year War that claimed the lives of at least a million people.

1993: A Transair Georgian Airlines Tupolev Tu-154 flying from Tbilisi (and reportedly carrying Georgian soldiers) was shot down while attempting to land at the Sukhumi airport and crashed on the runway, killing 108 of the 132 people on board.

2006: The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is retired from the United States Navy.

09-23-2010, 04:41 AM
1409: During the Sino-Mongol War, fought between Ming China and Mongolia, the Battle of the Kherlen Gol (=River) occurs. Hundreds of thousands of Mongolians and Ming Chinese fought at the banks of Kherlen River for the control of Mongolia. The Ming army was completely routed and defeated.

1459: During the Wars of the Roses the Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle in the English Wars of the Roses occurs. On Saint Thecla's Day, a Lancastrian force of some 6 - 12,000 men under James Touchet, 5th Baron Audley and John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, was defeated by a Yorkist army of some 3 - 6,000 men under Richard Neville, jure uxoris (=by right of his wife) 5th Earl of Salisbury. It is believed that at least 3,000 men died in the battle, with at least 2,000 of these from the Lancastrian side. Audley himself was killed and buried in Darley Abbey in Derbyshire.
The battle is commemorated by a re-enactment each year in September at Blore Heath

1779: During the American War of Independence, the Naval Battle of Flamborough Head, fought in the North Sea, off the coast of Yorkshire, England, occurs. An American Continental Navy squadron led by John Paul Jones comprised five warships, attacked and defeated two British escort vessels protecting a large merchant convoy. Despite its relatively small size, it became one of the most celebrated naval actions of the American Revolutionary War.
Captain John Paul Jones

1803: During the Second Anglo-Maratha War (fought between the Indian Maratha Empire and the British East India Company from 1803 - 1805) the Battle of Assaye occurs. 50,000 Marathas under the Hanoverian Colonel Anthony Pohlmann, were defeated by the ca 10,000 men of East India Company and British Army under the 34-year old Major General, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. East India Company and British Army casualties amounted to 428 killed, 1,138 wounded and 18 missing. Approximately 6,000 Maratha were killed and wounded. The battle was the Duke of Wellington's first major victory and one he later described as his finest accomplishment on the battlefield.

1821: During the Greek War for Independence, the biggest town in the Peloponnese and administrative centre for Ottoman rule, Tripolitsá (now Tripolis) falls to an army of 10,000 Greeks under General Theodoros Kolokotrones, after several months of siege. About 30,000 Turks were massacred in Tripolitsá, including its entire Jewish population (the massacre of Jews is considered more of a tragic side-effect by most historians, than a specific action against Jews per se). For the massacre, Kolokotrones writes in his memoirs: Tripolitsá was three miles in circumference. The host which entered it, cut down and were slaying men, women, and children from Friday until Sunday. Thirty-two thousand were reported to have been slain. One Hydran boasted that he had killed ninety.. My horse from the walls to the Saray (=Palace) never touched the earth.

1941: Professor of History, Comnenus Pyromáglu arrives amidst secrecy in occupied Athens from Paris and organizes with the former Army Colonel Napoléon Zervas, the National Republican Greek League (EDES) resistance group. EDES acted mostly in Epirus, against the German and Italian occupation forces under orders of the Greek government in exile and the Allied Middle East Command (General Sir Claude Auchinleck).
Colonel Napoléon Zervas, EDES' leader

EDES' co-founder, Professor Comnenus Pyromáglu

1943: Following Mussolini's liberation, the Repubblica Sociale Italiana (=Italian Social Republic) a Nazi-Germany's puppet state, with its capital in Salň, a small town on Lake Garda, in Northern Italy, is proclaimed.

09-24-2010, 04:43 AM
1645: During the English Civil War, the Battle of Rowton Heath occurs. A Parliamentarian force of 3,000 foot, 300 musketeers, under Colonel-General Sydenham Poyntz, defeated the 3,000 Royalists of Sir Marmaduke Langdale, 1st Baron Langdale and the 22-year old, Lord Bernard Stewart, a Scottish aristocrat who served as a Royalist commander. Stewart was killed, together with 600 royalists while 800 made prisoners.

1877: During the Satsuma Rebellion (a revolt of Satsuma ex-samurai against the Meiji government from 29 January, 1877 to 24 September, 1877) the Battle of Shiroyama occurs. On the night of 24 - 25 September, 30,000 troops of the Imperial Japanese Army under the Prince Yamagata Kyosuke assaulted the hill of Shiroyama, occupied by a force of ca 400 - 500 Satsuma Samurai under Saigo Takamori. For a short time Saigo's lines held, but was forced back due to weight of numbers. By 06:00 hours, only 40 rebels were still alive. Takamori was mortally wounded in the femoral artery and stomach.
Takamori's statue in Kagoshima, Japan

1939: 1,150 German planes bomb Warsaw. German Special Task Force troops execute 800 Polish intellectuals and leaders in Bydgoszcz.

1942: Greek Submarine RHNS "Nereus" (Y4) (Lt. Cdr. Alexandros Ralles) sinks off the island of Syme, the Italian Liner Fiume (1,100 tons) which was headed for Rhodes. She was carrying 249 Italian officers and other ranks, an Ansaldo 76/40 M1917 gun and 150 Greek workers. 326 lives were lost in the sinking.
The Nereus

1944: The British Second Army (Lt. Gen. Dempsey) reaches the Lower Rhine in force. The British paratroops at Arnhem are now under severe pressure. British troops cross the German border to the Southeast of Nijmegen. The US Third Army's (Gen. Patton) Moselle bridgeheads to the South of Metz are sealed off by the Germans.

09-25-2010, 05:46 AM
1066: During the Viking invasions of England, the Battle of Stamford Bridge occurs. A 6,000-strong English force under the last Anglo-Saxon King of England, Harold II Godwinson defeated a 15,000-strong army comprised Norsemen, Flemmish and Scottish troops under the Norwegian King Harald III Sigurdsson, the Hardrada (=Hard Ruler). Harald assembled a fleet of 300 ships carrying Norsemen to invade England. Arriving off the English coast he was joined by further forces recruited in Flanders and Scotland by Tostig Godwinson the English king's brother. The Norwegian army was routed, pursued by the English army. Harald's army was so heavily beaten that only 24 of the 300 longboats used to transport his forces to England were used to carry the survivors back to Norway. Both Harald and Tostig died in the battle.

1396: During the Ottoman Wars in Europe, the Battle of Nicopolis (today's Nikopol in Bulgaria) occurs. A force of ca 7 - 16,000 Crusaders (comprised Knights Hospitaller, Hungarians, Venetians, Bulgarians of the Second Bulgarian Empire, contingents from German princedoms of the Holy Roman Empire, Poles, Czechs of Bohemia, Basques of Navarre, and Wallachians) under the overall command of the French nobleman Enguerrand VII Sieur de Coucy, was defeated by the 20 - 25,000 Ottomans (including 1,500 Serbian heavy cavalry knights under the Prince Stefan Lazarević, who was Ottoman Sultan's vassal since the Battle of Kosovo in 1389), under Sultan Bayezid I. Most of the Crusader army was destroyed or captured; a small portion, including Sigismund, escaped. 300 - 3,000 prisoners were executed by the Ottomans.
Battle of Nicopolis; the executions

1846: During the Mexican-American War the Mexican city of Monterrey is captured by General Zachary Taylor, commander of all US forces, following the Mexican defeat in the 3-day battle for the city.

WWI-1915: The Second Battle of Champagne, a French offensive against the invading German army, opens. The offensive proved to be disappointing for the French. Despite their initial success they had only made quick progress during the time it took for the Germans to ***** reserves from elsewhere and ruch them up. The battle ended on 6 November. The French lost 145,000 men, while the Germans lost 72,500 - 80,000 men. The French had taken 25,000 prisoners and captured 150 guns.

1939: The Luftwaffe bomb Warsaw with 420 planes. Casualties in the city since the start of the war have now reached 40,000 dead.

1943: Greek Submarine RHNS "Nereus" (Y4) (Lt. Cdr. Alexandros Ralles) sinks with her guns a large fully loaded Italian Sailer in the strait of Nisyrus-Tenus.

1944: The Canadians begin all-out attack on the German stronghold at Calais. Hitler orders the formation of the Volksturm, the German home guard. The British evacuate the remaining paratrooper at Arnhem, but only 2,163 men out of nearly 10,000 return.
1st Polish Parachute Brigade prisoners being escorted through Arnhem

1944: A Greek Sacred Band detachment raids the Greek island of Mykonos. They destroy ammo depots, and in their clash with the German garrison, kill six and wound seven Germans.

1955: Royal Jordanian Air Force is founded.

1970: Cease-fire between Jordan and the Palestinian Fedayeen ends fighting. Black September is over.

09-26-2010, 04:18 AM
1687: The Parthenon, the temple in the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, is partially destroyed by an explosion caused by the bombing from Venetian forces led by the Venetian Doge and General Francesco Morosini who are besieging the Ottoman Turks stationed in Athens.

WWI-1918: The Meuse-Argonne Offensive, the bloodiest single battle in American history, begins. The US I Corps (77th, 28th and 35th Divisions under French command; in the the final phases of the Meuse-Argonne offensive under Lt. Gen. Hunter Liggett), V Corps (91st, 37th and 79th Divisions under Maj. Gen. Charles Pelot Summerall), III Corps (4th, 80th and 33rd Divisions), and the French Fourth (General Henri Gouraud) and Fifth (General Henri Mathias Berthelot) Armies commenced advancing against the German Fifth (General Johannes Georg von der Marwitz) Army's defence line in order to breach the Hindenburg line and ultimately force the opposing German forces to capitulate. The battle ended on Armistice day (11 November, 1918). Allied losses were severe. The US suffered ca 117,000 killed and wounded, while the French lost approximately 70,000 troops. The Germans suffered ca 190,000 killed and wounded.

1943: Greek Destroyer RHNS "Vasilissa Olga" (Queen Olga) (D-15) was sunk during a German air attack carried out by 25 Junkers Ju 88 while anchored in Lakki bay of Leros island after the capitulation of Italy. Her CO Lt. Cdr. Georgios Blessas, 6 officers and 63 petty officers and other ranks were lost.
The Queen Olga is sinking

The signal informing the Navy HQ in Alexandria about Queen Olga's loss. It reads: Destroyer Queen Olga sunk in Leros harbour at 10:14 26/9/43

1943: British Destroyer HMS "Intrepid" (D-10) (Cdr. Charles Arthur de Winton Kitcat) was sunk during a German air attack carried out by 25 Junkers Ju 88 while anchored in Lakki bay of Leros island.

1944: III Greek Mountain Brigade's 1st Battalion (Major Ioannes Karavías) relieves the 24th New Zealand Battalion (it would go into reserve) and becomes the first allied unit that crosses the Rubicon River in NE Italy: At 06:30 hours after a quick but intense firefight takes the town of Bellaria, near Cesena.
Greeks of the III Mountain Brigade. It comprised 205 Officers, 89 WO, 3,083 other ranks

The III Greek Mountain Brigade's crest in WWII

1944: The Brazilian 1Ş Divisăo de Infantaria Expedicionária - 1Ş DIE (=1st Expeditionary Infantry Division) (Gen. Joăo Baptista Mascarenhas de Morais), on the central front of the Gothic Line, controls the Serchio valley region, after ten days of rugged fighting at a cost of 290 killed or wounded.
Brazilian troops of the 1Ş DIE enter an Italian town

1944: The Caserta Agreement is signed in Caserta, Italy, between the Greek Prime Minister Georgios Papandreou, the British Minister Resident in the Mediterranean (representative to the Allies in the Mediterranean) Harold MacMillan, the C-in-C Middle East, General Henry Maitland Wilson, the EDES' (=National Republican Greek League) leader Colonel Napoléon Zervas, and the ELAS' (=Greek People's Liberation Army) leader Gen. Stephanos Saraphes. According to it, "...all resistance forces in Greece were placed under the command of a British officer, Lt. Gen. Sir Ronald MacKenzie Scobie".
Saraphes (left), Scobie, Zervas

1950: United Nations 1st Cavalry Division Task Force 777, enters Seoul, South Korea, shortly after dark. The city was full of North Korean soldiers, most wandering aimless around. None fired on the American unit, led by tank platoon from the 70th Tank Battalion.

09-27-2010, 05:02 AM
489: During the Ostrogothic Invasion of Italy, the Battle of Verona occurs. On the steep banks of the Adige River, an Ostrogothic army under Theodoric the Great, defeated Odoacer's army, to wrest Italy from him. The reward for this Ostrogothic victory, was the possession of the Italian province as far as the walls of Mediolanum (=Milan) where its inhabitants saluted their conqueror with loud acclamations of respect and fidelity.
Theodoric the Great

1331: During the Polish-Teutonic War, the Battle of Płowce occurs. The German army from the Teutonic Order of 7,000 men under the 19th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, Dietrich von Altenburg, was defeated by the 5,000 Poles under their King Władysław I Łokietek (=Elbow-high) and his son Prince Casimir. Despite the Polish victory on the field, the battle is traditionally regarded as inconclusive given that the Teutonic Order was not destroyed.
King Ladislaus I the Short of Poland

1529: During the Ottoman Wars in Europe, the First Siege of Vienna opens. An Ottoman army of somewhere between 120 - 300,000 troops (including units of Sipahi, the elite mounted force of the Ottoman cavalry, and Jannisaries) under the Ottoman Sultan, Suleiman I the Magnificent and his Grand Vizier, the Greek, Christian born and Muslim convert, Pargalı İbrahim Pasha, begins its first attempt to capture Vienna. The Siege ended 45 days later in an Ottoman failure.

1605: During the Polish-Swedish War, the Battle of Kircholm occurs. A 5,200-strong Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth army (1,040 pikemen and 260 musketeers, 2,600 horse, 1,300 Winged Hussars) under the most prominent nobleman of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Jan Karol Chodkiewicz, defeated a ca 11,000-strong Swedish army (nearly half of its force with German, Scottish and Dutch mercenaries) under the Swedish King Karl IX. The fighting lasted barely 20 to 30 minutes, yet the Swedish defeat was utter and complete. The Swedish army lost at least half, perhaps as much as two-thirds, of its original strength. The Polish-Lithuanian losses numbered only about 100 dead and 200 wounded, although the Hussars, lost a large part of their trained battle horses.
The conqueror of Kircholm, the Grand Hetman, Jan Karol Chodkiewicz

1939: Warsaw, besieged for more than two weeks, surrenders after continuous air and artillery bombardments. Near Grabowiec, 6 Polish Police Officers and 150 Polish Policemen among 5,000 taken prisoner, are executed by the Soviets.

1940: Germany, Italy and Japan sign 10-year pact in Berlin recognising the need for a Neue Ordnung (=New Order) in Europe and Far East.

1941: The National Liberation Front (EAM), the main movement of the Greek Resistance during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II, is founded. At the KKE's (=Communist Party of Greece) 7th Plenum, EAM is founded by representatives of the major four Greek left-wing parties: Lephteres Apostolu for the KKE, Chrestos Khomenides for the Socialist Party of Greece (SΚΕ), Elias Tsirimokos for the Union for People's Democracy (ΕLD) and Apostolos Voiatzes for the Agricultural Party of Greece (ΑΚΕ). EAM's charter called for "...the liberation of the Nation from foreign yoke" and "...the guaranteeing of the Greek people's sovereign right to determine its form of government".
One of the first EAM propaganda leaflets to the Athenians; it reads: "National Unity - EAM - All called to arms"

1960: The British TSR-2 aircraft XR219 made its maiden flight from Boscombe Down in Wiltshire.

1993: During the Abkhazia War, the Sukhumi massacre occurs. It was perpetrated against Georgian civilians of Sukhumi, mainly by militia forces of Abkhaz separatists. Intimitaded by massive human rights abuse, more than 250,000 refugees (mainly Georgians, also Greeks and others) were forced out from Abkhazia.
Ethnic Greeks of Abkhazia; photo taken in the first decades of 20th c.

1996: Taleban forces capture Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan.

09-28-2010, 04:06 AM
351: The Battle of Mursa Major was fought between the Eastern Roman army led by Emperor Flavius Julius Constantius II and the Western forces supporting the usurper Flavius Magnus Magnentius at the valley of the Drava River, a Danube tributary in present day Croatia. Despite Magnentius' heroism, his troops were defeated and forced to retreat back to Gaul. According to the Byzantine historian, Ioannes Zonarás, Magnentius lost upwards of 2/3 of his troops, and Constantius about half of his army, for a total of over 50,000 casualties.
Constantius' era gold solidus

1066: The Norman conquest of England by William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy begins. The Normans landed at Pevensey in Sussex, England and erected a wooden castle at Hastings, from which they raided the surrounding area.

1106: During the English invasion of Normandy, the Battle of Tinchebray occurs. An invading English force led by King Henry I of England, defeated a force under his older brother Robert Curthose, the Duke of Normandy. Henry's knights won a decisive victory, capturing Robert and imprisoning him in England and then Wales until Robert's death in Cardiff Castle. England and Normandy remained under a single ruler until 1204.
King Henry I, of England

1322: The Battle of Mühldorf was fought between the 1,800 knights and mercenaries from the Duchy of Upper Bavaria under the Romanorum Rex (=King of the Romans) Ludwig IV the Bavarian and an Austrian army comprised 1,400 knights, Cuman cavalry and mercenaries under Ludwig's cousin, Frederick the Handsome, Duke of Austria. The battle did not go well for the Austrians. Frederick's army was defeated by Ludwig's outnumbering forces with heavy losses on both sides and Frederick made prisoner.

1708: During the Great Northern War, the Battle of Lesnaya occurs. An 18,200-strong Russian army comprised Dragoons, Cossack and Kalmyk cavalry, 5,200 foot with 30 cannons, under Tsar Peter the Great, defeated the 13,000 Swedes (supported by 16 cannons) of General Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt. The Swedes lost 1,000 men dead and wounded and 4,000 missing in the battle. Russian casualties totaled 1,111 killed and 2,856 wounded.
The conqueror of Lesnaya, Peter the Great

1781: American forces under George Washington, backed by a French fleet, begin the siege of Yorktown, Virginia, during the American Revolutionary War. It proved to be a decisive Franco-American victory which led to the surrender of Lord Cornwallis' British army. The British government eventually negotiated an end to the conflict.

1922: The Armistice of Mudanya between Turkey, Italy, France and the UK is signed in the town of Mudanya, near İstanbul, Turkey, that ends the Greco-Turkish War of 1919 - 1922. Greece signed it two days later.
The building where the Armistice of Mudanya was signed

1939: German and Soviet troops meet at Brest-Litovsk and together stage a military review. An agreement is signed affirming their common border lines in eastern Poland.

1943: German forces retake Split from Tito's partisans.

1944: The Germans begin to evacuate Albania.

1944: The Red Army begin an offensive towards the Yugoslav border from Romania.

1952: During the Korean War, the Battle of Hill Big Nori between the Greek troops of the GEF (=Greek Expeditionary Force) and the Chinese, opened on the night of 28 - 29 September. The battle is also known for a tragic incident; four USAF bombers pound the Greek positions by mistake.
The headline of a Greek Newspaper of the era; it reads: The Greek Battalion repels an intense Chinese attack

1987: The beginning of the Palestinian civil disobedience uprising, the First Intifada against the Israeli occupation.

2000: The second Palestinian civil disobedience uprising, the Al-Aqsa Intifada against the Israeli occupation, a period of intensified Palestinian-Israeli violence, begins with Ariel Sharon's visit to the Al-Haram Al-Sharif mosque (Temple Mount) in Jerusalem.

09-29-2010, 04:40 AM
480 BC: During the Second Persian invasion of Greece, the Naval Battle of Salamís occurs. A joint Greek fleet of ca 366 - 378 triremes from Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Megara, Croton (from S. Italy) and other Greek minor city-states, under the overall command of the Athenian Stratēgós (=Army leader, general) Themistocles, but nominally led by the Spartan Návarchos (=Ship leader, admiral), Eurybiades, defeated the Persian Achćmenid fleet of some 600 - 800 warships (triremes mostly) led by the eldest brother of Persian King Xerxes I, Ariabignes (or Ariamenes according to Plutarch). The Persian fleet sailed into the Straits of Salamís and tried to block both entrances. In the cramped conditions of the Straits the great Persian numbers were an active hindrance, as ships struggled to maneuver and became disorganised. Seizing the opportunity, the Greek fleet formed in line and scored a decisive victory, sinking or capturing at least 200 Persian ships. Ariabignes died in the battle.

480 BC: During the Greco-Punic Wars (a series of conflicts fought between the Carthaginians and the Greeks headed by Syracusans, over control of Sicily and western Mediterranean from 7th - 3rd c. BC), the Battle of Himéra occurs. A 50,000-strong, according to modern estimates, (according to Herodotus' account, 300,000) Carthaginian army comprised Iberians, Libyans, Carthaginians and Libyo-Phśnecians, with Gaullic and Sardinian cavalry, under General Hamilcar, the son of Hanno, invaded Sicily and marched along the coast in order to capture the city of Himéra. The Greeks fielded a few tens of thousands (Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus give 50,000) hoplites, mostly from the major Greek city in Sicily, Syracuse, but also hired mercenaries from Greece and local Sicels and Sikans, under the overall command of the Tyrant (=Ruler) of Syracuse, Gelo, acting together with the Tyrant of Acragas (today's Agrigento in Sicily), Theron. About half of the Carthaginian army and majority of the fleet was destroyed, numerous prisoners and rich booty had fallen into Greek hands. The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus comments that "..the surviving Carthaginian ships were sunk in a storm on their return journey to Africa".
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On December 18, 2008 archeologists uncovered the mass graves of more than 10,000 soldiers holding the remains of 5th century B.C. soldiers near the site of the ancient Greek city of Himéra during the construction of a railway extension, on the island of Sicily: news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/12/081217-himera-mass-grave.html

1364: During the Hundred Years' War, the Battle of Auray occurs. A 3,500-strong Anglo-Breton army, comprised English and Bretons led by Jean V the Conqueror, Duc de Montfort, assisted by Sir John Chandos, Viscount of Saint-Sauveur, defeated a 4,000-strong Franco-Breton army, under Charles of Blois. In the battle, the troops of Charles of Blois broke and fled and he was killed.

1848: During the Hungarian Revolution (the revolution in the Kingdom of Hungary that grew into a war for independence from Habsburg rule) the Battle of Pákozd occurs. Lt. Gen. János Móga in command of 27,000 Hungarians with 82 cannon, fought and defeated the Habsburg army, numbering from 35 - 40,000 men under Croatian Ban (=Ruler), Count Josip Jelačić of Bužim. Although the Battle of Pákozd was one of the smaller of the Revolution, its consequences were very important. The battle became an icon for the Hungarian army because of its influence on politics and morale.
The victor, János Móga

1911: The claims of Italy over Ottoman Libya, lead Italy to formally Declare War against Ottoman Empire on 29 September, although the Italian fleet appeared off Tripoli, Libya, on the previous evening (28 September, 1911).

WWI-1918: Following the breach on the Salonika front occured on 15 September, Bulgaria capitulated and concluded armistice negotiations with the Allies. The Armistice with Bulgaria was signed at the Bulgaria Armistice Convention in Thessaloniki, Greece, between the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Allied Powers.
The Allied Military Cemetery in Thessaloniki, Greece. 21,000 allied soldiers killed in the Salonika Front (French, Italian, British and Russian) repose there; 7,000 of them are Serbs

1932: During the Chaco War (fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over control of the northern part of the Gran Chaco region from 1932 - 1935) the Battle of Boquerón ends (it opened on 7 September). A Bolivian army of ca 1,000 men, reinforced by a cavalry regiment and three infantry regiments as the battle progressed (totalling 4,000 troops), under Lt. Col. Manuel Marzana, was decisively defeated by the 14,000 Paraguayan troops under Col. José Félix Estigarribia Insaurralde. Bolivia suffered 1,000 dead or wounded, 800 made prisoners. Paraguay lost ca 1,500 - 2,000 dead or wounded.

1939: Poland formally surrenders. Polish Armed Forces suffered 66,000 dead, 133,700 wounded, 694,000 captured in their desparate 28-day, two-front struggle.

1941: The SS Einsatzgruppen operating in the Ukraine, massacre between 50,000 and 96,000 Ukranians (of which 33,771 are Jews), at Babi Yar, a ravine about 30 miles outside of Kiev.
The Babi Yar memorial in Kyiv, Ukraine

1941: During the night of 28 - 29 September, an insurrection against the Bulgarian occupation troops occured in the town of Doxáto, Drama Prefecture, Greece. The local police station in the town was attacked, leading to the death of 6 - 7 Bulgarian policemen. Although those who participated in the insurrection were killed or fled to the mountains, reprisals were harsh. The next day, Bulgarian forces rounded up all the men in town aged 14 and over, and after dividing them into groups of ten, executed them on the night of 29 September, 1941. 200 men were massacred.
The Memorial to the massacre in Doxáto

1990: The YF-22, which would later become the F-22 Raptor, flies for the first time.

09-30-2010, 04:04 AM
1744: During the War of the Austrian Succession, the Battle of Cuneo, fought on the outskirts of Cuneo in Piedmont, occurs. A combined Hispano-French force of some 26,000 soldiers under Louis François de Bourbon, Prince of Conti, defeated a Sardinian army under the Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia, Charles Emmanuel III. Out of a total number of 25,000, the King of Sardinia lost 4,400 men, whilst the Bourbon losses were a little over half their enemies at 2,700 men killed or wounded.
The conqueror of Cuneo, Louis François de Bourbon

1938: The Munich Aggreement is signed by the UK, France, Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. It permitted Nazi German annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland.

1941: The German strategic offensive named Operation Typhoon begins, when Guderian's Panzergruppe 2 opens its offensive against Moscow, 2 days ahead of the rest of Heeresgruppe Mitte (=Army Group Centre) (von Bock) and makes 80 km (50 miles) in its advance towards Orel.
Generaloberst Heinz Guderian; USSR autumn 1941

1943: On the eve of the Jewish New Year, the Gestapo and Danish Nazis begin rounding up all Danish Jews. However, a large number of Danish Jews had been saved when the anti-nazi politician Hans Hedtoft got wind of the German plan and passed the details to the Danish resistance who, with the help of Danish fishermen ferried many Jews to neutral Sweden.
The Danish resistance movement as a collective effort, rather than as individuals, has been honoured at Yad Vashem in Israel as being part of the Righteous Among the Nations

1944: The 7,500 strong Calais garrison surrenders to the First Canadian Army (General H.D.G. Crerar). Rejoicing in the streets of Dover at the announcement that the last of the German cross-channel guns, which have pounded the southeast coast of Britain for three years, have been silenced.

1954: The U.S. Navy submarine USS "Nautilus" ((SSN-571) is commissioned as the world's first nuclear reactor powered vessel.

1975: The Hughes (later McDonnell-Douglas, now Boeing) AH-64 Apache makes its first flight.

10-01-2010, 04:15 AM
331 BC: During Alexander the Great's Invasion of Persia, the Battle of Gaugamela (fought east of Mosul, in modern-day northern Iraq) occurs. It resulted in a massive victory for Alexander and led to the fall of the Achćmenid Empire. The Persian King Darius III Codomannus, fielded his enormous (numbering from 53 - 120,000) army comprised Arachosians (from ancient Arachosia which corresponds to the Iranian land of Harauti which is southeastern Afghanistan and southwestern Pakistan) under their Satrap (=Governor) Bersaentes and Persians under Darius' brother, Oxyathres; the right flank occupied the Syrian, Median, Mesopotamian, Parthian, Sacian, Tapurian, Hyrcanian, Albanian (=present-day's Azerbaijan and partially southern Dagestan), Sacesinian, Cappadocian, and Armenian cavalry under the Satrap of Babylon, Mazćus. The King occupied his army's center with his 10,000 Immortal (in Persian, ****iya, the companions) troops and his personal bodyguard the 10,000 Melophors (=apple-bearers), named likewise because instead of spike at the butt-end of a spear (by which it was stuck into the ground), they had a gold apple. The Scythians and Bactrians manned 50 scythed chariots (left flank) while 50 more manned by Armenians and Cappadocians, occupied the center and right flank. Alexander divided his 47,000-strong Army into two with the right side of the army (comprised Hetćrś - Companion cavalry, Pćonian and Macedonian light cavalry, Agrianian Psilś - skirmishers) falling under the direct command of Alexander, and the left (comprised 500 infantry and 1,800 Thessalian Cavalry, the Macedonian Phalanx, Greek allied and mercenary hoplites, Cretan archers, Menidas' and Andromachus' cavalry), to Parmenion.

1787: During the Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1792, the Battle of Kinburn occurs. Kinburn was a Russian fortress that covered approaches to the Imperial Russian Kherson fleet base. An Ottoman fleet comprised three 60-gun ships of the line, four 34-gun frigates, four floating batteries, and 14 gunboats with 4 guns each conducted an amphibious landing of 6,000 troops near the fortress. The Kinburn's Russian garrison comprised 1,500 infantry, 19 bronze and 300 iron artillery pieces in the fortress and 2,500 infantry, 28 regimental and 10 field guns, and Cossack cavalry within 50 km (31 miles) from the fortress, under the overall command of Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov. Russian losses were 2 officers and 136 others killed and 17 officers and 300 others wounded. Ottomans suffered defeat losing about 4,000 killed or wounded.
The Russian Imperial Order of St. Andrew the First-Called. Imperatritsa (=Empress) Catherine II the Great awarded Suvorov for the Kinburn victory with the Order of St.Andrew and the highest praise, where she wrote: You deserved it by faith and by faithfulness

1795: With the French Law of 1 October 1795 (Loi sur la réunion de la Belgique, du pays de Ličge ŕ la République Française du 9 vendimaire an IV), the Austrian Southern Netherlands (modern day Belgium) are ultimately lost to the French Revolutionary armies, and annexed to France replacing all the old divisions such as the County of Flanders, the Duchy of Brabant, etc. with French Départements.
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1827: During the Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828, Yerevan, Armenia's capital was captured by the Russians of General Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich, thus ending a millennium of Muslim domination in Armenia.
The conqueror of Yerevan, Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich; he was made Count of Erivan in 1828

1938: Germany annexes the Sudetenland.

1939: German troops enter the devastated city of Warsaw.

1943: US Fifth Army (Clark) captures Naples, in Italy, although the Germans thoroughly demolish its harbour facilities.

1944: The Red Army crosses the Danube into Yugoslavia.

1946: The Nurnberg trials conclude.

1947: The North American Aviation F-86 Sabre flies for the first time.

1949: The People's Republic of China is proclaimed by Mao Zedong.

1985: The Israeli Air Force launched Operation Wooden Leg, a strike on the PLO headquarters in L'Ariana, Tunisia near Tunis. The strike served as retaliation against an earlier event where PLO personnel murdered three civilians aboard a private yacht in the Mediterranean Sea. The strike was carried out by eight F-15 Eagles, including the primary attack planes, backup attack and escorts. The PLO headquarters were destroyed, although Yasser Arafat, the head of the organization, was not there at the time and escaped unharmed.

1992: During the NATO Exercise Display Determination 1992, the Turkish Destroyer-Minelayer TCG "Muavenet" (DM 357) was struck accidentally by two Sea Sparrow missiles negligently launched by US Aircraft Carrier USS "Saratoga" (CV/CVA/CVB-60). The missiles struck in the bridge, killing five of the ship's officers (including her CO, Cdr. Kudret Güngör) and injuring twenty-two. Muavenet was crippled and later broken up for scrap. The sailors who actually fired the missiles were not punished, but Saratoga's CO, Cpt. James M. Drager, four officers and three enlisted men received admiral's non-judicial punishment, an action that the New York Times stated would effectively end their US Navy careers. USS "Capodanno" (FF-1093) was given to Turkey by the United States Navy as part of the restitution for the accident and it was renamed TCG "Muavenet" (F-250) by Turkey.

10-02-2010, 04:33 AM
1187: Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, commonly known as Saladin recaptures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule, following Balian of Ibelin's surrender (Ibelin was a a castle in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem). The fall of Jerusalem, provoked the Third Crusade by providing it with its principal goal: The return of Jerusalem to Christendom a second time.

1263: During the Scottish-Norwegian War, the Battle of Largs (present day Largs in North Ayrshire, Scotland) occurs. It was the most important military engagement of the war. The Norwegian forces were led by King Hĺkon Hĺkonsson the Old and the Scottish forces by King Alaxandair III mac Alaxandair. The result was inconclusive, but in the long term favoured the Scots.

1552: During the War between Muscovite Russia and the Tatar Khanate of Kazan, the siege of Kazan, the final battle of the war occurs. The 150,000 Muscovite army under Ivan IV the Terrible besieged Kazan and on 2 October the Russians entered the city. The civil population as well as Kazan's army (totalling 80 - 85,000 men) opposed them. The city was totally sacked and burned. Dozens of thousands of Tatars killed, both civilians and garrison, and 60,000 - 100,000 Russians who had been kept captive in khanate were released.
The conqueror of Kazan, Ivan IV Vasilyevich the Terrible

1814: During the Chilean War of Independence, the Battle of Rancagua occurs. A 1,200-strong Spanish Royalist army under the Seville born, Spanish General Mariano de Osorio, defeated the 600 Chilean Revolutionaries under the Chilean patriot Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme. The Chilean force retreated with heavy losses.
The victor, Don Mariano de Osorio

1835: During the Texas War of Independence, the Battle of Gonzales, the first military engagement of the Texas Revolution occurs. Up to 140 Texians under John Henry Moore, one of the Old Three Hundred (=the first Anglo settlers who received land grants along the rich bottomlands of the Brazos, Colorado, and San Bernard rivers) fought a Mexican force of ca 100 cavalry under Lt. Francisco de Castańeda. Castańeda was sent by Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea to retrieve a cannon lent to the citizens of Gonzales in 1831 for their defence. The citizens of Gonzales refused to relinquish the Gonzales cannon, and the battle of Gonzales resulted.
The Come and Take It flag flown by Texians

1939: The first Poles are imprisoned in Pawiak Prison in Warsaw. Some 100,000 people will undergo Nazi interrogations here, of whom 37,000 will be executed and 60,000 sent to concentration camps.
The infamous Pawiak Prison

1941: Heeresgruppe Mitte (=Army Group Centre) (von Bock) launches Operation Typhoon, the main offensive towards Moscow with one million men, 1,700 tanks, 14,000 artillery pieces, 549 aircraft. Heeresgruppe Süd (=Army Group South) (von Rundstedt) begins an advance against Kursk and Kharkov.
Soviet documentary for the Battle of Moscow with English subtitles

1943: The British 2nd Special Service Brigade (Bgd. Ronald John Frederick "Ronnie" Tod) lands at Termoli on East coast of Italy and links up with troops moving North from Foggia.

1944: Warsaw falls to the Germans after 63-day siege, with the Polish Home Army surrendering only after all its food and ammunition had run out. The Germans recognise their valour and treat the survivors not as partisans, but as regular POW.

1950: During the Korean War, General MacArthur issues United Nations Command Operations Order 2 which is the plan to order for U.N. forces to cross into North Korea. ROKA troops are already 30 to 50 km (20 to 30 miles) north of the 38th Parallel on the east coast at this time.

10-03-2010, 05:24 AM
52 BC: During the Gallic Wars, the Siege of Alesia (today's Alise-Sainte-Rein), a major town centre and fort of the confederation of Gaullic tribes, named Mandubii, who lived in the areas of modern-day Bourgogne and Jura in France, ended with the Gallic leader Vercingetorix surrendering to Gaius Julius Cćsar. The country was then subdued, becoming a Roman province. Vercingetorix was taken prisoner, exhibited at Cćsar's triumph and most likely executed.
Vercingetorix's statue in Alise-Sainte-Rein

42 BC: During the Wars of the Second Triumvirate (Roman Civil Wars fought by the forces of Marcus Antonius and Octavian against the forces of Cćsar's assassins Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus) the First Battle of Philippoi (today's Philippi, Eastern Macedonia, Greece) occurs. The Triumvirs' army of nineteen legions and 33,000 horse (total over 100,000 men) under Octavian and Marcus Antonius decisively defeated the forces of Cćsar's assassins numbering some 100,000 men (seventeen legions, 17,000 horse) under Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. The battle ended in a draw: Cassius lost 9,000 men, while Octavian had about 18,000 casualties. Cassius believing that he had suffered a crushing defeat, committed suicide.
The battlefield, as seen from the Acropolis of Philippi

1935: Mussolini's Italy invades Ethiopia. The war resulted in the military occupation of Ethiopia and its annexation into the newly created colony of Italian East Africa.

1943: On the night of 3 October, Germans invade the Greek island of Kos in the Dodekanese, with the assistance of massive air support. German paratroopers landed in and around the airfield at Antimachia. The island was defended by the men of the 1st Durham Light Infantry (Colonel John Kirby) arrived on 16 September. The 1st DLI were almost wiped out on Kos with only some 60 men managing to escape.
The Athens Memorial stands within Phaleron War Cemetery and commemorates nearly 3,000 members of the land forces of the Commonwealth who lost their lives during the campaigns in Greece and Crete and the Dodecanese Islands including those of the 1st Durham Light Infantry who were killed on the island of Kos 1943

1951: During the Korean War, the First Battle of Maryang San occurs, pitting Australian and British forces against communist China. It ended 5 days later. The 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (Lt. Col. Francis George "Frank" Hassett) dislodged a numerically superior Chinese force from the tactically important Kowang-San (Hill 355) and Maryang San (Hill 317) features, in conjunction with other units of the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade.

1952: Operation Hurricane was the test of the first British atomic device. A plutonium implosion device was detonated in the lagoon between the Montebello Islands, Western Australia.

1990: German Unity Day: The German Democratic Republic ceases to exist and its territory becomes part of the Federal Republic of Germany.

1993: During Operation Gothic Serpent (a military operation conducted by special operations forces of the United States with the primary mission of capturing Somali warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid in Mogadishu, Somalia), the Battle of Mogadishu occurs. It was fought on 3 and 4 October, 1993, in Mogadishu, Somalia, by forces of the United States supported by UNOSOM II against Somali militia fighters loyal to warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid, with support from armed civilian fighters. 18 US Soldiers and hundreds of Somalis were killed in heavy fighting.

10-03-2010, 05:31 AM
Excellent work valtrex!!

10-04-2010, 04:17 AM
1636: During the Thirty Years' War, the Battle of Wittstock occurs. A Protestant Swedish army under the Swedish Field Marshal Johan Banér, joined by Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven, commanding an army comprised German, Scottish and English regiments (18,000 in total) defeated an 18,500-strong army of the alliance of the Holy Roman Empire and Saxony under Johann Georg I the Elector of Saxony. The Imperial forces, having lost ca 5,000 men, retreated under the cover of dusk in full rout. Wittstock was a resounding victory for the Swedes and their allies.
Johan Banér (left) and Alexander Leslie

1693: During the Nine Years' War (fought between King Louis XIV of France, and a European-wide coalition, the Grand Alliance, led by the Anglo-Dutch Stadtholder-King William III, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, King Charles II of Spain, Victor Amadeus II of Savoy, and the major and minor princes of the Holy Roman Empire) the Battle of Marsaglia occurs. A French army of some 35,000 men under Nicolas Catinat, defeated a 30,000-strong Hispano-Piedmontese army under the Prince of Piedmont and Duke of Savoy, Victor Amadeus II. The Piedmontese and their allies lost ca 10,000 killed, wounded and prisoners, against Catinat's 1,800 losses.
The conqueror of Marsaglia, Nicolas Catinat

1777: During the American War of Independence, the Battle of Germantown occurs. A British-Hessian army of some 9,000 troops under William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe and the Hessian Wilhelm von Innhausen und Knyphausen, defeated the 11,000-strong American Revolutionary army under George Washington and Nathanael Greene. The British victory in this battle ensured that Philadelphia, the capital of the self-proclaimed United States of America, would remain in British hands throughout the winter of 1777 - 1778.

1853: The conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Duchy of Nassau, commonly known as the Crimean War, opens, when the Ottoman Empire declares war on Russia.

1943: A German column of 600 troops with five artillery pieces while passing through the mountainous area of Nestorion, Kastoria, Greece was struck by the ELAS' (=Greek People's Liberation Army) IV Division on 4 October. In the two-day battle that followed, the German spread-out column was assaulted frontally and from the flanks. The insurgents withdrew on 5 October with one killed, 7 wounded. The Germans suffered 8 killed, 17 wounded.

1944: The British launch Operation Manna, and intervene in Greece, with 2nd Airborne Brigade (Brig C.H.V Pritchard) landing at Patras to harass the anticipated German withdrawal from the Balkans. One company of the 4th Battalion, the Parachute Regiment, was dropped in high winds at Megara airfield 64 km (40 miles) from Athens. Other landings take on Crete and other Islands in the Aegean. The Soviet 46th Army is within 16 km (10 miles) of Belgrade.

1944: The 1,000 Italians of the 24Ş Legione GNR "Carroccio'' (=24th Legion "Carroccio'' of the National Republican Guard) comprised the island of Samos' garrison, surrender to the CO of the Greek Sacred Band, Colonel Khristódulos Tsigántes.

1992: The Rome General Peace Accords ends a 16-year civil war in Mozambique. The war, fought between the Marxists-Leninists of FRELIMO and the anti-communists of RENAMO, claimed a million lives.

1993: The Russian Constitutional Crisis, the political stand-off between the Russian president Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin and the Russian parliament, culminates in the storming of the Russian White House, a government building that housed the Russian parliament, by Russian army and its shelling by tanks.

Excellent work valtrex!!
Thanks, I appreciate it.

10-05-2010, 05:11 AM
1910: The October Revolution in Portugal: Following the shelling of the royal palace by two warships, a republican coup d'état deposed King Manuel II and established the Portuguese First Republic with the writer Teófilo Braga as President.
The first President of the First Portuguese Republic, Joaquim Teófilo Braga

1912: Following Montenegro's formal Declaration of War against the Ottoman Empire, on 25 September, the three other Balkan States that constituted the Balkan League, Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia, declare War against the Ottoman Empire, on 5 October, 1912 and mobilize.
An interesting and well-made National Geographic Documentary in Greek with English subtitles

1915: The Greek National Schism: King Constantine I of the Hellenes, a committed Germanophile, forces Prime Minister Venizelos to resign. PM Eleutherios Venizelos, strongly wished to enter the Great War alongside the Entente forces. Anglo-French forces disembark at Salonika in order to force Greece to abandon neutrality and enter the Great War on their side.
The Brits in Salonika

1939: Hitler enters in triumph and reviews troops in Warsaw.

1943: The French complete their take over of Corsica. Germans have completely evacuated the island of Corsica.
http://img831.imageshack.us/img831/7505/fec01dotjpg http://img716.imageshack.us/img716/8099/4edmmdotjpg
The emblem (right) of the 4e Division Marocaine de Montagne (=4th Moroccan Mountain Division); its units participated in the liberation of Corsica and Italy

1944: The Canadians enter Holland.

1944: Bands of armed civilians from the Greek island of Carpathos, capture the Italian and German garrison of the island. A revolutionary committe is formed that declares the island's liberation from the axis troops. The Italian and German prisoners are transported to Egypt.
The monument to the liberation of Carpathos

1944: The Soviet First Baltic Front (Marshal Bagramyan) begins an offensive South of Riga to cut off Heeresgruppe Nord (=Army Group North) (Generalfeldmarschall Schörner) in Lithuania.
The equestrian statue of Marshal of the Soviet Union, Hovhannes Khachaturi Bagramyan, in Yerevan, Armenia, the first non-Slavic military officer to become a commander of a Front

1951: During the Korean War, the 7-day battle of Hill 313 ("Scotch Hill") near the Imjin River, reaches its peak. The men of the Greek Battalion of GEF (Greek Expedionary Force) capture it and repel consecutive Chinese attacks aiming to retake it, at a cost of 28 KIA and 87 WIA. GEF received their first US Presidential Unit Citation in February 1952 for the capture of "Scotch Hill".

1974: The IRA planted two 6-pound gelignite "no warning" bombs at two pubs in Guildford, Surrey, England. The first bomb exploded in the "Horse and Groom" pub just before 20:30 pm local time, destroying the front of the building and killing four British soldiers and one civilian. A second bomb exploded half an hour later in the nearby "Seven Stars".
The Horse & Groom pub was popular with British Army personnel

1986: The Israeli nuclear technician Mordechai Vanunu flew to London where he was invited to meet with reporters working for Sunday Times (UK). In these press briefings, Mordechai Vanunu revealed extensive details of the alleged Israeli nuclear weapons program.

2000: Mass demonstrations in Belgrade in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, with one casualty, following the presidential elections, lead to the downfall of Slobodan Milošević's regime.

10-06-2010, 04:48 AM
105 BC: During the Cimbrian War (fought between the Roman Republic and the Proto-Germanic tribes of the Cimbri and the Teutons from 113 - 101 BC), the Battle of Arausio occurs. 10 - 12 Roman Legions (ca 80,000 troops) with up to 40,000 auxiliaries and camp followers under Quintus Servilius Cćpio the Elder and Gnćus Mallius Maximus, were routed by the 200,000 Cimbri and Teutons commanded by the King of the Cimbri, Boiorix and the King of the Teutons, Theudobod. Though the actual casualty figure remains debated, historians claim that the total number of Roman casualties amounted to 80,000 Roman soldiers while half as many of the auxiliaries and camp-followers perished, almost all of the Roman participants in the battle. The Cimbri and Teutons lost ca 15,000 men.

69 BC: During the Third Mithridatic War (fought between Mithridates VI of Pontus and his allies, and the Roman Republic) the Battle of Tigranocerta occurs. A Roman army of 40,000 men consisting of 24,000 Roman and Bithynian infantry, 3,300 Roman and 10,000 Gallic and Thracian cavalry, led by Lucius Licinius Lucullus, defeated the 80 - 90,000-strong Armenian army consisting of Adiabenians, Gordyenians, Iberians, Medians and 20 - 25,000 Armenians, under the King of Armenia, Tigranes the Great. The casualties reported for Tigranes' army were immense, with estimates given at least 10,000 men. Most of the lands in Tigranes' empire to the south of the Taurus, fell under the sway of Lucullus.
Coin of Tigranes the Great

68 BC: During the Third Mithridatic War, the Battle of Artaxata occurs. The Romans led by Lucius Licinius Lucullus were again victorious against the Armenians led by their King Tigranes the Great who was sheltering Mithridates VI of Pontus. Despite defeat, Mithridates continued to elude and antagonise Rome.
Coin of Mithridates of Pontus. The legend reads in Greek: Of King Mithridates the Eupator (=good father)

1762: During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Manila, opened on 26 September, concludes. It was fought between the UK and Spain in and around Manila, the capital of the Philippines, a Spanish colony at that time. The British captured Manila and held it for 18 months until it was returned to Spain in April 1764 after the Treaty of Paris (signed in 1763).
Plan for the city of Manila in 1762

1939: The last resisting Polish troops (17,000 men) surrender to German forces at Kock and Lublin.

1944: A Soviet offensive launched with 64 divisions, 750 tanks and 1,100 aircraft commences near Arad in Hungary, with the aim of destroying Heeresgruppe Süd (=Army Group South) (Gen. Friessner).

1973: Egypt launches a coordinated attack against Israel to reclaim land lost in the Six Day War of 1967. The Yom Kippur War opens at 14:00 hours (local time) that day.

1977: The first prototype of the MiG-29, designated 9-01, makes its maiden flight.

1981: President of Egypt, Anwar al-Sadat is assassinated during the annual victory parade held in Cairo to celebrate Egypt's crossing of the Suez Canal.

2002: The French oil tanker Limburg, carrying 397,000 barrels of crude oil from Iran to Malaysia, and while sailing in the Gulf of Aden off Yemen, an explosives-laden dinghy rammed the starboard side of the tanker and detonated killing one crew member and wounding 12 more. Al Qaeda claimed responsibility for the attack. The Limburg was repaired in Dubai for US$45 million; in 2003 it was sold to Tanker Pacific and renamed Maritime Jewel.

10-07-2010, 04:43 AM
1513: During the War of the League of Cambrai (fought from 1508 to 1516, between France, the Papal States and the Republic of Venice, joined at various times by other European powers such as Spain, England, Scotland, Holy Roman Empire etc) the Battle of La Motta occurs. A Venetian army under the Condottiere (=contractor) Bartolomeo d'Alviano, attempted to prevent the Spanish under Ramón Folc de Cardona y Anglesola from withdrawing from the Veneto, but was defeated and scattered. Many prominent Venetian noblemen were cut down outside the city walls as they attempted to flee.
Family arms of Folc de Cardona y Anglesola

1571: During the Ottoman Wars in Europe, the Naval Battle of Lepanto (modern day, Náfpaktos, Greece) occurs. A fleet of the Sacra Liga (=Holy League), a coalition of Spain (including its territories of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia), the Republic of Venice, the Papacy, the Republic of Genoa, the Duchy of Savoy, the Knights Hospitaller and others, comprised 202 galleys and 6 galleasses, manned by 22,840 soldiers, under the overall command of Don Juan of Austria, decisively defeated the main fleet of the Ottoman Empire consisted of 206 galleys and 45 galliots, manned by 31,490 soldiers and led by Müezzinzade Ali Pasha. The Holy League suffered around 7,500 soldiers, sailors and rowers dead, but freed about as many Christian prisoners. Turkish casualties were around 15,000, and at least 3,500 were captured. 17 Christian warships sunk. The Ottomans suffered 15 warships sunk and 177 taken. The famous Spanish writer, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, who himself was wounded in the Battle of Lepanto, serving in the Spanish infantry, and who had also been a captive of the Barbary pirates until ransomed, recounted many of his experiences in the novel Don Quixote. The Battle of Lepanto marked the end of Turkish naval supremacy and the beginning of the Ottoman Empire's decline on both land and sea. Perhaps the most important result of the battle was its effect on men's minds: The victory had ended the myth that the Turks could not be beaten.
-Each galley cost the Holy League ca 20,000 gold Ducats (~660,000 USD/476,000 €)
-Routine maintenance cost: 32,400 gold Ducats per month (~1,1 mil USD/794,000 €)
-Pay and allowances: 28,980 gold Ducats per month (~954,000 USD/688,000 €)
-1 out of 8 galleys on the Christian side was Greek (from Crete, Corfu, Mani, Chios, Macedonia, Epirus, Peloponnese, Minor Asia, Cephallonia and Zante).
-Thousands of Greeks fought on the Ottoman side too.
-The War cry of Greeks during the battle was Ai Yioryis (=St. George!).
-The War cry of the Genovese was Pe Zena e pe San Zorzo (=For Zena [Genoa] & St. George!).
-After the battle the Greeks of Venice cut their own commemorative coins with St. George, which they called The St. George's thaler. They were known in Europe as the Greek thalers.

1777: During the American War of Independence, the Second Battle of Saratoga, the Battle of Bemis Heights occurs. 11,000 Americans under Benedict Arnold, defeat John Burgoyne's British grenadiers.

1780: During the American War of Independence, the Battle of Kings Mountain occurs. 900 Patriots (including John Crockett, the father of Davy Crockett) overwhelmed the Loyalist American militia led by British Major Patrick Ferguson of the 71st Regiment of Foot. After an hour of combat, Loyalist casualties were heavy (ca 300 killed), including Ferguson. Seeing their leader fall, the Loyalists began to surrender. Thomas Jefferson called the victory at Kings Mountain, the turn of the tide of success.
The monument to the battle in Kings Mountain, SC

1800: French Corsair (=Privateer) Robert Surcouf, commander of the 18-gun ship La Confiance, captures the British 38-gun Kent inspiring the traditional French song Le Trente-et-un du mois d'aoűt:
On the thirty-first of August
On the thirty-first of August
We saw approaching under sail
We saw approaching under sail
An English frigate
Cutting through the sea and the waves
In order to attack Bordeaux!


Let's drink a cup, la la, let's drink in two draughts,
To the health of truelovers;
To the health of the King of France,
And ***** to the King of England,
Who has declared war on us.

The commander of the ship
The commander of the ship
Summoned his lieutenant
Summoned his lieutenant:
"Lieutenant, do you feel able,
Do you feel strong enough
To board and take the Englishman?"


Let's drink a cup, la la, let's drink in two draughts,
To the health of truelovers;
To the health of the King of France,
And ***** to the King of England,
Who has declared war on us.

The proud and hardy lieutenant
The proud and hardy lieutenant
Replied, "Yes, Captain;
Replied, "Yes, Captain;
Call all hands to their stations:
I shall hoist our colours,
Which will stay aloft, we swear it."


Let's drink a cup, la la, let's drink in two draughts,
To the health of truelovers;
To the health of the King of France,
And ***** to the King of England,
Who has declared war on us.

The master blew his whistle
The master blew his whistle
To call all hands on deck
To call all hands on deck:
All was made ready for the boarding,
Hardy topmen, proud sailors,
Brave gunners, wee cabinboys.


Let's drink a cup, la la, let's drink in two draughts,
To the health of truelovers;
To the health of the King of France,
And ***** to the King of England,
Who has declared war on us.

Turning our back to the wind as we came up,
Turning our back to the wind as we came up,
I boarded her at her forepart
I boarded her at her forepart;
With hatchet and grenade,
With pike, sabre and musketoon,
Quick as a flash I had her all in order.


Let's drink a cup, la la, let's drink in two draughts,
To the health of truelovers;
To the health of the King of France,
And ***** to the King of England,
Who has declared war on us.

What will they say of the great big tub,
What will they say of the great big tub,
In Brest, in London, and in Bordeaux,
In Brest, in London, and in Bordeaux
That let its crew be taken
By a privateer with six cannon,
When it had thirty-six good ones!


Let's drink a cup, la la, let's drink in two draughts,
To the health of truelovers;
To the health of the King of France,
And ***** to the King of England,
Who has declared war on us.

1828: During the Greek War for Independence, the French expeditionary Corps under Nicolas Joseph Maison, liberate the city of Patras, in W. Peloponnese. The remainder of the Turkish garrison had withdrawn to the citadel, a 6th c. Justinian castle and surrendered to the French on 7 October.
http://i53.*******.com/2hzlr9sdotjpg http://i51.*******.com/2ymtzl3dotjpg
The Patras' Castle and the Count of the Napoleonic Empire, Nicolas Joseph Maison

1879: Germany and Austria-Hungary sign the Twofold Covenant and create the Dual Alliance. The Dual Alliance persisted throughout the 19th c. and WWI and ended with their defeats in 1918.
Otto von Bismarck, the German chancellor, speaking to the conference for the creation of Dual Alliance

1942: The October Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins. Two 5th Marine battalions attacked West from the Lunga perimeter towards the Matanikau. With direct-fire support from 75 mm guns mounted on halftracks, plus additional troops supplied by the 1st Raider Battalion, the Marines forced 200 soldiers from the Japanese 3rd Company, 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry into a small pocket on the east side of the Matanikau about 400 yards (370 m) from the river mouth. The Japanese 2nd Company tried to come to the aid of their comrades in the 3rd Company but were unable to cross the Matanikau and took casualties from Marine gunfire.
A U.S. Marine patrol crosses the Matanikau River on Guadalcanal in 1942

1944: The British Eighth Army (Lt. Gen. Richard McCreery) resumes its attacks on the Gothic Line. The British reach Corinth, 9th Commando land at Nauplion and take the Greek island of Samos.

1944: Uprising at Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp. At about 15:00 hours, Jewish Sonderkommando (=prisoners who worked the death camps in return for special treatment and privileges) of Crematorium II, Polish in Crematorium I and Hungarians in Crematoria III and IV caught the SS guards by surprise, overpowered them and blew up the Crematorium IV, using explosives smuggled in from a weapons factory by female inmates. Hundreds of prisoners escaped, but were all soon captured and, along with an additional group who participated in the revolt, executed.

1985: Four gunmen of the Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) took control of the liner Achille Lauro off Egypt as she was sailing from Alexandria to Port Said. Holding the passengers and crew hostage, they directed the vessel to sail to Tartus, Syria, and demanded the release of 50 Palestinians then in Israeli prisons. The disagreement in resolving the crisis, led to the gravest diplomatic crisis between Italy and United States.

2001: The War in Afghanistan begins.

10-07-2010, 10:33 AM
I remember my father singing bits of that Napoleonic sea shanty, usually at parties, with a drink or two in hand. Now I know where it comes from... That's pretty cool.
Thanks Valtrex, this thread rocks. It has become a daily read for me.
*lifts glass*
"Buvons un coup, buvons en deux!..." p-)

10-07-2010, 12:52 PM
7 October 1944; 130,000 Dutch Guilders dropped behind enemy Lines in Holland for Jedburgh/SF-team Dudley.

10-08-2010, 04:32 AM
314/316: Battle of Cibalć: The opposing armies of Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus, commonly known as Constantine the Great, and Valerius Licini**** Licinius, met on the plain between the rivers Save and Drave near the town of Colonia Aurelia Cibalć (now Vinkovci, Croatia) in 314 or 316 AD. As many as 20,000 of Licinius' troops were killed in the hard-fought battle. The surviving cavalry of the defeated army accompanied Licinius when he fled the field under the cover of darkness.
The statue of Constantine in York, England

1480: During the Tataro-Mongol raid against the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Ugorschina (=Standoff on the Ugra river) occurs. Ahmed Khan with his Great Horde army, planned to bypass the Oka river from the west and unite his Tataro-Mongols with his ally, King Casimir Jagellion's Polish-Lithuanian army. At the Ugra River, Ahmed Khan was met by the Russians and chose not to attack. Eventually, he retreated to the South. The Tataro-Mongol retreat was seen as victory in Muscovy. In popular memory, the Ugra Standoff is taken as the end of the Tatar Yoke in Russia.
Ivan III of Russia on the Monument Millennium of Russia in Veliky Novgorod; Ivan earned the privilige to bear the Byzantine two-headed eagle, after his marriage with Sophia Palćologina, niece of the last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI Palćologus

1806: Royal Navy raids Boulogne-sur-Mer, the Northern French city used by Napoleon as his base to invade the United Kingdom. Commodore Edward Owen led a Royal Navy flotilla and attacked the French Grande Armée amassed in Boulogne. Captain William Jackson of HMS "Musquito" directed the boats firing 32 pound (14.5 kg) Congreve rockets. As night drew in on the Channel, 24 cutters fitted with rocket frames formed a line and fired some 2,000 rockets at Boulogne. The barrage took only 30 minutes. Apparently the attack set a number of fires but otherwise had limited effect.

1821: The Marina de Guerra del Perú (=Peruvian War Navy) is established by the Argentine Revolutionary, José Francisco de San Martín Matorras, commonly known as José de San Martín.

1828: During the Greek War for Independence, the Naval Battle of Navarino (off the Homeric - and modern - town of Pylus on the west coast of the Peloponnese peninsula, in the Ionian Sea), occurs (O.S.). A combined Franco-Russo-British fleet comprised 26 warships with 1,258 guns, under Admiral Edward Codrington, C-in-C of the allied force, Admiral Marie Henri Daniel Gauthier, comte de Rigny, commander of the French flotilla, and Admiral Login Petrovich Geiden, commander of the Russian flotilla, defeated the combined Turco-Egyptian fleet comprised 83 or 84 warships with 2,180 guns under Amir Tahir Pasha. Allied casualties were given by Codrington as 181 killed, 480 wounded (including Codrington's youngest son, midshipman H. Codrington). Several Allied ships were severely damaged. Ottoman casualties were 1,109 killed, 3,000 wounded. Of the entire Turco-Egyptian armada, just 8 remained seaworthy. Navarino signalled the beginning of the end of the Ottoman rule in Greece. The news of Navarino were accepted with enthusiasm in Paris and St. Petersburg. Unfortunately in London it was considered an untoward incident. Codrington spent much time in his later years defending his actions in Greece.
A 1977 issued Greek postage-stamp on the occassion of the 150 years from the Navarino Battle (1827-1977) with the three Admirals, Geiden, Codrington and de Rigny

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Each year on 20 October (N.S.) representatives from the three allied navies take part in the celebrations for the outcome of the battle in Pylus

1856: Qing officials boarded the Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship that had been registered in Hong Kong and was suspected of piracy and smuggling and arrested twelve chinese crew members on suspicion of piracy. The British officials in Guangzhou demanded the release of the sailors, claiming that because the ship had recently been British-registered, it was protected under the Treaty of Nanking. They insisted that the Arrow had been flying a British ensign and that the Qing soldiers had insulted the British flag. The Arrow incident served as pretext for the Second Opium War.

1879: During the War of the Pacific, the Naval Battle of Angamos occurs. Two divisions of the Chilean Navy, consisted of two ironclads, three corvettes and one transport, under Cpt. Juan José Latorre Benavente, surrounded and captured the Peruvian ironclad Huáscar, under Rear Admiral Miguel María Grau Seminario. Admiral Grau was killed during the engagement. He is an iconic figure for the Peruvian Navy, and one of the most famous military leaders of the Americas. Huáscar is anchored at the port of Talcahuano, Chile as floating museum.
The Huáscar

1912: During the First Balkan War, the Greek fleet, placed under the newly-promoted Rear Admiral Pavlos Kunduriótes, sailed for the island of Lemnos on 5 October; three days later on 8 October occupied it (after a short firefight between a Greek detachment under Major Iulianós Kondarátos and the island's Turkish garrison) and established an anchorage at Moudros Bay. This move was of major strategic importance, as it provided the Greeks with a forward base in close distance to the Dardanelles, the Ottoman fleet's main anchorage and refuge.

1912: During the First Balkan War, the Battle of Kardzhali occurs. On the morning of 8 October, the Ottoman Kırcaali corps (c. 9,000 men with 8 artillery pieces) under Mehmet Yaver Pasha, defending the town of Kırcaali (modern-day Kardzhali, Bulgaria) were attacked by the 8,700 troops (with 42 artillery pieces) of the Bulgarian Haskovo Detachment under Colonel Vasil Delov. At 16:00 hours, the Bulgarians entered Kırcaali in triumph. Ottomans suffered 200 killed or wounded, 19 made prisoners. Bulgarians suffered 9 killed, 45 wounded. The battle of Kardzhali was the first action on the Bulgarian theatre of operations during the First Balkan War.
The monumet to the battle in Kardzhali, Bulgaria

1944: Units of the U.S. Ninth Army (Lt. Gen. Simpson) reach the outskirts of Aachen on the German border. Captain Robert Evan Brown Jr. receives a Medal of Honor for his heroics in the Battle of Crucifix Hill just outside Aachen.
Captain Robert "Bobbie" Brown Jr.

1967: Guerilla leader Che Guevara and his men are captured in Bolivia.

1968: Operation Sealords (SEALORDS is an acronym for Southeast Asia Lake, Ocean, River, and Delta Strategy), a determined effort by U.S. Navy, South Vietnamese Navy, and allied ground forces to cut enemy supply lines from Cambodia, and disrupt operations in enemy base areas deep in the Mekong Delta, begins. This strategy was developed by Commander Naval Forces Vietnam (COMNAVFORV), Vice Admiral Elmo R. Zumwalt Jr., with the blessing of the new Commander US Military Assistance Command Vietnam (COMUSMACV), General Creighton Abrams. As a two-year operation, by 1971 all aspects of Sealords had been turned over to the South Vietnam Navy.
Vice Admiral Elmo R. Zumwalt Jr.

10-09-2010, 05:05 AM
1238: King of Aragon, Jaume I el Conqueridor (=the Conqueror) defeated the Moors from the Balansiya taifa (=independent Moslem-ruled principality) and entered the city of Valencia on 9 October, which is regarded as the dawn of the Kingdom of Valencia.
John of Aragon's equestrian statue, in Valencia

1264: The Kingdom of Castille takes the Moslem town of Sherish and renames it Jerez, the capital of sherry wine, the Andalusian horse, and flamenco.
The Alcázar (=Arabic castle) of Jerez

1760: During the Seven Years' War, the Russians under Count Pyotr Semyonovich Saltykov and Austrians under Franz Moritz Graf von Lascy take Berlin from the Prussians and briefly occupied it.
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Count Saltykov (left) and Count Lascy

1806: As part of the War of the Fourth Coalition (the fourth major concerted effort by Prussia, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to contain Napoleonic France), Prussia declares war on France.
Friedrich-Wilhelm III, King of Prussia from 1797 - 1840

1831: The First Governor of the Independent Greek State, a Greek diplomat of the Russian Empire, Count Ioannes Antonios Capodistrias (or Kapodistrias), is assassinated on Sunday morning, on the steps of the church of Saint Spyridon in Nauplion (Greece's first capital) by the heroic Maniot family of the Greek War of Independence turned brigand, the Mavromikhales. On 21 September 2009, the city of Lausanne in Switzerland inaugurated a bronze statue of Kapodistrias in a ceremony attended by the Foreign Ministers of the Russian Federation, Sergei Lavrov and of Switzerland, Micheline Calmy-Rey.
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Capodistrias as unofficial Russian ambassador to Switzerland, actively facilitated the initiation of a new Constitution for the 19 cantons that were the component states of Switzerland, with personal drafts

1854: During the Crimean War, the Siege of Sebastopol begins, lasting until September 1855. The defence of the city was led by Vice Admirals Vladimir Kornilov and Pavel Nakhimov assisted by the chief engineer, Lieutenant Colonel Eduard Totleben, commanding a garrison of ca 36,600 and from May 1855, 42,000 troops. The task to capture the city was undertaken by an allied army of French, British and Ottoman troops (comprised 75,000 French, 35,000 British, 60,000 Turkish, 15,000 Piedmontese and from August 1855, additional 85,000 troops from Switzerland, Poland, Malta, various German States) under French General François Certain de Canrobert, British General FitzRoy James Henry Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan and Ottoman Omar Pasha Latas.

1912: During the First Balkan War, the Battle of Sarandáporon occurs. The Greek Army of Thessaly with five Divisions, reached the Sarandáporon straits which had been extensively fortified by a German mission before the war. The total Ottoman force defending it equalled five Divisions with further 11 infantry battalions in reserve, supported by substantial artillery and three machine-gun companies. The Greek offensive began on the morning of Tuesday, 9 October, with the I, II and III Divisions attacking the Turkish main line frontally, the IV Division attempting a flanking move to the west, in order to bypass the fortifications and thence occupy the Porta straits in the rear of the Turkish positions, while the V Division was ordered to execute an even broader maneuvre. Hassan Tahsin Pasha deployed 9 Infantry battalions (22nd Division), 12 guns and 2 MG companies on the western front. On the central front, 5 Infantry battalions with 10 guns awaited the enemy's advance and on the eastern front 4 Infantry companies, one MG company and 2 cavalry troops had being placed in position fronting the Greeks. The advance of the Greek troops commenced at 06:30 hours (with Gennádes' Evzone Detachment under Colonel Stephanos Gennádes) on open terrain, under Turkish artillery fire (Krupp 75mm) that caused high casualties. The V Division run into stiff resistance, but the IV Division moved quickly and managed to push back the Turkish flank and occupy its designated objective (in this battle IV Division earned the name the winged division). The 9th Evzone Battalion under Major Ioannes Velissaríu attacked the Turkish flank at Deskáte and captured the town. During the night the Ottomans, after becoming aware of the IV Division's flanking move, retreated in order under the cover of the darkness and the heavy rain to avoid being completely encircled. The battle, although not very successful, was nonetheless of major significance to the Greeks. Despite the somewhat clumsy Greek plan, the Greek soldiers performed well, and the victory helped expunge the stain of the 1897 defeat to Ottoman Turkey. Greek losses accounted for 182 killed (18 officers) and 995 (30 officers) wounded. Ottoman casualties were severe. The Battle of Sarandáporon was the first action on the Greek Thessalian theatre of operations during the First Balkan War.

1934: King Alexander I Karadzordzevich, the First King of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, was assassinated as he was arriving in M****illes to start a state visit to the Third French Republic, when a gunman, the Bulgarian Vlado Chernozemski, stepped from the street and shot the King and his chauffeur. He was himself killed immediately afterwards. French Foreign Minister Jean Louis Barthou was accidentally shot by a French policeman and died later.

1944: The 1st Bulgarian Army (Lt. Gen. Vladimir Stoychev) attacks the German Army along the Bulgaria-Yugoslavia border, towards Niš in Yugoslavia, with Yugoslavian partisans on their left flank and a Soviet force on their right. At this time the First Army consisted of three 10,000-men divisions.
General Stoychev took part in the Moscow Victory Parade in June 1945

1967: A day after being captured, Marxist revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara is executed.

1970: The République Khmčre or Khmer Republic, the ill-fated regime of Cambodia that preceded the establishment of the totalitarian communist state known as Democratic Kampuchea is proclaimed in Cambodia.

1983: Attempted assassination of South Korean President Chun Doo-hwan during an official visit to Rangoon, Burma. Chun survives but the blast kills 17 of his entourage, including four cabinet ministers, and injures 17 others. Four Burmese officials also die in the blast.

1999: The last flight of the Lockheed SR-71 "Blackbird" at Edwards AFB.

2006: North Korea allegedly tests its first nuclear device.

10-10-2010, 04:12 AM
680: The Battle of Karbala: 72 supporters and relatives of Muhammad's grandson Husayn ibn Ali, were perished (Ali included) by the forces of Yazid ibn Mu‘awiya ibn Abi Sufyan, commonly known as Yazid I, the Umayyad caliph, in Karbala (southwest of Baghdad, present-day Iraq). Shia Muslims commemorate the Battle of Karbala every year in the Islamic month of Muharram. The tenth day of Muharram is called Yaumu-l 'Ashurah, which is known by Shia Muslims as the day of grief, a day of mourning for the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali.
Husayn ibn Ali's Mosque, on the site of his grave in Karbala, Iraq

732: The two-day Battle of Poitiers opens. A Carolingian Frankish army, numbering somewhere between 30 - 80,000 men, under the Frankish military and political leader, Charles Martel (=the Hammer), also known as Carolus Martellus, decisively defeated an army of the Umayyad Caliphate, numbering from 25,000 to 80,000 men under the governor of Al-Andalus, Abu Said Abdul Rahman ibn Abdullah ibn Bishr ibn Al Sarem Al 'Aki Al Ghafiqi, commonly known as Abdderrahman. Franks suffered ca 1,100 losses. The Moors lost (according to modern estimates) ca 12,000 men, including Abdderrahman. Many historians claim that had Charles fallen, the Umayyad Caliphate would have easily conquered a divided Europe.
Charles Martel, the conqueror of Poitiers

1471: The Battle of Brunkeberg: A 9-12,000-strong Swedish army under Sten Sture den äldre (=the elder), the regent of Sweden, defeated the 6,000 Danes of the King of Denmark, Christian I. Advocating Swedish secession from the Kalmar Union (=the union of the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden - including a part of modern day Finland - under a single monarch) Sture's victory over Christian meant his power as viceroy of Sweden was secure and would remain so for the rest of his life.
According to legend, Sture had prayed to Saint George before the battle. He later tributed George by commissoning a statue of Saint George and the Dragon carved by the Lübeck sculptor Bernt Notke for the Storkyrkan church in Stockholm, as an obvious allegory of Sture's battle against Christian

1575: The Battle of Dormans: French Catholic troops under Henri I de Lorraine, 3rd duc de Guise, defeated a Protestant army under Philippe Du-Plessis-Mornay. Mornay was taken prisoner by the Duke of Guise but ransomed for a small sum. Henri de Guise suffered an injury to his face, which earned him the nickname le Balafré (=the scarred).
The victor, Henri de Guise

1911: The Wuchang Uprising, motivated by anger at corruption in the Qing government, frustration with the government's inability to restrain the interventions of foreign powers, and resentment of the majority Han Chinese toward a government dominated by an ethnic minority (the Manchus), started the Xinhai Revolution, which led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC).

1912: During the First Balkan War, the two-day Battle of Kumanovo opens. The Serbian Army with five Divisions, one cavalry Brigade and 148 artillery pieces, was engaged by the ca 65,000 troops (with 164 artillery pieces) of the Ottoman Vardar Army under Zeki Pasha. On the evening of the first day (Wednesday 10 October, O.S.), the Turks began the offensive at Kumanovo (modern-day Kumanova, northeast of Skopje, FYROM) attacking the Serbian positions (Danube Division I), 8 km (5 miles) distant. The Ottoman onslaught was checked with severe loss on both sides. At 01:00 hours of Thursday 11 October, the Serbs approached the Turkish entrenchment and fought for two hours. The country was open and although exposed to heavy artillery they stormed the Turkish positions repeatedly driving out the Turks in a hand-to-hand combat. Many dropped their rifles and used their knives or bayonets. The Serbs by noon had cleared Lobovkas valley and Kumanovo while the Turks withdrew 15 km (9 miles). Serbs suffered 687 killed, 3,280 wounded, 597 missing. Ottomans lost ca 4,200 killed or wounded (some of the Turkish officers wounded proved to be Germans), 327 made prisoners. The Battle of Kumanovo was the first action on the Serbian theatre of operations during the First Balkan War.
Commemorative medal for the First Balkan War of the Kingdom of Serbia

1941: The 250. Infanterie-Division, commonly known as División Azul (=Blue Division) (Maj. Gen. Agustín Muńoz Grandes), made up of Spanish volunteers and formed within days of the German attack on the Soviet Union, goes into action against the Soviets for the first time in the sector between Lake Illmen and the west bank of the Volkhov river. General Zhukov is put in charge of the West Front for the defence of Moscow. Heeresgruppe Süd (=Army Group South) (Gen. Friessner) concludes the battle along the Sea of Azov and takes 100,000 prisoners.
Men of the 263rd Regiment of the Spanish División Azul

1943: The Kempeitai - Japanese Military Police - arrested and tortured fifty-seven civilians and civilian internees on suspicion of their involvement in a raid on Singapore Harbour that had been carried out by Anglo-Australian commandos. After the war ended, twenty-one of the Kempeitai involved were charged with war crimes. Eight received the death sentence, seven were acquitted, and the remainder were given prison sentences varying from one year to life.
Kempeitai is the term used to describe the infamous Japanese military police, which often accompanied Japanese invasion forces to carry out the transition to a Japanese controlled government

1985: United States Navy F-14 fighter jets intercept an Egyptian plane carrying the Achille Lauro cruise ship hijackers and force it to land at a NATO base in Sigonella, Sicily where they are arrested by the Italians after a disagreement between American and Italian authorities: Italian Prime Minister Bettino Craxi claimed Italian territorial rights over the NATO base and there was a standoff, between the U.S. and Italy, because the U.S. had only informed the Italians minutes before the intercept.
The former Achille Lauro American hostages depart from Germany for the US

10-11-2010, 04:56 AM
1531: During the Second war of Kappel (an armed conflict between the Protestant and the Catholic cantons of the Old Swiss Confederacy), the Battle of Kappel occurs. The Catholic cantons decisively defeated the forces of Zürich at Kappel am Albis, a municipality in the district of Affoltern in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. The Zürich troops were without support from allied cantons, and Huldrych Zwingli, a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland, led them rather inexpertly, and was killed on the battlefield, along with twenty-four other protestant pastors. Zwingli was among the 500 casualties in the Zürich army.

1649: During the Eleven Years' War (a conflict in Ireland that pitted the native Irish Catholics against English and Scottish Protestant colonists and their supporters) the Sack of Wexford occurs. After a ten-day siege, English Parliamentarians (under Oliver Cromwell) stormed the town of Wexford, killing over 2,000 Irish troops and 1,500 civilians. Much of the town was burned and its harbour was destroyed.

1899: The Second Boer War, fought between the British Empire and the Dutch-speaking Boer inhabitants of the two independent Boer republics, the Transvaal Republic and the Orange Free State, begins, with a Boer offensive into the British-held Natal and Cape Colony areas.
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1912: During the First Balkan War, the Battle of Kirkkilisse occurs. On the night of 10 October, an Ottoman column consisting of infantry, cavalry and volunteers under Mahmud Mukhtar Pasha, moved in a northerly direction from Kirkkilisse (modern-day Kırklareli in the European part of Turkey) threatened to split the 1st (Lt. Gen. Vasil Kutinchev) and 3rd (Lt. Gen. Radko Dimitriev) Bulgarian armies. The Turkish vanguard came in contact with the Bulgarians at dawn of 11 October and it was then found that the enemy was in overwhelming strength. The Turkish cavalry attempted to charge the Bulgarians (1st Sofia and 2nd Preslav brigades) but were punished and fled. Their rout created panic amongst infantry who began to withdraw. It was the 2nd Division of the Konstantiniye Corps that ultimately stemed the rout. Approximately 90,000 Turks engaged in the battle, but only a division and a half defended Kirkkilisse itself. At noon, Kirkkilisse was in Bulgarian hands. After the victory, the French minister of war Alexandre Millerand stated that the Bulgarian Army was the best in Europe. Bulgarians suffered ca 4,000 killed or wounded. Ottoman casualties were similarly heavy. Two hundred Ottomans of the rank and file were shot for cowardice. The Bulgarians captured 58 artillery pieces and two airplanes.

1942: The two-day Naval Battle of Cape Esperance, begins. A Japanese naval force, comprised 3 cruisers and two destroyers, under Rear Admiral Aritomo Goto as it approached Savo Island near Guadalcanal with the objective to bombard the Allied airfield on Guadalcanal, was intercepted by a U.S force of four cruisers and five destroyers, under the command of Rear Admiral Norman Scott. The Japanes were taken by surprise and Scott's warships sank one of Goto's cruisers and one of his destroyers, heavily damaged another cruiser, mortally wounded Goto, and forced the rest of his warships to abandon the bombardment mission.
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Rear Admiral Scott, a posthumously MoH recipient (left) and Rear Admiral Goto

1943: A German section of ca 20 men is ambushed near the Thessalian town of Trikala, by an ELAS (=Greek People's Liberation Army) coy. After a fierce battle, the insurgents withdraw with an officer and a guerilla killed. All twenty of the Germans, perished.

1944: Hungarian forces in the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca are defeated by the Soviet and Romanian armies. Hungary and the Soviet Union begin negotiations for a ceasefire.
Hungarians of the 22nd SS Volunteer Cavalry Division Maria Theresia, manning a PaK-40

1976: George Washington's appointment, posthumously, to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States by congressional joint resolution Public Law 94-479 is approved by President Gerald R. Ford.

1987: During the Sri Lankan Civil War, Operation Pawan a codename assigned to the operations by the Indian Peace Keeping Force to enforce the disarmament of the LTTE as a part of the Indo-Sri Lankan Accord, begin. In brutal fighting that took about three weeks, the IPKF took control of the Jaffna Peninsula from the LTTE rule, something that the Sri Lankan army had tried and failed to achieve for several years.

10-12-2010, 04:21 AM
539 BC: The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon. Cyrus proclaimed himself King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the four corners of the world
I am Cyrus the King, an Achćmenid in Old Persian, Elamite and Aramaic languages. It is carved in a column in Pasargadć, the first capital of the Achćmenid Empire

WWI-1915: The British nurse, humanitarian and spy, Edith Louisa Cavell was executed in German-occupied Belgium, for helping some 200 Allied soldiers escape the country.

WWI-1917: The First Battle of Passchendćle: The British Second Army, comprised five British Divisions, three Australian Divisions and one New Zealand Division under Gen. Herbert Charles Onslow Plumer, 1st Viscount Plumer, commenced an assault against the German-held high ground along the Passchendćle-Westrozebeke ridge. The Allied attack failed, resulting in the largest single day loss of life in New Zealand history (1,176).

1943: The U.S. Fifth Army (Lt. Gen. Clark) begins an offensive along the Volturno river, 32 km (20 miles) North of Naples.

1944: The Germans evacuate Athens. ELAS' insurgents, assault and temporarily occupy the electric power production plant in Keratsini, Pirćus, on the night of 12 - 13 October in cooperation with the plant personnel. They are able to avert the plant's destruction by the retreating Germans, by engaging them in battle. This is the last Resistance operation of WWII in the Athens area. 17 Greek patriots are killed and an unknown number of Germans.

1984: IRA attempt to assassinate Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her cabinet at the Grand Hotel in Brighton, England. Thatcher escapes but the bomb kills five people and wounds 31.

1972: During the Vietnam War, a series of racial incidents broke out, on the United States Navy aircraft carrier USS "Kitty Hawk" (CVA-63) off the coast of Vietnam, wherein (according to a Report by the Special Subcommittee on Disciplinary Problems in the US Navy 92nd Cong., 2d sess., 1973, H.A.S.C. 92-81), "...a group of blacks, armed with chains, wrenches, bars, broomsticks and other dangerous weapons, went marauding through sections of the ship disobeying orders to cease, terrorizing the crew, and seeking out white personnel for senseless beating with fists and with weapons which resulted in extremely serious injury to three men and the medical treatment of many more, including some blacks".

1988: During Operation Pawan, Commandos of Indian Peace Keeping Force raided the Jaffna University campus to capture the LTTE chief and walked into a trap. The operation was planned as a fast heliborne assault involving Mi-8 of the No.109 Hellicopter Unit, the 10th Para Commando and a contingent of the 13th Sikh Light Infantry. In total the IPKF lost 29 men killed in action, accounting for almost all of the Sikh Light Infantry casualties. The Para Commandos lost six men in the battle.

2000: The USS "Cole" (DDG-67) is badly damaged in Aden, Yemen, by two suicide bombers, killing 17 crew members and wounding at least 39

10-13-2010, 04:07 AM
1775: The United States Continental Congress orders the establishment of the Continental Navy (later renamed the United States Navy).

1812: During the Anglo-American War, the Battle of Queenston Heights occurs. It was the first major battle in the war and resulted in a British victory. 6,000 US regulars and militia under Maj. Gen. Stephen Van Rensselaer III, were defeated by the 1,300 British regulars, militia, and natives under Maj. Gen. Sir Isaac Brock. British and Canadian losses were 16 killed, including Gen. Brock, 83 wounded and 21 captured, with a further 5 killed, 2 wounded and 1 captured among the Native American contingent. Total US casualties has been variously estimated at 60-100 killed, 80 wounded, 90 wounded prisoners and 835 other prisoners.
Brock's Monument in Queenston Heights

1904: The 34-year old Greek Army Officer, Pavlos Melás, one the first officers who organized and participated in the Greek Struggle for Macedonia (under the nom de guerre, Mikis Zezas) was surrounded by a Turkish detachment in the village of Státista (modern-day, Melás). He was seriously wounded and died after a desperate firefight, while seven if his men made prisoners. He is considered to be a symbol of the Greek Struggle for Macedonia and many of his personal belongings can be seen in the "Museum of the Macedonian Struggle" in Thessaloniki and "Pavlos Melás Museum" in Kastoriá.

1943: The new Italian government of Marshal Badoglio declares war on Germany. The U.S. Fifth Army (Lt. Gen. Clark) crosses the Volturno River.

1944: The Soviets enter Riga, the capital of Latvia as Heeresgruppe Nord (=Army Group North) (Generalfeldmarschall Schörner) withdraws into the Kurland pocket.

1950: During the Korean War, Royal Hellenic Air Force formed the 13th Flight, comprised seven Douglas C-47 Skytrain. They belonged to the 355 Transport Squadron, known for its participation in the recent civil war. The majority of its officers and NCO were experienced airmen, veterans of the Middle East campaigns of WWII and the Greek Civil War. The seven C-47 of 13th Flight, with 67 Air Force officers and personnel, departed from Eleusis air base at 08.30 hours of 11 November 1950. During its time in Korea, the Greek Flight carried out 2,916 missions, comprising air evacuations, transports of personnel, prisoners, drops of supplies and ammunition, replenishment of allied bases and collection of operational information. In total, its planes carried 70,568 passengers, including 9,243 wounded. It logged 13,777 flight hours. Losses included 12 officers and NCO, and 2 C-47.

1990: End of the Lebanon Civil War. Syrian forces launch a major operation involving its army, air force against Aoun's stronghold around the presidential palace removing General Michel Aoun. Aoun went to the French Embassy to negotiated a cease-fire with the Syrians and all militias from West Beirut. Later on, he announced over the radio that the war is over and stayed in Beirut until a safe exit to Paris was available because of the Syrian political agenda of eliminating Aoun.

10-14-2010, 04:06 AM
1066: During the Norman Conquest of England, the Battle of Hastings occurs. It was the decisive Norman victory fought between the Norman army of Duke William II of Normandy, commonly known as William the Conqueror, and the English army of King Harold II Godwinson, the last Anglo-Saxon King of England. The battle took place at Senlac Hill, approximately 10 km (6 miles) northwest of Hastings, close to the present-day town of Battle, East Sussex. Harold II was killed in the battle and William gained control of England, becoming its first Norman ruler as King William I, crowned on Christmas-day, 1066.

1322: During the First War of Scottish Independence, the Battle of Old Byland occurs. While the King of England, Edward II of Cćrnafton was at Rievaulx abbey, Robert I of Scotland's men attacked over the hills from Northallerton. They dispersed the royal rearguard led by John of Brittany, Earl of Richmond at Old Byland, but Edward escaped to York. The experience of a king of England in flight in his own country forced Edward to accept Scotland's independence.
The equestrian statue of Robert I the Bruce, King of Scotland

1758: During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Hochkirch occurs. A Prussian army of 30 - 36,000 commanded by Frederick the Great, was defeated by an Austrian army of 80,000 men, commanded by Count Leopold Joseph von Daun. The battle took place around Hochkirch, which is 9 km (5.5 miles) east of Bautzen, Saxony. Although Frederick showed off his leadership and courage in re-rallying his troops, this is marked as one of his worst losses.
The equestrian statue of Count Daun in Vienna, Austria

1805: During the War of the Third Coalition, the Battle of Elchingen occurs. A 20,000-strong French army under Marshal Michel Ney, defeated the 8,000 Austrians of Count Johann Sigismund von Riesch. The battle was fought at Elchingen, about 7 km (4 miles) east of Ulm–Neu-Ulm in Bavaria. The French admitted losing 56 officers and 737 other ranks killed or wounded. They captured 4,000 Austrians and 4 cannon. Austrian killed and wounded may have been as high as 2,000.
The conqueror of Elchingen, Marshal Ney

1806: During the War of the Fourth Coalition, the twin-battles of Jena-Auerstädt occur.
Jena: A 96,000-strong Imperial French army under Napoleon, defeated a combined Prusso-Saxon army of some 48,000 troops under Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen at Jena, in central Germany on the river Saale. In total the Prussian army suffered 10,000 casualties, 15,000 prisoners of war taken and lost 150 artillery guns. French suffered 2,480 killed and wounded.
Auerstädt: French Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davout with a single corps, fought and won the battle against the main Prussian army under Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, which had more than twice as many soldiers at its disposal (more than 63,000, to Davout's 28,000), at Auerstedt, central Germany. Prussians suffered 18,000 casualties along with 115 lost Prussian gun. The Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, died of the wounds he received in the battle, two days later. Davout's corps suffered 4,350 casualties. Historian François-Guy Hourtoulle writes: At Jena, Napoleon won a battle he could not lose. At Auerstädt, Davout won a battle he could not win. The decisive defeat suffered by the Prussian Army subjugated the Kingdom of Prussia to the French Empire until the Sixth Coalition was formed in 1812.

WWI-1915: Bulgaria enters World War I as one of the Central Powers. Austro-German-Bulgarian forces invade Serbia, expelling the Serbian army from the country.
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Bulgarian Efreytor (Lance Corporal) of Infantry (left) and Feldvebel (First Sgt) of Artillery; Salonika Front - WWI

WWI-1915: The Battle of Loos, one of the major British offensives mounted on the Western Front in 1915, ends. It marked the first time the British used poison gas during the war, and is also famous for the fact that it witnessed the first large-scale use of Kitchener's all-volunteer-army units.
The Loos Memorial commemorates over 20,000 officers and men who fell in the battle and have no known grave.

1938: The first flight of the Curtiss Aircraft Company's P-40 Warhawk fighter plane.

1939: The German Kriegsmarine submarine U-47 under Kapitanleutnant Günther Prien, of the 7. Unterseebootsflottille, sinks the British battleship HMS "Royal Oak" (08) within her harbor at Scapa Flow, Scotland. She sank within 15 minutes with the loss of over 800 men. U-47 then escaped undetected and returned home to Germany. The press in Germany declared Prien a hero.

1941: Heeresgruppe Mitte (=Army Group Centre) (Generalfeldmarschall von Bock) wipes out the Soviet pocket at Bryansk, Russia, but only capture about 50,000 prisoners. The rain and mud begins to impede the German advance, but German troops manage to capture Rzhev in the Volga region. Hitler orders that Moscow is to be enveloped, rather that assaulted directly. Soviet troops fall back in the southern Ukraine as the Germans make for the port of Rostov.
Marshal von Bock giving orders; Eastern Front, 1941

1943: Prisoners at the Nazi German Sobibor extermination camp in Poland revolted against the Germans, led by Polish-Jewish prisoner Leon Feldhendler and Soviet-Jewish POW Alexander Pechersky, succeeded in covertly killing eleven German SS officers and a number of camp guards. About 300 of the Sobibor Camp's 600 prisoners escaped from this Nazi extermination camp, and about 50 of these survived past the end of WW II.

1943: The US 8th Air Force delivers a heavy attack against the ball bearing plants at Schweinfurt. However, of the original force of 291 B-17 heavy bombers, 198 are either shot down or damaged beyond repair, while the Luftwaffe has lost only about 40 fighter planes.

1944: Field Marshall Rommel commits suicide after he is implicated in the 20th July Bomb Plot to kill Hitler.

1944: Athens and Pirćus are liberated by British troops entering the cities. British troops land on Corfu.
Royal Navy marching before the tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Athens

1947: Captain Chuck Yeager of the U.S. Air Force flies a Bell X-1 rocket-powered experimental aircraft, the Glamorous Glennis, faster than the speed of sound - over the high desert of Southern California - and becomes the first pilot and the first airplane to do so in level flight.

1949: During the Chinese Civil War, Chinese Communist forces enter and occupy the city of Guangzhou, commonly known in the West as Canton. Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang government, fled Guangzhou and established China's capital in Chongqing.

1952: During the Korean War, the Battle of Triangle Hill opens (ended on 25 November), pitting two United Nations infantry divisions (US 7th and ROK 2nd), with additional support from the United States Air Force, against elements of the 15th and 12th Corps of the People's Republic of China. The Ethiopian Kagnew Battalion, drawn from the 1st Division Imperial Bodyguard, sent by Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia as part of the United Nations forces in the Korean War, served with great distinction, principally alongside the US 7th Infantry Division, and by all accounts acquitted themselves well in battle.

1962: During the Cold War, the Cuban Missile Crisis begins. A U.S. Air Force U-2 reconnaissance plane and its pilot fly over the island of Cuba and take photographs of Soviet missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads being installed and erected in Cuba.

10-15-2010, 04:26 AM
533: General Belisarius enters triumphally into Carthage, having conquered it from the Vandals.
Belisarius dressed as "Θριαμβευτής" (thriamveutḗs, Greek for vir triumphalis, man of triumph), wearing his ceremonial panoply

1813: Napoleon Bonaparte begins his exile on Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean.

1894: Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a young French artillery officer of Alsatian Jewish descent, is arrested for spying in what later proved to be a political scandal that divided France in the 1890s and the early 1900s. The famous and influential French writer, Émile François Zola, wrote an open letter to the President of France, published on January 13, 1898, in the newspaper "L'Aurore", under the title J' Accuse (I Accuse), accusing the highest levels of the French Army of obstruction of justice and antisemitism by having wrongfully convicted Alfred Dreyfus to life imprisonment on Devil's Island, based on fabrications.

WWI-1917: At Vincennes outside of Paris, Dutch exotic dancer Mata Hari (real name, Margaretha-Geertruida Zelle) is executed by firing squad for spying for the German Empire.

1934: The Chinese Soviet Republic collapses after Chiang-Kai Shek's Kuomintang captures the county-city Ruijin, seat of the CSR central government, forcing the fleeing Communists to begin the Long March, the massive military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Chinese Communist Party, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang army.

1944: The Hungarian chief of state, Admiral Miklós Horthy, shortly after announcing Hungary's withdrawal from the war against the USSR, is taken prisoner by a commando unit led by SS Sturmbannführer (=Major) Otto Skorzeny. A new government under Ferenc Szalasi vows to continue the alliance with Germany.
Admiral Miklós Horthy, Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary, during an official visit to Hitler's Germany

1944: Greek Sacred Band's, Alpha Squadron after a three-day battle liberate the island of Naxos, in the Cyclades. 69 German troops made prisoners.
Sacred Band's Crest. This Crest was (1916 - 1918) the Greek WWI Cross, a design of the French sculptor André Rivaud. Sacred Band's motto, was the phrase: E Tan, e Epi Tas (Either it, or upon it), the wish given from the ancient Sparta's mothers to their sons in war times. Literally, it means, either you will return home carrying your shield, victorious, or you'll return carried on the shield, dead

1946: Hermann Göring committed suicide with a potassium cyanide capsule the night before he was to be hanged. Because he committed suicide, his dead body was displayed by the gallows for the witnesses of the executions.

1953: British nuclear test Totem 1 detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.

10-16-2010, 04:27 AM
456: The Germanic General and Magister Militum (=Master of Troops, Supreme Commander), Flavius Ricimer, defeated the Gallic-Roman Emperor of the Western Empire, Eparchius Avitus, in Placentia (modern-day Piacenza, Italy) and becomes master of the Western Roman Empire. The Emperor and his army entered the city and attacked the huge army led by Ricimer, but after a great massacre of his men, Avitus fled. Ricimer decided to spare the life of the defeated Emperor; he deposed Avitus and obliged him to become Bishop of Placentia.

1793: During the French Revolutionary Wars, the two-day Battle of Wattignies opens. A 45,000-strong French army under the overall command of Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, 1st Comte Jourdan and Lazare Nicolas Marguerite, Comte Carnot (commander of French columns on the Northern Front), defeated the 30,000-strong Habsburg army led by Prince Frederick Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. French losses numbered 5,000 killed, wounded, and missing, plus 27 artillery pieces captured. The Austrians suffered 2,500 killed and wounded, while an additional 500 men were captured.
The conqueror of Wattignies, Jean-Baptiste Jourdan

1813: During the War of the Sixth Coalition, the three-day Battle of Leipzig, opens. A 195,000-strong, Imperial Napoleonic army, comprised Poles under Prince Józef Antoni Poniatowski, the Poles and Saxons of Frederick Augustus I of Saxony, and the French under the overall command of Emperor Napoleon I, with 700 cannon, was defeated by the 430,000-strong allied army under Field Marshal Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg, consisting of troops from the Habsburg Empire, Swedes under Charles XIV John Bernadotte of Sweden, the Prussians of Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher and the Russians of Prince Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly and Leonty Leontyevich Count von Bennigsen, with 1,500 cannon. The battle involved over 600,000 soldiers, making it the largest battle in Europe prior to WWI. It was one of the most decisive defeats suffered by Napoleon I. Napoleon lost about 38,000 killed and wounded. The Allies captured 36,000 French, 325 cannon and 28 eagles, standards or colours. Among the dead was Prince Poniatowski, a nephew to the last king of Poland, Stanisław August Poniatowski. The Allies suffered approximately 54,000 casualties. The battle ended the First French Empire's presence east of the Rhine and brought the German states over to the Coalition. The Coalition pressed its advantage and invaded France in early 1814. Napoleon was forced from the throne of France and exiled to the island of Elba.
Painting by January Suchodolski illustrating Poniatowski's death in the Battle of Leipzig

1941: The Soviet major seaport located on the northwest shore of the Black Sea, Odessa (today's Odesa, Ukraine) falls to the Romanians after a Soviet evacuation by sea. During the two-month siege, the Romanians have suffered 98,000 casualties.
Romanian infantry in Odessa

1944: The Red Army enters German territory near Goldap in East Prussia. Thousands of German civilians flee the area in panic.

1944: Greek Sacred Band's Alpha Raider Squadron (i.e. Alpha Commando Battalion), under Col. Themistocles Ketseas, raid the N. Aegean island of Lemnos. Lemnos is liberated after a two-day battle. Dozens of Germans are killed, wounded or held prisoners.
Colonel Themistocles Ketseas

1949: Nikos Zakhariádes, leader of the Communist Party of Greece, announces a temporary cease-fire, effectively ending the Greek Civil War.
Nikólaos "Nikos" Zakhariádes

1964: People's Republic of China conducts its first nuclear weapons test (Project 596). It was a U-235 implosion fission device and had a yield of 22 kilotons. With the test, China became the fifth nuclear power.

1975: The Balibo Five, a group of journalists for Australian television networks, comprised two Australians, a New Zealander and two Britons, based in the town of Balibo in the then Portuguese Timor (now Timor Leste), were killed during Indonesian incursions prior to the invasion of Portuguese Timor by Indonesia. In 2007, an Australian coroner ruled that they had been deliberately killed by Indonesian special force soldiers.

1986: The IAF fighter pilot and weapon systems officer, Cpt. (now Lt. Col.) Ron Arad, is captured by Lebanese Shi'ite militia Amal. He is officially classified as MIA since October 1986, but widely presumed dead.

1993: The President of the Republic of Cyprus, Glaukos Clerides and Greek PM, Andreas Papandreou, agree in Athens, Greece, for the creation of a joint defence doctrine, encompassing Cyprus as part of a Common Defence Doctrine with Greece. Any attack on Cyprus was tantamount to an attack on Greece.

10-17-2010, 04:09 AM
539 BC: King Cyrus the Great of Persia, marches into the city of Babylon, releasing the Jews from almost 70 years of exile and making the first Human Rights Declaration. The charter, a baked-clay cylinder, with Old Persian cuneiform script, was discovered in 1878 in Babylon. In it, Cyrus the Great described his human treatment of the inhabitants of Babylonia after its conquest by the Persians. The document has been hailed as the first charter of human rights, and in 1971 a translation of it was published, under the ćgis of the UN, in all the official UN languages.
...Today, I announce that everyone is free to choose a religion. People are free to live in all regions and take up a job provided that they never violate other's rights. I prevent slavery and my governors and subordinates are obliged to prohibit exchanging men and women as slaves within their own ruling domains... - Cyrus the Great

1396: During the Second War of Scottish Independence, the Battle of Neville's Cross occurs. 12,000 Scots under their King, David II, invaded England and were defeated by an English army of some 3 - 4,000 men from Cumberland, Northumberland and Lancashire, with another 3,000 Yorkshiremen en route, mobilised under the supervision of William de la Zouche, Archbishop of York and led by Ralph Neville 2nd Baron Neville de Raby and Henry de Percy 9th Baron Percy, 2nd Baron of Alnwick. Scottish chroniclers Andrew of Wyntoun and Walter Bower both wrote that 1,000 Scots were killed in the battle, while according to the Chronicle of Lanercost, few English were killed.

1448: During the Ottoman Wars in Europe, the three-day, Second Battle of Kosovo begins. A coalition army of ca 24,000 men from the Kingdom of Hungary and Wallachia, under John Hunyadi, also known as Ioannes Corvinus, was defeated by an up to 60,000-strong Ottoman army under the Ottoman Sultan, Murad II. Ottomans suffered 34,000 killed or wounded. The Hungarians lost almost 75% of their force.
The victor, Murad II

1777: British General John Burgoyne surrenders his sword to American General Horatio Lloyd Gates, only to have it returned. Burgoyne's army - ca 6,000-strong - marched out to surrender their arms while the American musicians played Yankee Doodle. The British acknowledge defeat in the Battle of Saratoga.

1781: British Major General, Charles, Earl Cornwallis, offers his surrender to the American revolutionists at Yorktown, Virginia.

1797: The Treaty of Campoformido, is signed by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Johann Ludwig Joseph von Cobenzl as representatives of France and Austria. It marked the collapse of the First Coalition, the victorious conclusion to Napoleon's campaigns in Italy and the end of the first phase of the French Revolutionary Wars. Austria received Dalmatia, Istria and the city of Venice, France ceded the Ionian Islands.
Commemorative medal for the Treaty of Campoformido, with the portrait of the young revolutionary general, Napoleon Bonaparte

1827: During the Greek War of Independence, the French veteran of the Napoleonic wars and Philhellene, Charles Nicolas Fabvier, commanding Greek regular and irregular units, as well as many armed Chians, land and liberate the island of Chios.
Charles Nicolas Fabvier...

...in July 1825 formed the first Greek regular infantry unit, known to the Greek revolutionaries as Fabvier's tactical, based on French Réglement concernant l'exercice et les manoeuvres de l'infanterie (Regulations concerning Infantry exercises and maneuvres) of 1818

1941: Destroyer USS "Kearny" (DD-432), while escorting convoy SC-48, is torpedoed and damaged by German submarine off Iceland. For the first time in WWII, a German submarine attacks an American ship.

1941: Two companies of German troops, raze to the ground the villages of Ano Kerdylia and Kato Kerdylia in the prefecture of Serres, Eastern Macedonia, Greece, and massacre 235 male inhabitants, 130 from Ano Kerdylia, 105 from Kato Kerdylia, as reprisal for the killing of one German soldier.
The memorial to the massacred Kerdylians

1943: During military operations in Aegean after the surrender of Italian forces, Greek destroyer RHNS "Miaoules" (L91) (Lt. Cdr. Niketiades) and British destroyer HMS "Hursley" (L84) (Lt. Church) attack and sink the German submarine chaser UJ2109 (Ex-British minesweeper of Hunt class) and badly damage the transport "Trapani" (1000 t).
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The Miaoules (left) and the Hursley

1961: During the Algerian War, scores of Algerian protesters (from 200 to 325) are massacred when the Paris police at the instigation of Nazi collaborator Maurice Papon, then chief of the Prefecture of Police, attacked an illegal but peaceful demonstration of some 30,000 pro-FLN Algerians.
A memorial plaque for Algerians massacred on 17 October, 1961

10-18-2010, 04:11 AM
1009: The Fatimid Caliph Abu Ali Mansur Tariqu l-Hakim, commonly known as Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah (=Ruler by Allah's Command), intimidated and aggrieved by the scale of the Christian Easter pilgrimage to Jerusalem, orders the destruction of the Holy Sepulchre, a Basilica in Jerusalem containing the place where Jesus was buried (the sepulchre). Moslems hack the Church's foundations down to bedrock.
The Edicule of the Holy Sepulchre (The Tomb of Christ)

1016: During the Danish reconquest of England, the Battle of Ashingdon, the conclusive battle of the war, occurs. The Danes of Cnut II the Great, King of Denmark, triumphed over the English army led by their King, Edmund II Ironside. Following his defeat King Edmund II was forced to sign a treaty with Cnut in which all of England except for Wessex would be controlled by the Danish king, and when one of the kings should die, the other king would take all of England; his sons being the heir to the throne. After Edmund's death on 30 November, Cnute ruled the whole kingdom.
Cnut (Canute) the Great, King of Denmark and England

1081: During the Norman Invasion of Eastern Roman Empire, the Battle of Dyrrhachium (near today's Durrës in Albania) occurs. A 30,000-strong Norman army under Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia and Calabria, defeated the 20 - 25,000 Byzantines, nominally led by their Emperor, Alexius I Comnenus, in reality under the General of Dyrrhachium's garrison, Georgios Palćologus. The battle was a serious defeat for Alexius. He lost about 5,000 of his men, including most of the Varangians, his personal bodyguards. Palćologus did not re-enter Dyrrhachium after the battle and withdrew with his force of 7,000. The defence of the citadel was left to the Venetians, while the city itself, according to Anna Comnena, was left to a native Arberian (=Albanian; the first historical mention of Albania and the Albanians; it is disputed, however, whether that refers to Albanians in an ethnic sense) named Comiskórtes. The Norman army proceeded to take most of northern Greece without facing much resistance.
The banner of the Varangian Guard, depicting St. George slaying the dragon. A familiar theme especially amongst the Anglo-Saxon Varangians, called Ἰγγλινοβάραγγοι (Inglinovárangi, Byzantine-Greek for Anglo-Varangians)

11th c. Normans

1599: During the Ottoman Wars in Europe, the Battle of Schellenberg occurs. A 36,000-strong Romanian army, comprised Wallachians and Székely Hungarians, under the Prince of Wallachia Michael the Brave, with 18 cannon, marched into Transylvania to fight against the Ottoman aggression. Near the village of Şelimbăr close to Sibiu, he was engaged by the 30,000 men from the Principality of Transylvania, supported by 40 - 50 cannon, under the Hungarian Roman Catholic Cardinal, Prince-Bishop of Warmia and Transylvania, Andrew Báthory. The Romanian charge against the Hungarian army was a success and Andrew Báthory fled from the field. Casualties were at least 1,200 to 1,500 on the Hungarian side, and 200 to 1,000 men on the Romanian side.
The equestrian statue of Michael the Brave in Cluj-Napoca, Romania

1748: The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the War of the Austrian Succession. Britain and France dictated the treaty, and other nations followed the proposed terms which had previously been agreed at the Congress of Breda. The articles of the treaty among others provisioned:
-Prussia ceded Silesia; Austria renounced parts of its Italian territories to Spain.
-France withdrew from the Netherlands, returned the captured city of Madras in India to Great Britain and gave up the Barrier towns to the Dutch.
-Austria ceded the Italian Duchy of Parma; Spain ceded Piacenza and Guastalla.
-The Duchy of Modena and the Republic of Genoa, conquered by Austria, were restored.
Thames River in celebration of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

1860: During the Second Opium War, the British and French troops entered the Forbidden City in Beijing. Following the decisive defeat of the Chinese, Yixin, 1st Prince Gong was compelled to sign two treaties on behalf of the Qing government with James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and Baron Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros, who represented Britain and France respectively. Although Russia had not been a belligerent, Prince Gong also signed a treaty with Nikolay Nikolayevich Muravyov-Amursky. The treaties were signed six days later and among others provisioned:
-The UK formally ceded the area known as Kowloon.
-Russia ceded the Ussuri krai, a part of the modern day Primorye, the territory that corresponded with the ancient Manchu province of East Tartary.
Yixin, 1st Prince Gong

1912: During the First Balkan War, Greek Torpedo-Boat, RHNS "11", commanded by Lt. Nikólaos Votses, sneaked undetected into the harbour of Thessaloniki - at the time still held by the Ottomans - and launched her starboard torpedo at 23:35 hours from a distance of 150 m (164 yards), followed by the portside torpedo, against the Ottoman ironclad warship, "Feth-i Bülend" (=Great Causer of Conquest) (Cpt. Aziz Mahmut Bey). As Votses turned his ship around, he also launched the deck-mounted torpedo, but it exploded on the quay. The Feth-i Bülend struck by two torpedoes, sank rapidly.
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1912: During the First Balkan War, the three-day Battle of Lule-Burgas (modern-day Lüleburgaz in the European part of Turkey) opens. In terms of the forces engaged, Lule-Burgas was the largest battle fought on European soil for almost 90 years (from the Franco-Prussian War until World War I). The chief conflict took place just 6 km (4 miles) from the town of Lule-Burgas. 108,000 Bulgarians (Gen. Radko Dimitriev) with 360 artillery pieces, were engaged by the 130,000 Ottomans (Abdullah Pasha) with 300 artillery pieces, on the Bulgarian theatre of operations in Eastern Thrace. As the first Bulgarian units approached the railway station, they were subjected to artillery fire from Turkish batteries posted behind the neighbouring hills. Then the Turkish cavalry attempted to charge the Bulgarians who unable to stand such an onslaught, suffered severe casualties. The Turks however found themselves exposed to the deadly Bulgarian fire of the machine gun companies and the artillery. Few of the Ottoman cavalry got back. The Bulgarians displayed superb marksmanship as with their deadly artillery fire made the Ottomans retreat to Çatalca, 30 km (18 miles) from the Ottoman capital Istanbul. Bulgarians lost ca 19,000 killed or wounded. Ottoman casualties were at least 43,000 killed or wounded. Two-thirds of the Ottoman artillery captured. Abdullah Pasha, narrowly escaped.
Bulgarian Medal, За Xрабрость (=For Bravery)

1944: The call up for the Volkssturm (=folk storm, people's assault) begins in Germany, with all able-bodied men from 16 to 60 to be conscripted. German radio says 50,000 officers have been killed so far in war. Himmler becomes Commander-in-Chief, Forces of Interior.

1944: Greek government arrives in Athens from the Middle East via Otranto, Italy. Upon arrival, Prime Minister Georgios Papandreou, leading a procession, ascended to the Acropolis where he raised the Greek flag again. The flag was the colours of the Armoured-Cruiser RHNS "Georgios Averof", arrived the previous day.

1944: Soviet forces thrust into Slovakia.

1945: A group of the Venezuelan Armed Forces, led by Mario Vargas, Marcos Pérez Jiménez and Carlos Delgado Chalbaud, staged a coup d'état against then president Isaías Medina Angarita, who is overthrown by the end of the day.

1977: Lufthansa Flight 181, a Lufthansa Boeing 737-230/Adv, hijacked on 13 October by four members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (called themselves Commando-Martyr Halime), is stormed in a joint operation with Somali Commandos, by the West German counter-terrorism group GSG 9 with the help of the British SAS in Mogadishu, Somalia, and all 86 passengers rescued. The rescue operation was codenamed Feuerzauber (=Fire-Magic).

10-19-2010, 04:14 AM
202 BC: During the Second Punic War, the Battle of Zama occurs, marked the final and decisive end of the Second Punic War. A 43,000-strong Romano-Numidian army, comprised 37,000 Roman infantry and cavalry and 6,000 Numidian cavalry, under the overall command of Roman General Publius Cornelius Scipio Afric****, commonly known as Scipio Afric**** or Scipio the Elder, acting together with the King of Numidia, Massylissa, decisively defeated a 48,000-strong Carthaginian force comprised 45,000 infantry, 3,000 cavalry, with 80 war elephants, under Hannibal, at Zama Regia (in today's Tunisia). Hannibal experienced a major defeat that put an end to all resistance on the part of Carthage. In total, as many as 20,000 men of Hannibal’s army were killed at Zama, while 20,000 were taken as prisoners. The Romans on the other hand, suffered as few as 2,500 dead.

439: King of the Vandals and Alans, Genseric, took Carthage without any fighting. The Romans were caught unaware, and Genseric captured a large part of the western Roman navy docked in Carthage's port.

1453: The French recapture of Bordeaux brings the Hundred Years' War to a close, with the English retaining only Calais on French soil.

1912: The Treaty of Ouchy, named after a lakeside district of Lausanne in Switzerland where the peace conference took place, signed by the Kingdom of Italy and the Ottoman Empire, ends the Italo-Turkish War of 1911. According to the Ouchy Treaty, Tripoli in Libya, was ceded by Italy yet with an autonomous status; Turkey was to be the protector of the right of the Moslems in the region.

1912: During the First Balkan War, the two-day Battle of Yenidze (modern-day Yiannitsá) opens. The Greek Army attacked with six Infantry Divisions the Turkish forces (25,000 men, 30 guns), defending the narrow path leading from the Yenidze lake and mount Paikon to the town itself. On the morning of 19 October, and subjected to constant artillery fire, the men of the Greek II and III Infantry Divisions, advanced under heavy rain and made courageous efforts to override the open field and make contact with the main line of defence of the enemy, while elements of the VI Infantry Division, approached the first enemy defence line at the nearby heights. The Turks defended their positions obstinate. After fighting all Friday, at 08:45 hours of the next morning (Saturday 20 October), the 9th Evzone Battalion under Lt. Col. Constantine Papadopulos occupied the heights at the entrance of the town. The Ottoman forces, upon seeing the Evzone colours hoisted near the town, withdrew all over the front towards Salonika. The first Greek forces that entered the town of Yenidze, were elements of the II Infantry Division (11:00 am, 20 October). Greeks losses acounted for 10 Officers, 178 other ranks killed, 29 Officers, 756 other ranks wounded. Ottomans lost ca 1,200 killed or wounded. 300 Turks made prisoners.
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Commemorative Medal for the First Balkan War of the Kingdom of Greece

WWI-1914: The First Battle of Ypres (also known as the Battle of Flanders) begins. It was the last major battle of the first year of WWI. It actually comprised a series of battles, starting on 19 October and ending, on 13 November (according to the French perspective), 22 November (according to British historians) or 30 November (according to German views). This battle and the Battle of the Yser, marked the end of the so-called Race to the Sea.

1943: The offensive by the US 5th Army (Lt. Gen. Clark) along the Volturno river bogs down due to bad weather and a skilful German defence.
US Fifth Army patch

1944: The Germans evacuate Belgrade.
Yugoslav Partisans entered Belgrade after the Germans left. Seen here is a column of Partisans entering the liberated capital

1950: 40,000 PRC troops invade Tibet and capture Qamdo, Tibet's third largest city after Lhasa and Shigatse. It served as an important precursor to the eventual signing of Seventeen Point Agreement between Chinese central government and Lhasa government (according to which, the presence of People's Liberation Army in Tibet to consolidate national defence, drive out imperialist influences from Tibet and safeguard the unification of the territory and Tibet's sovereignty, is actively supported) in the following year

1976: During the Lebanese Civil War, the Battle of Aishiya occurs. A combined force of PLO and Communist gunmen attacked Aishiya, an isolated Christian village in a mostly Moslem area of S. Lebanon. The village was succesfully defended by the villagers and by IDF artillery during the day. The first, used light weapons and few rocket launchers; the latter with 24 shells fired by 175 mm self-propelled arty units. However, the PLO and Communists returned at night, with heavy artillery and tanks, which made it impossible for the villagers to resist. The Christian population of the village fled.

1983: Maurice Bishop, Prime Minister of Grenada, is overthrown and executed in a military coup d'état led by Bernard Coard. Bishop and seven others including cabinet ministers were captured. Later in the day they were executed by an army firing squad.

2005: Saddam Hussein's first trial began before the Iraqi Special Tribunal. At this trial Saddam and seven other defendants were tried for crimes against humanity.