Page 1 of 4 1234 LastLast
Results 1 to 15 of 50

Thread: Ottoman Units&Uniforms&Weapons (1299-1923)

  1. #1
    Member
    Join Date
    Nov 2006
    Location
    Kiel/Istanbul
    Posts
    76

    Default Ottoman Units&Uniforms&Weapons (1299-1923)

    The military of the Ottoman Empire was divided in three organizational structures: the Army, Navy, and Air Force. The history of the Ottoman Army can be divided in two main periods. The Classical Period covers the years between the establishment of the Ottoman Army in 1299 and the military reforms of the early 19th century; while the Modern Period starts with the establishment of the modern Ottoman Army, known as the Nizam-ı Cedid, in 1829.



    Ottoman Coat of Arms

    Units of the Classical Period (1237-1829)

    Janissary
    The force was created by the Sultan Murad I from Muslim sons in the 14th century[1] and was abolished by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826 with the Auspicious Incident.[2]

    [SIZE=2][*******#000000]Janissary, Battle of Sisak 1593[/COLOR][/SIZE]


    The Janissary corps were significant in a number of ways. The Janissaries wore uniforms, were paid in cash as regular soldiers, and marched to distinctive music, the mehter, similar to a modern marching band.
    The Ottomans were the first state to maintain a standing army in Europe since the Roman Empire. The Janissaries have been likened to the Roman Praetorian Guard and they had no equivalent in the Christian armies of the time, where the feudal lords raised troops during wartime.[1] A Janissary battalion was effectively the soldier's family. They lived in their barracks and served as policemen and firefighters during peacetime.[5]

    A Janissary drawing by Gentile Bellini (15th century).


    The Janissary corps was also distinctive in the regular payment of a cash salary to the troops, and differed from the contemporary practice of paying troops only during wartime. The Janissaries were paid quarterly and the Sultan himself, after authorizing the payment of the salaries, dressed as a Janissary, visited the barracks and received his salary as a regular trooper of the First Division.[6]
    Logistical support also set the Janissaries apart from their contemporaries. The Janissaries waged war as one part of a well organized military machine. The Ottoman army had a corps to prepare the road, a corps to pitch the tents ahead, a corps to bake the bread. The cebeci corps carried and distributed weapons and ammunition. The Janissary corps had its own internal medical auxiliaries, Muslim and Jewish surgeons who would travel with the corps during campaigns and had organized methods of moving the wounded and the sick to traveling hospitals behind the lines.

    These differences, along with a war-record that was impressive, made the Janissaries into a subject of interest and study by foreigners in their own time. Although eventually the concept of the modern army incorporated and surpassed most of the distinctions of the Janissary, and the Ottoman Empire dissolved the Janissary corps, the image of the Janissary has remained as one of the symbols of the Ottomans in the western psyche.
    In return for their loyalty and their fervour in war, Janissaries gained privileges and benefits. They received a cash salary, received booty during wartime and enjoyed a high living standard and respected social status. At first they had to live in barracks and could not marry until retirement, or engage in any other trade but by the mid-18th century they had taken up many trades and gained the right to marry and enroll their children in the corps and very few continued to live in the barracks.[5] Many of them became administrators and scholars. Retired or discharged Janissaries received pensions and their children were also looked after. This evolution away from their original military vocation was the essence of the system's demise.
    In later years, they received "assession money", a gift from the incoming sultan

    Recruitment, training and status
    The first Janissary units were formed from prisoners of war and slaves, probably as a result of the sultan taking his traditional one-fifth share of his army's booty in kind rather than cash.[3] From the 1380s onwards, their ranks were filled under the devşirme system, where feudal dues were paid by service to the sultan.[3] The "recruits" were mostly Christian youths, reminiscent of Mamelukes.[1] Sultan Murad may have used futuwa groups as a model. Initially the recruiters favoured Greeks (who formed the largest part of the first units) and Albanians (who also served as gendarmes), usually selecting about one boy from forty houses, but the numbers could be changed to correspond with the need for soldiers. Boys aged 14-18 were preferred, though ages 8-20 could be taken.
    As borders of the Ottoman Empire expanded, the devşirme was extended to include Albanians, Bulgarians, Macedonians, Armenians, Croats, Bosnians and Serbs and later Romanians, Poles, Ukrainians and southern Russians.
    The Janissaries first began enrolling outside the devşirme system during the reign of Sultan Murad III (1546-1595) and abandoned devşirme recruitment completely during the 17th century. After this period, volunteers were enrolled, mostly of Muslim origin.[6]
    Janissaries’ reputation increased to the point that by 1683, Sultan Mehmet IV abolished the devşirme as increasing numbers of originally Muslim Turkish families had already enrolled their own sons into the force hoping for a lucrative career.[citation needed] Every governor wanted to have his own Janissary troops.

    Janissary corps




    The corps was organized in ortas (equivalent to battalion) An orta was headed by çorbaci. All ortas together would comprise the proper Janissary corps and its organization named ocak (literally "hearth"). Suleiman I had 165 ortas but the number over time increased to 196. The Sultan was the supreme commander of the Army and the Janissaries in particular, but the corps was organized and led by their supreme ağa (commander). The corps was divided into three sub-corps:
    • the cemaat (frontier troops; also spelled jemaat), with 101 ortas
    • the beyliks or beuluks (the Sultan's own bodyguard), with 61 ortas
    • the sekban or seirnen, with 34 ortas
    In addition there were also 34 ortas of the ajemi (cadets). A semi-autonomous Janissary corps was permanently based in Algiers.
    Originally Janissaries could be promoted only through seniority and within their own orta. They would leave the unit only to assume command of another. Only Janissaries' own commanding officers could punish them. The rank names were based on positions in a kitchen staff or troop of hunters, perhaps to emphasise that Janissaries were servants of the Sultan.
    Local Janissaries, stationed in a town or city for a long time, were known as yerliyyas.

    Corps strength

    The full strength of the Janissary troops varied from maybe 100 to more than 200,000. According to David Nicolle, the number of Janissaries in the 14th century was 1,000, and estimated to be 6,000 in 1475, whereas the same source estimates 40,000 as the number of Timariot, the provincial soldiers.[7] After the defeat in 1699, the number was reduced, but it was increased in the 18th century to 113,400 soldiers according to Ottoman, but most were not actual soldiers and were accepted into the army through corrupt means and were only taking salary.[7]




    Ranking Structure

    These titles could have different meaning in different areas or types of unit.Basically, however, ranks ran as follows

    Administrative Officers

    Nazır[*******#000000]: [/COLOR]Supervisor of a Crops
    Ağa[*******#000000]:[/COLOR]Commander of a regimentor large unit
    Kethüda[*******#000000]:[/COLOR]Lieutenant or assistant to a commanding officer
    Kethüda Yeri [*******#000000]:[/COLOR]

    Executive Officers

    Katib[*******#000000]:[/COLOR]Chief Scribe
    Çavuş Başı [*******#000000]:[/COLOR]Sergeant-Major
    Kapuçu [*******#000000]:[/COLOR]Chief Orderly

    Operational Offices

    Çorbacı [*******#000000]:[/COLOR]Colonel
    Odabaşı [*******#000000]:[/COLOR]Colonel's Assistant
    Vakilharç [*******#000000]:[/COLOR]Commissary
    Bayraktar [*******#000000]:[/COLOR]Standard Bearer
    Aşçı başı [*******#000000]:[/COLOR]Chief Cook
    Saki:Water Bearer
    Last edited by Arteka; 06-20-2009 at 12:15 AM.

  2. #2
    Member
    Join Date
    Nov 2006
    Location
    Kiel/Istanbul
    Posts
    76

    Default

    Janissary Officer





    [SIZE=2]Jenicheri Aghasi (Yeniçeri ağası)(Commander-in-Chief of the Janissaries)[/SIZE]


    [SIZE=2]He was the leader of the Janissary Corps, responsible for everything to do with the Corps, on a par with today's Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. He lived in the Palace known as Agha Kapousou and took part in the meetings of the Divan (Council of State). He was the msot important of all the Aghas and wore a special robe when coming to Divan. At times he took the place of the Vizier and then he entered the presence of the Sultan by bowing and kissing the skirt of his coat twice. He helped the Sultan to dismount from his horse and was responsible for law and order within the city of Istanbul. He was also in charge of putting out fires. The Commander-in-Chief was paid daily fees of 500 akches, plus an annual salary of 90,000 akches. Promotion for the Commander-in-Chief was to be made Governor General or Grand Vizier but if he was demoted he was made Sandjak-Bey (Governor General of a Sandjak or subdivision of a province). Once every three years, the Commander-in-Chief was given a horse from the stable of the Sultan. The post was dissolved with the rest of the Janissary Corps in 1826. [/SIZE]


    Bölük ağası



    Bashchavoush (Baş Çavuş)(Officer of the Janissary Corps) l.
    These were the senior of all the officers in the Janissary Corps. They were sometimes referred to as the Chief Sergeant and were also the Commander of the Fifth Squadron. The Bashchavoush would cover for the Kethudas (or Kahia Bey) in his absence but should not be confused witht the Chavoush Bashis (the Chief of the Sultan's Bodyguard) even though they did, later, become Chief Sergeants in the Janissary Corps.

    Koul Kahyası (Kul Kahyası ) (General of the Boulouk Janissaries) m.l.
    He was assistant to the Commander-in-Chief of the Janissary Corps. Originally he was lower in rank than the Chief of Sekbans but, in later years, they were demoted below the Koul Kahyası. Administration of the Corps was his particular responsibility – promotions, appointments and

    Kapidjibashi (Kapıcı Başı )(Head of the Palace Doorkeepers)m.r.
    This man was the senior doorkeeper in the Palace. When foreign ambassadors came, it was the duty of the Kapidjibashi to lead them into the presence of the Sultan. There were four Head Doorkeepers in the Palace and their superior was a General. In later years their numbers increased.

    Orta Chavoushou (Orta Çavuş ) (Sergeant of the Janissaries)r.
    These Sergeants were under the command of the Chief Sergeant and were responsible for relaying commands to the other ranks. They were sometimes called Middle Sergeants - there were three ranks of sergeants: Minor, Middle and Chief Sergeants.



    dismissals being executed by him. The post disappeared when the Janissary Corps was abolished in 1826.


    Koul Kahyası (Kul Kahyası )

    Bashchavoush (Baş Çavuş)

    Kapidjibashi (Kapıcı Başı )
    Last edited by Arteka; 06-20-2009 at 12:44 AM.

  3. #3
    Member
    Join Date
    Nov 2006
    Location
    Kiel/Istanbul
    Posts
    76

    Default

    Jannisary Officers

    Cebeci Kahyası (General of Supplies and Ammunition)


    Djebkhane Karakoulloukchousou (Cebehane Karakullukçusu ) L
    (Orderly to Colonel of Supplies and Ammunition)
    He was one of the soldiers who dealt with amunition and was entrusted with the task of protecting the powder magazine.

    Djebkhane Chorbadjisi (Cebehane Çorbacısı) (Colonel of Supplies and Ammunition)r
    This was a Janissary officer who was responsible for amunition.




    Jannisary Chorbadjisi (Yeniçeri Çorbacısı)

    Çorbaci (sometimes variously transliterated as chorbaji, chorbadzhi, tschorbadji) (Turkish: çorbacı, "soup server" [1]) was a military rank of Janissaries, a commander of an orta (regiment), i.e., approximately corresponding to the rank of colonel. The word derives from "çorba", "soup", and literally means "soup server", "the one who feeds people with soup".
    In the Republic of Macedonia and in Bulgaria in Ottoman times the term "çorbaci" (Macedonian: чорбаџи, Bulgarian: чорбаджия, chorbadzhiya) referred to the rural elite: heads of villages and other rural communities and rich peasants. Ottomans employed them in various administrative positions of tax collectors and in courts of law. Since the 19th century in independent Bulgaria the term largely fell out of use as the Ottoman system was abandoned.
    The word is still in use in vernacular Turkish and Bulgarian with the meaning of "boss". It is also a common family name among Albanians, Bulgarians, Turks or Ukrainians (e.g. a vice-governor of Odessa is Ivan Chorbadzhi - Иван Чорбаджи).




    Ousta (Usta)(Cook)
    These were the minor officers of the Janissary Corps. Their job was to take charge of the cooking. Each battalion Ousta had a different uniform.


    Bash Kara-Koulloukchou (Baş Karakullukçu) (Chief Orderly of Janissary Officers) l.
    These were the head orderlies of the Janissary Officers in the Companies and Battalions. Their rank was the equivalent of Junior Sergeant and they were the Orderlies of the Colonel of Janissaries and Military Policemen.


    Kara Koulloukchou (Karakullukçular) (Sergeants) m.
    Junior sergeants of the Janissary Corps who were Orderlies of the Chorbadjis (Colonel) and Military Policemen. They were chosen from the Adjemi-Oghlans (conscript boys chosen and brought up to join the Janissaries) and employed to provide room service. The new recruits were paid two golden coins called duzen-akchesi. Their duties were to clean the rooms, to clean the shoes of fellow Janissaries and their guests, to wash up dishes, chop wood, shopping, etc. Some orderlies carried out the tasks of bodyguard and horse-keeper to the Colonel of the Janissaries.

    Orta Sakasi (Orta Sakası ) (Water-carrier for the Janissary Corps) r.
    They provided water for the Janissary Corps. Orta meant Battalion and Sakka, the origin of Sakasi, meant water-carrier. In the reign of Sultan Mahmoud the Second, when reforms were being made, the name of the water carriers was changed to Sebildji which means "man who distributes water free of charge." There was a water carrier in the Imperial Palace, their leader being called Saka Bashi (Chief Water Carrier).


    Kara Koulloukchou (Karakullukçu)l.&r.
    Ousta(Usta)
    Last edited by Arteka; 06-20-2009 at 07:19 AM.

  4. #4
    Member
    Join Date
    Nov 2006
    Location
    Kiel/Istanbul
    Posts
    76

    Default

    Jannisary Troops
















    A Jannisary from Bagdad Corps
    [
    A Jannisary in Egypt
    YearStrength
    1400>1,000[7]
    1514 10,156 [8]
    1523 12,000[8]
    1526 7,885[8]
    1564 13,502[8]
    1567-68 12,798[8]
    1574 13,599[8]
    1603 14,000[8]
    1609 37,627[8]
    1660-61 54,222[8]
    1665 49,556[8]
    1669 51,437[8]
    1670 49,868[8]
    1680 54,222[8]

  5. #5
    Member Harry Henkel's Avatar
    Join Date
    Apr 2009
    Location
    The Netherlands
    Posts
    73

    Default

    Thanks for the info, very interesting read.

  6. #6
    Senior Member IraGlacialis's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jul 2006
    Location
    Gittin' mah edumakashuns... in the land of temples and bad traffic.
    Age
    26
    Posts
    8,584

    Default

    Interesting assortment of headdresses there.

  7. #7
    Senior Member GETSOME's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2007
    Location
    SOME WHERE OVER THE RAINBOW...
    Posts
    1,482

    Default

    ^^^^
    X2
    Did they go in to battle with those things on their heads?

  8. #8
    Falcons FTW Kilgor's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2004
    Location
    Joh Country
    Posts
    14,460

    Default

    Ye oldie headgear never ceases to amaze me.

  9. #9
    1881-193∞ Ulytau's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2008
    Location
    AtaTürkiye Cumhuriyeti
    Age
    29
    Posts
    7,887

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by GETSOME View Post
    ^^^^
    X2
    Did they go in to battle with those things on their heads?
    Like that ;



    Clothe is the original,Gazi Mustafa Kemal ATATURK ordering when he was at duty in Bulgaria and invited to a party. ''27 October 1913''

  10. #10
    Member
    Join Date
    Nov 2006
    Location
    Kiel/Istanbul
    Posts
    76

    Default

    Thanks

    ^^^^
    X2
    Did they go in to battle with those things on their heads?
    Yes they have. But in that time all Nations had strange headdress





    The End of the Janissary
    The Auspicious Incident (or Event[1]) (in Turkish Vaka-i Hayriye Fortunate Event; in Balkans known as Vaka-i Şerriye Unfortunate Incident in Arabic واقعة خيرية waqa'a khyriya) was the forced disbandment of the centuries-old Janissary corps by Ottoman sultan Mahmud II in June 1826.[2][3]
    By the early 17th century, the Janissary corps had ceased to function as an elite military unit. Many Janissaries were not soldiers and simply extorted money from the Turkish state and dictated its government, adding to the steady decline of the Ottoman Empire. Any sultan who attempted to modernize the Ottoman military structure and replace the Janissaries was either immediately killed or deposed.
    By 1826, the Janissaries were almost universally hated throughout the Ottoman Empire. When they noticed that the Sultan Mahmud II was forming a new army and hiring European gunners, they mutinied, but the Sipahis forced them to retreat to their barracks in İstanbul and Thessaloniki. In the ensuing fight the Janissary barracks at Etmeydanı in Aksaray were set in flames by artillery fire resulting in a massive number of casualties. The ringleaders were either exiled or executed and their possessions confiscated by the Sultan.[2] History writer Jason Goodwin estimates that "perhaps 10,000" were killed on the first day[1] Many ordinary Janissaries, especially in the provinces, on the whole survived by keeping a low profile and taking ordinary jobs.[1]. Religious Bektaşi order, a core Janissary institution, was also disbanded, followers executed or exiled. A new modern corps, Asakir-i Mansure-i Muhammediye (Muhammed's Victorious Army) was established by Mahmud II to replace the Janissaries.
    Immediately following the destruction of the Janissary corps, Mahmud II ordered the court chronicler, Mehmet Esad Efendi (c. 1789 - 1848), to record the official version of events, Üss-i Zafer (Foundation of Victory), which was printed in İstanbul in 1828 and served as the main source for every other Ottoman account of this period[

  11. #11
    Member
    Join Date
    Nov 2006
    Location
    Kiel/Istanbul
    Posts
    76

    Default Elite Cavalry

    The Six Divisions (Alti Bölük), was a corps of mounted elite soldiers in the Ottoman army. There were not really six but four division s. Two of the six were sub-divisions. The divisions were:
    * Sipahis (From Persian, translated roughly as ''armymen'')
    * Silahdars (From Persian, translated roughly as ''weaponbearers'')
    *Ulufeciler (translated as ''stipendiaries''), organised in two sub-divisions:
    ** Ulufeciler of the Left
    ** Ulufeciler of the Right

    * Garipler(translated roughly as ''strangers''), organised in two sub-divisions:
    ** Garipler of the Left
    ** Garipler of the Right

    The elite cavalry was the mounted counterpart to the Janissaries and played an important part in the Ottoman army. The Six Divisions were probably founded during the reign of Sultan Mehmed II (1451-1481), but the Sipahis had existed since 1326.
    The most important of these divisions was the Sipahis.

    The Sipahis' status resembled that of the knights of medieval Europe but less armored. Sort of a light to medium cavalry. Turks never had heavy cavalry. The sipahi influenced a lot the walachian knights.

    The Sipahi was the holder of a fief of land (tîmâr; hence the alternative name Tîmârli Sipahi) granted directly by the Ottoman sultan and was entitled to all of the income from that land, in return for military service.






    The Sipahis were originally founded during the reign of Murat.I. Although the Sipahis were originally recruited, like the Janissaries using the devshirme system, by the time of Sultan Mehmet II. their ranks were only chosen from among the ethnic Turks who owned land within imperial borders. The Sipahi eventually became the largest of the six divisions of the Ottoman cavalry, and were the mounted counterpart to the Janissaries, who fought on foot.





    Until the mid-18th century provincial sipahi cavalery formed the majority
    of most Ottoman armies. They numbered around 40,000 men in the 15th and 16th centuries, over half of whom came from the European provinces (Romelia).
    A timar was the smallest unit of land owned by a Sipahi, providing a yearly revenue of no more than 10,000 akçe ( which was between two and four times what a teacher earned. A ziamet was a larger unit of land, yielding up to 100,000 akçe, and was owned by Sipahis of officer rank. A hass was the largest unit of land, giving revenues of more than 100,000 akçe, and was only held by the highest-ranking members of the military. A timar Sipahi was obliged to provide the army with up to five soldiers, a ziamet Sipahi with up to twenty, and a hass Sipahi with far more than twenty.



    Though often compared to the medieval european fiefs, the timars were not the property of a sipahi they were held in trust and gave the sipahi only limited rights over the local inhabitants. An ordinary sipahi lived in a village, worked his own land, had to pay the peasants for most of their services and received no salary. In Anatolia the Ottomans normally incorporated existing sipahis and their timars. At first the process was similar in Rumelia. Many Balkan ****oia fiefs were converted into timars, their existing owners keeping the land but losing their domination over the peasants. Some became Muslim but other Christian for generations. Even after conversion many such sipahis retained their old family names.

    Among the best known Christian sipahis were members of the slavic aristoracy like Constantine Dejanovic, lord of Kjustendil in easter macedonia, who fought for the Sultan at Kosova (1389); and Kraljevic Marko, a leading nobleman who later became the great folk-hero of Serbian legend. Both died fighting for the Ottomans in 1395. In the mid-15th century the Vidin area of north western Bulgaria sent Mehmet II seven Christian sipahis with voynik infantry (A Slav warrior in Ottoman service) followers. A few Christian are still recorded even at the end of the 15th century.




    The quality of a sipahis weaponry reflected the size of his fief. A Sipahi was only expected to have armour if his timar was above a certain value. Neverthless, even in the late 16th century Europeans, while considering their infantry superior to that of the Ottomans, conceded that the Turkish sipahi was the better cavalrymen. All European tactical developments wich arose out of war with the Ottoman reflected the sipahi threat not that of the Jannisaries.


    On mobilisation, one of every ten sipahis remained at home to maintain the low and order. The rest formed into alay regiments under theit çeribaşi("head of troops", an officer in the provinces commanding a detachment of timar-holding sipahis), subaşi and alay bey (colonel) officers. These led them to the local sancak bey`s(The governor of sancak) two hors tail standard. These led them to the local. The men of each sancak (The chief administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire) then assembeld around a provincial governor or beylerbeyi befor riding to the sultan`s camp. On the battelfield either the sipahis of honour on the right flank, depending on wheter the war was in Europe or Asia.


    Sipahis at the Battle of Vienna, 1683


    After 1533 a new typ of timar was established along the Hungarian frontier. Instead of living on their fiefs, these sipahis stayed in strategic towns like Budapest, Timisoara, Belgrad and Esztergom where they supported the garrnison. In general, however, the 16th century was a period of decline in sipahis fortunes. The majority of fiefs were now held by other Ottoman cavalaryman. some were even sold to non military men for cash. Stagnation and retreat reduced the number of timars but not those who needed them. Meanwhile men who did hold fiefs often paid second rate soldiers to serve in their place.

    A Sipahi, from a 16th-century Western engraving


    The sipahi also found himself unable to cope with the increasingly disciplined European infantry armed with ever more effective muskets. The Ottoman government tried to arm their horseman with pistol, but only after 1600 did many sipahis accept



    The duties of the Sipahis included riding with the sultan on parades and as a mounted bodyguard. In times of peace, they were also responsible for the collection of taxes. The Sipahis, however, should not be confused with the Timariots, who were irregular cavalry organised along feudal lines and known as "sipahi"s colloquially. In fact, the two formations had very little in common.

    Rivalry with the Janissary Corps

    Since they were a cavalry regiment it was well known within the Ottoman military circles that they considered themselves a superior stock of soldiers than Janissaries, who were a mixture of both Turkic and devşirme non-Turks, whereas the Sipahis were almost exclusively chosen amongst ethnic Turkic landowners. That minor quarrels erupted between the two units is made evident with a Turkmen adage, still used today within Turkey, "Atlı er başkaldırmaz", which, referring to the unruly Janissaries, translates into, "Horsemen don't mutiny".

    Towards the middle of the 16th century, the Janissaries had started to be the most important part of the army, though the Sipahis remained an important factor in the empire's economy and politics, and a crucial aspect of disciplined leadership within the army. As late as the 17th century, the Sipahis were, together with their rivals the Janissaries, the de facto rulers in the early years of sultan Murad IV's reign. In 1826, the Sipahis played an important part in the disbandment of the Janissary corps. The Sultan received critical assistance from the loyalist Sipahi cavalry in order to forcefully dismiss the infuriated janissaries.


    Two years later, however, they shared a similar fate when Sultan Mahmud II revoked their privileges and dismissed them in favour of a more modern military structure. Unlike the Janissaries before them they retired honorably, peacefully, and without bloodshed into new Ottoman cavalry divisions who followed modern military tradition doctrines.

    Sipahi Standards


    Last edited by Arteka; 06-23-2009 at 04:22 PM.

  12. #12
    Member
    Join Date
    Nov 2006
    Location
    Kiel/Istanbul
    Posts
    76

    Default

    The Kapikulu cavalry (also known as Six Division) were heavily equipped compared to the Sipahi cavalary. The first two, called Ulufeciler (Salaried Men) and divided into right and left were established by Kara Timur Pasa (14th century), The Beylerbey of Rumeli , during the reign of Murad I (1360-1389), out of the salaried cavalry then in his services. The third an fourth named Garipler (strangers/Foreigners), also divided into left and right, having first been recruited from veteran and volunteers and later from Muslim mercenaries entering Ottoman service from other parts of the Middle East.




    The final Two regiments, named Silahtars(weaponbearers) and Sipahi Oglan (Sipahi children) were organized later, probably under Mehmed I(1413-1421), and were the elite of the entire force. In general, the men of the first four groups were known collectivly as the four regiments (Bölükat-i Erba´a)and operated on both sides of the sultan in battle, while the Silahtars an Sipahi children operated only on the right close to sultan. All had higher salaries and more prestige than the Jannisary corps, so that positions in them were highly valeud and sought. Members came from Ic oglan (Inner Palace servants) graduates not considered quite capable enough for palace service; children of the existing members of six divisions; Muslims from elsewhere in the Middle East, mostly Arabs, Persians, and Kurds; members of the Janissary corps who particularly distinguished themselves; and also occasionally, abler member of the other Kapikulu corps.



    During campaigns, the Sipahi children and Silahtars were responsible for guarding the person of the sultan. The latter also had the job of clearing out and opening roads and bridges befor the main army leading and guarding the sultans horses, and carrying his horsetails.
    Since these corps were mounted forces, they were stationed mostly in the outskirts of istanbul and the other major cities, with each of these groups being commanded by a Kethüda yeri (local lieutenant) apointed by and responsible to the aga of his own corps. They were salaried. Formthe same reasons as the provincial cavalrymen. Numbering about 6000 men late in the sixteenth century, they rose to 20,844 in the late 17th century and 22,169 early in the 18th.

  13. #13
    Μολὼν λαβέ Hollis's Avatar
    Join Date
    Dec 1969
    Location
    Stuck in the rain and mud again.
    Posts
    23,532

    Default

    Really great posts, Thank you.

    H.

  14. #14
    Banned user HangPC2's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2006
    Location
    Malaysia
    Posts
    666

    Default

    [*******Black][size=4]The Ottoman Military Academy in Aceh[/size]




    Understandably much of the focus on the Ottoman Empire is on its clash with Western Europe. There is at least one aspect of Ottoman military power that reached out into wider Asia, the Ottoman Military Academy in Aceh on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra in what is now Indonesia. From what I understand this was the only Ottoman Military Academy established outside of the empire's confines. It was part of a broader military assistance program that was focused on blunting Portuguese expansion into Southeast Asia.

    There is an excellent source on the web that outlines the genesis and growth of the Ottoman-Acehnese diplomatic relationship using Turkish sources. It noted the first diplomatic contact from the Sultan of Aceh to the Ottoman Empire as occurring in 1547 but that there were no Turkish sources to expand on it. There was some debate also as to whether it was later, 1562 but that argument is unlikely to be settled unless new evidence is discovered. In addition, the well known historian of Southeast Asia, Anthony Reid, implied that the relationship may have existed since the 1520s. Both sources agreed that it was possible that the first Ottoman military assistance to Aceh was in the late 1530s when sailors from the Ottoman Fleet that had fought at Diu in India continued down to Aceh to help the Acehnese fight the Bataks and Portuguese.

    Aceh's first confirmed diplomatic approach to the Ottoman Empire was in 1566 when the Sultan of Aceh, Alaaddin Riayet Shah al-Kahhar (r 1537-71) sent a letter dated 7 January 1566 with an ambassador to the Ottoman Emperor, Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. This letter referred to Ottoman cannoneers who had arrived safely in Aceh and appealed for more assistance. The death of Suleiman that year and a rebellion in Yeman delayed and then downscaled the assistance that the Ottomans eventually sent in 1568 or 1569, possibly more cannons and experts to make them locally in Aceh. It should be noted that the original plans by the Ottomans were substantial including at least 15 galleys carrying artisans skilled in ship building and siege warfare.

    Aceh made good use of the cannon makers and established a local foundry, turning out some very large cannons. There were two very large cannons that still existed in Aceh into the late 1800s according to a Turkish visitor. They were only taken when the Dutch occupied Aceh and this is potentially borne out by the picture below.





    The fact that the Sultan of Aceh could write a letter such as mentioned above and receive the assistance that he did showed the importance of Aceh's trade, mainly pepper, with the Ottomans and also an already existing relationship of some depth. The Ottomans no doubt felt well disposed to assisting the Acehnese as that aid would make life hard for the Portuguese. Interestingly the historian Michael Charney in his book stated that the Turks were looking for allies in the Indian Ocean to prevent the Portuguese from outflanking the Ottomans.

    The Ottoman Academy

    Turning now to the military academy, there was agreement amongst the sources that such an academy existed in Aceh, although there was little detail. The academy was called Askari Bayt Al-Mugaddas (Sacred Military Academy), although according to an Indonesian sourcethe name was changed to become Askar Baitul Maqdis, since that was closer to the Acehnese ****unciation. It was not clear what subjects were taught nor how long the teaching period was. At least one student was female, Kumala Hayati, who later went on to lead the Acehnese fleet against the Portuguese in Melaka (Malacca). The attacks on Melaka, although unsuccessful are attributed to the knowledge imparted by this academy, as well as the broader Islamic network that Aceh was a part of. Reid stated that at least one attack on Melaka was assisted by the forces of four Indian Muslim sultans. The dearth of information was frustrating but the fact that this academy existed demonstrated an important role for Aceh in the strategy of the Ottoman Empire.

    Conclusion

    The academy, the cannons and the planned dispatch of the Ottoman Fleet clearly showed that Aceh was part of the Ottoman's efforts to balance Portuguese expansion. The relationship did wane later and was revitalised as Aceh faced the threat of Dutch colonialism but by that stage Turkey was the sick man of Europe and the Ottoman splendors were becoming memories. Nevertheless, it was an interesting relationship that highlighted that western colonialism was just one strand of the dynamics in Southeast Asia. It may also have helped to improve the military capabilities of the Acehnese Sultanate and hence the surrounding lands just as Western colonialism began.


    Sources : http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/docs%5CAce...akkigoksoy.pdf

    http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/docs/wps/wps05_036.pdf

    [/color]

  15. #15
    Banned user HangPC2's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2006
    Location
    Malaysia
    Posts
    666

    Default

    [*******Black][SIZE=4]Ottoman Modern Army 19th Century[/SIZE]




    Army



    Infantry
















    Cavalry









    officer









    Artillery






    [/color]

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •