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Thread: Black History Month

  1. #91
    kid got gumption BAF's Avatar
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    What happend for those sailors to react that way BD? I cant really tel from the article (or i must be looking over it)

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    The soul that is within me no man can degrade bd popeye's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by BAF View Post
    What happend for those sailors to react that way BD? I cant really tel from the article (or i must be looking over it)
    lack of leadership..lack of discipline in the 1972 USN. By lack of leadership I mean very few black petty officers,CPOs and Officers navy wide.

    In addition most of the petty officers and CPO's were southerners..Not good..I know I lived it..If I had not served on the USS Han***** I'm sure I would have ended my USN career at 4 years. Hanna had very few racial problems.

    This is what the USN found out about the causes of the riot..

    http://www.history.navy.mil/library/..._incidents.htm

    II. FINDINGS, OPINIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS A. FINDINGS
    1. The subcommittee finds that permissiveness, as defined on page 17679 of this report, exists in the Navy today. Although we have been able to investigate only certain specific incidents in depth, the total information made available to us indicates the condition could be servicewide.
    2. The vast majority of the Navy men and women are performing their assigned duties loyally and efficiently. The subcommittee is fully aware and appreciative of their efforts. The cause of concern, however, rests with that segment of the naval force which is either unable or unwilling to function within the prescribed limitations and up to the established standards of performance or conduct.
    3. The subcommittee has been unable to determine any precipitous cause for rampage aboard U.S.S. Kitty Hawk. Not only was there not one case wherein racial discrimination could be pinpointed, but there is no evidence which indicated that the blacks who participated in that incident perceived racial discrimination, either in general or any specific, of such a nature as to justify belief that violent reaction was required.
    4. The subcommittee finds that the incident aboard U.S.S. Constellation was the result of a carefully orchestrated demonstration of passive resistance wherein a small number of blacks, certainly no more than 20-25,in a well-organized campaign, willfully created among other blacks the belief that white racism existed in the Navy and aboard that ship. The subcommittee, again in this instance as with the incident aboard Kitty Hawk, found no specific example of racial discrimination. In this case, however, it is obvious that the participants perceived that racial discrimination existed. Several events were made to appear as examples of racial discrimination when, in fact, such was not the case.
    5. Testimony revealed that one of the triggering devices for the dissident activity aboard Constellation was a misunderstanding, particularly among the young blacks, which led them to believe that in order to reduce the number of personnel aboard the ship to the authorized level, general discharges were about to be awarded to 250 black crew members.
    In fact, the ship was in process of reducing its complement by 250 personnel in order to make room for air wing personnel who would embark prior to the forthcoming combat deployment. At the same time the captain had directed that certain records be reviewed and that those he considered to be troublemakers, if they qualified for administrative discharge, be notified of the ship's intent to commence processing of the required paperwork.
    It is unfortunate that this latter discharge procedure was initiated against six crewmembers in one day without adequate explanation of the justification for such action--especially since all six were black and this promoted the feeling that racial discrimination was the cause. In addition, the lack of counselling pertaining to the poor performance marks received by those being considered for administrative discharge caused notification of pending discharge to serve as traumatic incidents to those who were to receive them.
    There is strong evidence, however, that these misunderstandings were fostered and fanned by a small group of skilled agitators within the ranks of the young black seamen.
    6. The subcommittee was informed that the review, conducted by Naval Personnel Research Activity, San Diego, has found no racial discrimination in the punishments awarded by the Commanding Officer, U.S.S. Constellation.
    The subcommittee found no evidence that that conclusion was in error.
    7. Discipline, requiring immediate response to command, is absolutely essential to any military force. Particularly in the forces afloat there is no room for the "town meeting" concept or the employment of negotiation or appeasement to obtain obedience to order. The Navy must be controlled by command, not demand.
    8. The subcommittee found that insufficient emphasis has been given to formal leadership training, particularly in the ranks of petty officers and junior officers.
    9. The generally smart appearance of naval personnel, both afloat and ashore, has deteriorated markedly. While the subcommittee appreciates efforts to allow maximum reasonableness in daily routines, there is absolutely no excuse for slovenly appearance of officers and men in the Navy uniform and such appearance should not be tolerated.
    10. There was no formal training of the master-at-arms force. There was not effective utilization of the Marine force. Certainly there was no contingency plan for the coordination of these two forces in events such as these. Once the activities started, there was no plan which would have acted to halt them. The result was to let them wear themselves out.
    11. The members of the subcommittee did not find and are unaware of any instances of any instances of institutional discrimination on the part of the Navy toward any group of persons, majority or minority.
    12. Black unity, the drive toward togetherness on the part of blacks, has resulted in a tendency on the part of black sailors to polarize. This results in a grievance of one black, real or fancied, becoming the grievance of many. Polarization is an unfortunate trend and negates efforts since 1948 to integrate the military services and to stamp out separation. This divisive trend must be reversed.
    13. Nonmilitary gestures such as "passing the power" or "dapping" are disruptive, serve to enhance racial polarization, and should be discouraged.
    14. After the incidents on Kitty Hawk and Constellation, a meeting was called by the Secretary of the Navy of all the admirals in the Washington, D.C., area in which the CNO spoke to the failure of the Navy to meet its human relations goals. Immediately thereafter, his remarks were made available to the press and sent as a message to all hands. Because of the wording of the text, it was perceived by many to be a public admonishment by the CNO of his staff for the failure to solve racial problems within the Navy. Even though this was followed within 96 hours by Z-gram 117 which stressed the need for discipline, the speech itself, the issuance of it to the public press, and the timing of its delivery, all served to emphasize the CNO's perception of the Navy's problems. Again, concern over racial problems seemed paramount to the question of good order and discipline even though there had been incidents on two ships which may be characterized as "mutinies". The subcommittee regrets that the tradition of not criticizing seniors in front of their subordinates was ignored in this case.
    15. The Navy's recruitment program for most of 1972 which resulted in the lowering of standards for enlistment, accepting a greater percentage of mental category IV and those in the lower half of category III, not requiring recruits in these categories to have completed their high school education, and accepting these people without sufficient analysis of their previous offense records, has created many of the problems the Navy is experiencing today.
    16. The reduction of time in recruit training from 9 to 7 weeks, thus sending those personnel who do not qualify for advanced training in "A" schools from the street to the fleet in less than two months, appears to result in inadequate preparation for shipboard duty.
    17. The investigation disclosed an alarming frequency of successful acts of sabotage and apparent sabotage on a wide variety of ships and stations within the Navy.
    that being stated

    On the JFK in 1972 there were about 400-500 blacks. Only two black first class petty officers and no black officers or CPOs. And very few E-5 and E-4 black petty officers.

  3. #93
    Senior Member Dominique's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by bd popeye View Post
    Very true.

    Same in the USN..especially on carriers.
    My father served as SK and MA back in the early late 60's and 70's on a couple of carriers, and shore duty in San Francisco and Treasure Island, and from what he used to tell me, those were "interesting" times.

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    Quote Originally Posted by bd popeye View Post
    On the JFK in 1972 there were about 400-500 blacks. Only two black first class petty officers and no black officers or CPOs. And very few E-5 and E-4 black petty officers.
    How were Promotions based back then in the Navy? Point/Merit based, or board reccomendation?

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    The soul that is within me no man can degrade bd popeye's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by LineDoggie View Post
    How were Promotions based back then in the Navy? Point/Merit based, or board reccomendation?
    You had to take a Navy wide exam. But.. you had to be recommended and do certain courses. When I was on the JFK no one in my division told me or answered any of my questions about how to do the rate training courses. By the time I got to the Midway I had figured it out. It was then I took the petty officer 3rd class exam and passed and was promoted.

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    OK so you could still be jammed up by a bad reccommendation, no reccommendation by a racist supervisor or one that doesnt like you for whatever reason even before the exams. Thats why I liked the point system by MOS- went by Mil Education, Civ education, Awards, PT and Weapons score, and then Personal appraisal. the pers appraisal counted for less than the other main categorys so a **** had less chance of screwing you over.

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    Limedoggie one of the biggest stumbling blocks for some in that USN at that time was the ability to read and understand the required courses and the exam.. At that time the USN and the other services had recruited "lower mental group" persons to serve. Big mistake. Not only that the military was granting waivers for past criminal conduct. Nowadays many of these persons could not get past the first meeting with a recuiter.

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    Next weekend I'm gonna post more pix like these..



    "A gun crew of six Negroes who were given the Navy Cross for standing by their gun when their ship was damaged by enemy attack in the Philippine area." Crew members: Jonell Copeland, AtM2/c; Que Gant, StM; Harold Clark, Jr., StM; James Eddie Dockery, StM; Alonzo Alexander Swann, StM; and Eli Benjamin, StM. Ca. 1945.


    "Crewmen aboard U.S.S. Tulagi (CVE-72) en route to southern France for Aug. 15th invasion. Miles Davis King, StM 2/c, carrying a loaded magazine to his 20mm gun." August 1944.

  9. #99
    the Ralph Wiggum of Mp.net. timetraveller's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by California Joe View Post
    How about the 54th Massachussets and their actions at Ft. Wagner. Depicted in the movie "Glory".

    That is an Exceptional Film one off my favourites

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    ^^ agreed.. "Glory" is an outstanding film. the best ever depiction the US Civil War.

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    These are the original captions.. I will not edit them in any way..



    . "A company of men has set up its office between the columns (Doric) of an ancient Greek temple of Neptune, built about 700 B.C." At desk, front to rear: Sgts. James Shellman, Gilbert A. Terry, John W. Phoenix, Curtis A. Richardson, and Leslie B. Wood. In front of desk, front to rear: T/Sgt. Gordon A. Scott, M/Sgt. Walter C. Jackson, Sgt. David D. Jones, and WO Carlyle M. Tucker. Italy. September 22, 1943.


    "A kitchen was set up along the beach for the...labor battalion unloading the boats. This picture shows a couple of the men enjoying a hot meal for a change. Massacre Bay, Attu, Aleutian Islands." May 20, 1943. T/5 Vincent A. Wallace.


    American Army Engineer task force in Liberia find themselves in a land from which their ancestors came. Wash day and Pvt. Jack David scrubs out his things on top of a table made from native trees." Ca. July 1942. Fred Morgan.


    "Negro members of the 477th Antiaircraft Artillery, Air Warning Battalion, study maps in the operations section at Oro Bay, New Guinea." November 15, 1944. Pvt. Edward Grefe.


    A U.S. Army soldier and a Chinese soldier place the flag of their ally on the front of their jeep just before the first truck convoy in almost three years crossed the China border en route from Ledo, India, to Kunming, China, over the Stilwell road." February 6, 1945. Sgt. John Gutman.


    troops in Burma stop work briefly to read President Truman's Proclamation of Victory in Europe." May 9, 1945. S/Sgt. Yarnell.


    WWI New York's famous 369th regiment
    arrives home from France




    No caption WW I



    Charles Young Buffalo soldier officer.

    Buffalo Soldier” is the collective nickname given to the first African-American members of the U.S. Armed Forces. The Buffalo Soldiers, originally the 9th 10th, 24th, and 25th U.S. Military regiments, were common figures around the U.S./Mexico border during the turn of the century. Henry Flipper, the first African-American graduate of the U.S. Military Academy (1877), and Charles Young, an officer of the 9th and 10th Cavalries and the 25th Infantry, both spent time patrolling the barely tamed outpost of Fort Huachuca.

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    Sgt. George Mitchell's company (Company K of the 62nd U.S. Colored Infantry) was, according to Coddington's research, the last to fire arms in the Civil War.


    This rare portrait shows an identified Confederate noncommissioned officer, Sgt. Andrew Martin Chandler (left), and his named slave, Silas Chandler (right). It is the only Confederate photograph in the book by Rod Coddington, African American Faces of the Civil War. Born into slavery, Silas "was one of thousands of slaves who served as [body servants] during the war," writes Coddington.


    Corp. Wilson Weir was a slave when he joined the Union army at age 21. "My initial attraction to old photos was purely aesthetic, and this still continues to be the dominant motivating factor," writes Coddington. "This carte de visite meets and exceeds my criteria. ... He wears his hat at a jaunty angle, perhaps reflective of his character."
    Collection of the Beinecke Rare Book and M****cript Library, Yale University


    John and Isaiah Owens. "An absolutely wonderful cased tintype of two brothers who served in the same company in the 60th U.S. Colored Infantry," writes Coddington. "The story of the Owens brothers is poignant. Both died during the war. Isaiah succumbed of disease, and John fell from a transport and drowned in the Mississippi River."


    Sgt. Alexander Herritage Newton (left) and Sgt. Daniel S. Lathrop. "After obtaining permission to publish [this]," writes Coddington, "I discovered Newton's autobiography, Out of the Briars. This honest and able account of his life experiences is one of the best personal Civil War narratives that I have read."


    Credit Collection of the *****sburg National Military Park Museum
    Corp. Henry Gaither. "One of the few free men of color in this book when the war began, Gaither and his regiment, the 39th U.S. Colored Infantry, fought as hard as any white organization in the Union army," writes Coddington. "This is one of my favorite images in the book."


    African-American serving with the US Navy in the Civil War aboard the USS Wabash.


    This photo of Robert Walker, a young African-American “First Class Boy” dressed in a sailor’s uniform, has “Our Bob” written on the bottom.

    “First Class Boys” in the U.S. Navy were generally young men under 17 years of age. They were paid $9 per month and performed various sailor duties. African-Americans served in the Union navy from the start of the Civil War in 1861 and were fully integrated into a ship’s crew. There was little public objection since slaves and seamen shared a common low social standing. Black sailors were paid the same wages as the white crewmen in sharp contrast to the army. Most African-American sailors were northern, urban free blacks from New York or Boston. It is estimated that approximately 24,000 (16%) of the Union navy was African-American.

    Image Courtesy Wilson’s Creek National Battlefield; WICR 32071-L

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    JOINT BASE PEARL HARBOR-HICKAM (May 23, 2012) Rear Adm. Fernandez "Frank" Ponds, commander of Navy Region Hawaii, hands out diplomas at the Armed Services YMCA preschool graduation ceremony for 37 preschool children at the Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam Submarine Memorial Chapel (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Ronald Gutridge/Released)

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    HONOLULU (Feb. 2, 2013) Rear Adm. Frank Ponds, commander of Navy Region Hawaii and Naval Surface Group Middle Pacific, and his wife Carol Ponds participate in the Night in Chinatown Chinese New Year Parade. 2013 is the Year of the Snake, the sixth sign of the Chinese Zodiac which traditionally consists of 12 animal representations. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Daniel Barker/Released)

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    MAYPORT, Fla. (Feb. 7, 2013) Rear Adm. Sinclair Harris, Commander U.S. Naval Forces Southern Command and U.S. 4th Fleet, speaks with Capt. de Fragata Eduardo Torres Figueroa, commanding officer of Chilean submarine CS Simpson (SS-21). Simpson has been participating in the Navy's Diesel Electric Submarine Initiative which provides training opportunities against the real world threat of a modern, quiet, diesel-electric submarine. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Salt Cebe/Released)

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    MAYPORT, Fla. (Nov. 26, 2012) Rear Adm. Sinclair M. Harris, commander of U.S. Naval Forces Southern Command/U.S. 4th Fleet, and Chilean navy Rear Adm. Osvaldo Schwarzenberg Ashton, Commander-in-Chief of Chilean Submarine Forces, wait for the arrival of Chilean submarine Simpson (SS-21) at Naval Station Mayport. (U.S. Navy photo by Lt. Cmdr. Corey Barker/Released)

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    LOS ANGELES (Feb 1, 2013) Vice Adm. Michelle Howard, deputy commander of U.S Fleet Forces, poses for the press after receiving the Chairman's Award. The award is bestowed in recognition of special achievement and distinguished public service. Past honorees include U.S. Surgeon General Dr. Regina Benjamin, former Vice President Al Gore and then-Senator Barack Obama. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Michael O'Day/Released)

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    SAN DIEGO (Jan. 31, 2013) Lance Cpl. Jason Hallett, assigned to Naval Medical Center San Diego's (NMCSD) Wounded Warrior Battalion-West Detachment, receives a coin from Vice Adm. Michelle Howard, deputy commander, U.S. Fleet Forces. The purpose of Howard's visit was to tour the C5 facility and raise morale of wounded, ill and injured service members. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Clay M. Whaley/HIPAA Complete)


    Feb 04,2013
    Carlsbad, Ca - CARLSBAD, Calif. – John F. Farritor, a retired first sergeant and the oldest Marine in the room, bites into a birthday cake presented to him by Maj. Gen. Ronald Bailey, the 1st Marine Division commanding general, during a dinner in celebration of the 72nd anniversary of the founding of the 1st Marine Division at the Sheraton Carlsbad Resort and Spa in Carlsbad, Calif., Feb. 1, 2013. Farritor, 93-year-old member of the 1st Marine Division Association, and a resident of Vista, Calif., served as an artilleryman from 1941 to 1971. He saw action in the Korean War in the 11th Marine Regiment under the command of Maj. Gen. Oliver P. Smith. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Sgt. Jacob H. Harrer)

  14. #104
    The soul that is within me no man can degrade bd popeye's Avatar
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    Original captions..If you are offended.. get over yourself. I have.



    Engineers' color guard at Fort Belvoir, Virginia. March 1943. View full size. 4x5 Kodachrome transparency, photographer unknown.



    June 1942. Fort Knox, Kentucky. "A good job in the air cleaner of an Army truck. This Negro soldier, who serves as truck driver and mechanic, plays an important part in keeping Army transport fleets in operation." View full size. 4x5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer for the Office of War Information.


    "Production of aircraft engines. Reconditioning used spark plugs for use in testing airplane motors, Mighnon Gunn operates this small testing machine with speed and precision although she was new to the job two months ago. A former domestic worker, this young woman is now a willing and efficient war worker, one of many women who are relieving labor shortages in war industries throughout the country." Photo by Ann Rosener, Office of War Information. View full size.


    April 1943. Washington, D.C. "Soldiers looking out the window of the bus just before leaving the Greyhound terminal." Medium-format nitrate negative by Esther Bubley for the Office of War Information. View full size.


    March 1944. Two guests at a St. Patrick's Day party at the Washington Labor Canteen sponsored by the United Federal Workers of America. View full size. Medium-format safety negative by Joseph Horne, Office of War Information.


    March 1944. Washington labor canteen St Patrick's Day dance. Medium format negative by Joseph A. Horne for the Office of War Information.


    New York, May 1943. "Policeman no. 19687. William Alexander Frazier, born 1916 in Harlem." View full size. Medium format nitrate negative by Gordon Parks for the Office of War Informaton. Library of Congress.


    Working on a "Vengeance"¯ dive-bomber at Vultee-Nashville. February 1943. View full size. 4x5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer.

  15. #105
    Senior Member wicked_hind's Avatar
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    The Kodachrome pics are beyond spectacular! Beautiful, thanks for sharing, Shipmate!

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