Turkmenistan — although Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea, the Caspian does not connect to the ocean by natural waterway — by some definitions, this makes the country landlocked. Turkmenistan operates a small navy on the Caspian Sea.
Turkmen naval forces are currently directed by the Border Guard Service and consist of around 700 servicemen and sixteen patrol boats.
The International Institute for Strategic Studies reported in 2007 that Turkmenistan intended to form a navy and had a minor base at Turkmenbashy with 1 USCG Point class cutter and 5 Kalkan-class patrol vessels and 10 Gryf class and in 2009- 2 Russian patrol boat Sobol class . Jane's Fighting Ships 2001-2002 reported that the Point-class cutter was the Merjin, PB-129, (ex Point Jackson, 82378), which was transferred on 30 May 2000.
Serbia — following the recent split with Montenegro, Serbia became a landlocked country. Montenegro, whose territory sits by the Adriatic sea, has inherited nearly all naval components of the former union. Serbia however was not left without any naval property at all. It inherited a flotilla of river patrol and assault ships which operate on the Danube River. Currently it functions as a real seafaring navy would, with all the ranks and positions of a much larger and complex navy.
River Flotilla of Serbian Armed Forces Rečna Flotila
River Flotilla Unit FlagActiveMarch 30, 1833 - currentTypeRiver FlotillaRoleDefense of Serbian rivers and support for Land ForcesSize900 sailors, 15 ships and boats (brigade size)Part ofSerbian Land ForcesGarrison/HQNovi SadAnniversariesAugust 6EngagementsWorld War I World War IICommandersCurrent
commanderFrigate Captain Nebojša JoksimovićInsigniaNaval Ensign
In a period from 1944 to 1965, river flotilla was organized in a few detachment of river armor boats, river assault ships, river auxiliary ships and minesweepers squadron as part of Yugoslav Navy (JRM).
From 1960 River flotilla was excluded from Navy and subordinated to command of 1st Army, but later after reorganization has again become part of Navy.
A period since 1965 to 1984 was characteristic because of technical modernization and perfecting of tactics of using RF. Minesweepers type 319 and 307 and assault ships type 401 were reconstructed, a new minesweepers type 331 were built, station for demagnetization of ships and the ships were armed with new arms.
The last combat operation of River flotilla was on November 8th, 1991, during the war in Croatia, when minesweeper 308 was send to Kopački Rit due the information that Czechoslovak ship "Šaraš" was there smuggling arms to Croats. The minesweeper was ambushed by Croatian National Guard forces, and it was hit with Zolja and Armbrust ant-tank rockets. 1st class Warrant Officers, Lampret Kristijan i Marković Stevan were killed while commander, Zoran Marković was wounded due it was hit by sniper. Although seriously wounded, he managed to stranded boat to shore with the help of several sailors and save the crew and the ship from sinking.
Recently after reorganization of Military of Serbia, River Flotilla was organizationally subordinated to Land Forces, as the military didn't had Navy anymore as branch. Flotilla is now organized as Brigade-size unit, and two pontoon battalions from 1st Land Force Brigade subordinated to River Flotilla.
River flotilla is intended for keeping the operative regime of sailing and protection of interests of Serbia at inner sailing corridors (ISC). Assignments execute independent, in cooperation with units of Land Forces, Air Forces and AD and in cooperation with forces of Police.
Transporting includes transport of personnel and technicians across the river and along rivers and canals.
Anti-terrorist actions include a protection of objects and ships at base regions, in cooperation with unites of Army at discovering of terrorist groups (TG) at grasp of ISC.
Security of sailing and rescuing at ISC is providing a security of sailing and rescuing at river.
Taking a part in international missions
Command - Novi Sad
Command Company - Novi Sad
Logistic Company - Novi Sad
1st River Squad - Novi Sad
2nd River Squad - Belgrade
1st Pontoon Battalion - Novi Sad
2nd Pontoon Battalion - Šabac 93rd River Center - Novi Sad
Kazakhstan — although Kazakhstan borders the Caspian Sea, the Caspian does not connect to the ocean by natural waterway— by some definitions, this makes the country landlocked. Kazakhstan operates a small navy on the Caspian Sea.
Kazakhstan maintains naval forces operating on the Caspian Sea with a strength of 3,000, equipped with 12 inshore patrol craft; including 4 Almaty, 1 Dauntless, 5 Guardian, and 2 Zhuk class vessels. The Border Troops were established by a law of January 13, 1992
Kazakhstan does not yet have a navy proper, although the 2003 defence reform programme envisages a three-service structure of the armed forces with the navy as an independent service subordinated to the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
For the moment, naval assets are controlled by the Maritime Border Guard command based in Aktau and subordinated to the Border Service of the Kazakh National Security Committee (KNB).When the 2001 national defence strategy focused upon strengthening Kazakh borders from penetration by insurgents, illegal migrants and drugs, Kazakhstan made an effort to reinforce its sea borders. In March 2007, Kazakhstan's Ministry of Defence (MoD) announced that it was developing a new naval strategy through to 2025. According to a news release, "the strategy's main objectives include providing the country's navy with enough ships, and building coastal infrastructure to ensure the security of the Caspian Sea." In the Caspian, Astana fears Iranian military influence and seeks to protect its off-shore oil fields. Although traditional state-to-state conflict in the Caspian is an unlikely prospect given Russia and Iran's naval might, territorial disputes by littoral countries continue to simmer, meaning that Kazakhstan's naval capability requires attention.The navy has received substantial technical assistance from the US, which needs a Kazakh naval force to safeguard international oil exploration projects in the Caspian. The US has significant exploration interests in western Kazakhstan. Organisation
Kazakh naval forces comprise two patrol boat units deployed in the Caspian and Aral seas, an aviation unit with nine Soviet-built helicopters flying coastal surveillance missions and a 1,500 coastal defence infantry unit based at the Caspian port of Atyrau.Although Kazakhstan inherited some of the Soviet Caspian flotilla assets in the mid-1990s, plans for a cohesive national naval force have been slow to materialise. In June 1998, President Nazarbayev announced plans to build a fully fledged navy that would come under MoD control - this vision may have come closer to realisation in January 2008, when a bespoke directorate for naval forces was established within the MoD. En route to establishing a larger naval capacity, Kazakhstan has opted for a small coastal patrol force that forms part of a wider network of border control units managed by the KNB.In November 2008, a regional coast guard directorate was established within the sea border division of the NSC.
The Kazakh Navy Capt. Zhanzakov Zhandarbek is expected to discuss possible plans for importing more patrol ships from South Korea during his visit here this week, according to military sources. Seoul has yet to describe the exact nature of the ships, as negotiations are ongoing, but officials close to the matter said they would be "high-speed" patrol ships similar to the new Yoon Young-ha class. The official agreement is likely to be signed when Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev visits Seoul in April.
This is not the first time that South Korea has exported ships to the Central Asian country. In March 2006, Seoul sold three retired patrol ships of the Chamsuri class to Kazakhstan. The ships were decommissioned in December 2004 after operating in South Korean waters for over two decades. This time, the Kazakh government is reportedly seeking to acquire the latest Yoon Young-ha class. The ships were commissioned in December as the Navy's first high-speed patrol vessel equipped with an integrated combat system.
The 440-ton Yoon Young-ha class, officially called the Guided-missile Patrol Boat Killer, is the first patrol ship of over 400 tons equipped with guided missiles. The ship's combat system is an indigenous one capable of simultaneously detecting up to 100 aerial and surface targets. It can also engage multiple targets simultaneously, according to the Agency for Defense Development, Yoon Young-ha's developer.
The latest patrol boats are to gradually replace the current Chamsuri ships. They were named after Lt. Commander Yoon Young-ha who was killed along with five others in a 2002 naval clash with North Korea in the West Sea. Zhandarbek, who is here for a five-day visit, will be meeting with his South Korean counterpart Adm. Chung Ok-keun and a number of other military officials.