533: During the Byzantine-Vandal War, the Battle of Carthage occurs. A Gelimer's Vandal force of some 11,000, was routed by the 15,000 Byzantines under the Byzantine General Flavius Belisarius at Ad Decimum (=Ten Mile Post, literally at the tenth), a marker along the Mediterranean coast 10 miles (16 km) south of Carthage.
1759: During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of the Plains of Abraham occurs. It was fought between the British Army and Navy, and the French Army, on a plateau just outside the walls of Quebec City, on land owned by a farmer named Abraham Martin. The battle involved ca 5,500 troops on the French side (including militia and native Odawa warriors) under General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de Saint-Veran and approximately 4,800 troops (including Royal Marines) under General James Wolfe on the British side. The battle resulted in similar numbers of casualties on both sides of the field; the French had 644 men killed or wounded, while the British suffered 658 killed or wounded. Wolfe was killed at the height of the battle. Montcalm was wounded in the lower abdomen and died early the next morning. The battle is considered a decisive British victory.
1808: During the Finnish War, fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809, the Battle of Jutas occurs, south of Nykarleby in Ostrobothnia, Finland. Around 1,500 Swedish soldiers under Lt. Gen. Georg Carl von Döbeln defeated a Russian force of some 1,500 troops commanded by General Kosatchkovsky. The battle has become legendary due to Johan Ludvig Runeberg's epic Döbeln at Jutas in the Finnish National Poem Fänrik Ståls Sägner (=The Tales of Ensign Stål), written in Swedish. The first and last stanzas of the poem, translated in Finnish, comprise the Finnish National Anthem.
[size=1]The Monument to the Battle[/size]
1814: During the Anglo-American War and the Battle of Baltimore, the American lawyer and amateur poet, Francis Scott Key, wrote Defence of Fort McHenry while detained on a British ship during the night of 13 September, 1814, as the British forces bombarded Baltimore's Fort McHenry. His brother-in-law, on hearing the poem Key had written, realized it fit the tune of The Anacreontic Song. Later retitled The Star-Spangled Banner, Key's words, accompanied with Stafford Smith's tune, became a well-known and recognized patriotic song throughout the United States, and was officially designated as the U.S. national anthem in 1931.
1882: During the Anglo-Egyptian War, the Battle of Tel el-Kebir occurs. It was fought between the 15,000 Egyptian troops of Colonel Ahmed Orabi and the 18,500 British troops under Maj. Gen. Garnet Joseph Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley. At 05:45 hours, Wolseley's troops were barely three hundred yards (274 m) from the entrenchments and dawn was just breaking, when Egyptian sentries saw them and fired. British troops, charged with the bayonet. The resulting battle was over in an hour. The British lost 57 killed, 380 wounded. The Egyptians lost 1,396 killed, 681 wounded. Lieutenant William Mordaunt Marsh Edwards was awarded a Victoria Cross for his heroism during the battle.
1914: During the Albanian-Northern Epirotan conflict (a short conflict between the newly independent Albanian State and the Greeks of Southern Albania, who revolted and declared Independence) the Battle of Berat occurs. An armed band of some 170 insurgents of Northern Epirus under the Cretan 1st Lt. Antonios Leontokianakes and the Epirotan Pericles Drellias raised the flag of the Independent Northern Epirus and took the Albanian town of Berat. 2,000 Albanian troops assaulted the town and captured Leontokianakes and Drellias alive. The Greek force suffered heavy casualties in the clash. Leontokianakes and Drellias were executed.
[size=1]The Flag of Independent Northern Epirus[/size]
1922: The final act of the Greco-Turkish War, the Great Fire of Smyrna, commences. Turkish forces set fire to Smyrna, four days after they regained control of the city on 9 September.
[size=1]Traditional Smyrnean folk song[/size]
1939: 60,000 Polish troops who are trapped in the Radom pocket surrender.
1943: The Battle of the Dodecanese, for supremacy in the Aegean begins, with an Allied raid on Rhodes. Within five days, the British 234th Infantry Brigade under Maj. Gen. Francis Gerald Russell Brittorous coming from Malta, together with 160 men from the SBS, 130 men from the LRDG (=Long Range Desert Group), A Company from the 11th Btn of the Parachute Regiment and Greek Sacred Band detachments had secured the islands of Kos, Kalymnos, Samos, Leros, Syme and Astypalæa, supported by ships of the British and Greek navies.
[size=1]Greek Commandos of the Sacred Band, on a Dodecanesian island[/size]
1944: The U.S. Ninth Army (Lt. Gen. Simpson) is engaged in heavy fighting as the German garrison keeps up its resistance at Brest.
1944: The Soviets reach the Polish-Czechoslovak border. Romania signs an Armistice with the USSR.
[size=1]Romanian troops in 1944[/size]
1968: Albania leaves the Warsaw Pact.
[size=1]Hoxha's Albania formed a special relationship with Mao's China[/size]
1812: After the Battle of Borodino, the chief commander of the Russian Army Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov, against the will of most of his generals, issued an order to retreat from Moscow. At ten in the morning of 14 September, Napoleon was standing among his troops on the Poklonny Hill looking at Moscow spread out before him. Finally he gave the order to enter the city. The French army crossed Moskva River in three columns in Fili, Dorogomilovo and Luzhniki, converging on the city center. Approximately an hour after the French entrance into Moscow, the fires started which culminated in the Moscow firestorm.
[size=1]Napoleon at Poklonny Hill, overseeing Moscow[/size]
WWI-1914: First Battle of Aisne begins. Troops start to construct trenches across the entire length of the western front.
1943: The Greek Submarine RHNS "Katsones" (Y1) while trying to intercept a German troop transport, was attacked and sunk by the German submarine chaser Unterseeboot Jäger (Sub Hunter) "UJ-2101" (ex-Greek minesweeper "Strymon"). 32 men of the crew, including her CO Cdr Vassilios Laskos, went down with her, and 15 were captured. Lt. Eleutherios Tsukalas, the ship's XO, and petty officers Antonios Antoniu and Anastasios Tsigros, managed to swim for 9 hours and reached the island of Skiathos. There they hid and eventually managed to return to Egypt and rejoin the Greek fleet.
[size=1]The Katsones and her last CO, Commander Vassilios Laskos RHN[/size]
1943: Heavy fighting continues in the Salerno bridgehead, with another German counter-attack. French commandos land in Corsica to help patriots fighting the Germans.
1943: In retaliation for their clash with the Cretan partisans of Kapetán Banduvás, occured on 12 September, the Germans roundup and execute 352 male inhabitants of Viannos county, Heraclion Prefecture, Crete.
1944: The US First Army (Lt. Gen. Hodges) reaches the Siegfried Line, to the East of Aachen and less than 64 km (40 miles) west of Bonn. Maastricht and Eysden in southern Holland are the first Dutch cities liberated. The US First Army occupies Nancy.
1944: Soviet troops reach the Vistula river in the Praga suburb of Warsaw, as planes drop supplies to the Polish Home Army which is trapped inside the city. Three Soviet Baltic fronts launch an offensive with 900,000 men, 3,000 tanks and 2,600 aircraft against German Heeresgruppe Nord (=Army Group North) (Generaloberst Schörner) which is forced to fall back to defensive positions around Riga, Latvia.
994: During the Byzantine-Fatimid Wars, the Battle of Orontes occurs. A combined Byzantine-Hamdanid (Shi'a Arabs of Iraq and Syria) army under the Byzantine Stratēgós (=General) and Dux (=Duke) of Antioch, Mikhail Burtzes, was defeated by a Fatimid (Shi'a Caliphate of N. Africa) army under the vizier of Damascus, the Fatimid Turk, Manjutakin or Banjutakin at the banks of the River Orontes in Syria. Manjutakin's men succeeded in breaking through the Hamdanids, and attacked the Byzantine force in the rear. The Byzantine army panicked and fled, losing some 5,000 men.
[size=1]The empire and flag of the Fatimid Caliphate[/size]
1762: During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Signal Hill occurs. In reality it was a small skirmish, the last of the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War. 295 French troops under Guillaume Léonard de Bellecombe, were defeated by the 200 British regulars and militia under Lt. Col. William Amherst. The engagement was brief but fatal. The commander of the French detachment, Guillaume de Bellecombe, was seriously wounded. The British lost 4 or 5 killed, 19 wounded. French casualties were ca 40 killed and wounded.
1814: During the Anglo-American War, the two-day Battle of Baltimore, ends. The British landed a force of 5,000 troops under Major Gen. Robert Ross who marched toward Baltimore. During the march, an American sniper shot and kill General Ross. The city’s defence was under the overall command of Major General Samuel Smith, an officer of the Maryland Militia who headed 3,000 men. The British failed to capture Baltimore, Maryland. It proved to be a turning point in the War of 1812.
[size=1]The Monument to the Battle[/size]
1827: During the Greek War for Independence the Naval Battle of Itea occurs. The Greek steamer named "Kartería" (=Perseverance), manned by Englishmen, Swedes and Greeks, together with a squadron of four smaller ships, under the overall command of the British naval officer and Philhellene, Frank Abney Hastings, attacked the Ottoman Flagship anchored inside the Itea bay, in the Corinthian Gulf, sank her, sank three more Turkish supply ships and destroyed with their guns the coastal batteries defending the bay.
[size=1]Hastings, a veteran of Trafalgar, died in the harbour of Zakynthos on 1 June, 1828, of complications from wounds he received in the Battle of Aetolikon on 25 May. Maj. Gen. Charles George Gordon who served with him and knew him, wrote: If ever there was a disinterested and really useful Philhellene it was Hastings. He received no pay, and had expended most of his slender fortune in keeping the Kartería afloat for the last six months. His ship, too, was the only one in the Greek navy where regular discipline was maintained[/size]
1847: During the Mexican-American War, the Fall of Mexico City occurs. Winfield Scott captures the capital of Mexico.
[size=1]General Scott's entrance into Mexico City in the Mexican-American War[/size]
1894: During the First Sino-Japanese War (fought from 1894 - 1894 for the control of Korea), the Battle of Pyongyang occurs. Imperial Japanese Army's 1st Army Corp, under the overall command of Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, launched a direct attack on the north and southeast corners of the walled city under very little cover. The Chinese defence was strong, but was eventually outmaneuvered by an unexpected flanking attack by the Japanese from the rear. At 16:30 hours, the garrison raised the white flag for surrender. Chinese casualties are estimated at 2,000 killed around 4,000 wounded. The Japanese lost 102 men killed, 433 wounded and 33 missing. Pyongyang fell to Japanese forces by the early morning of 16 September 1894.
WWI-1918: The Armée d'Orient (=Eastern Army) went on the offensive. The Serbian divisions of the ΙΙ Serbian Army supported by the Greek 35th Infantry Regiment of the Greek IV Division, advanced at an incredible speed towards Belgrade via Usküb (now Skopje) in order to dissect the Bulgarian armies. At the right side of the Ι Serbian Army the attack was carried out by the Greek 6th and 12th Infantry Regiments and the French Mounted Brigade of African Chasseurs, of the French 11 Division d'Infanterie Coloniale (=Division of Colonial Infantry). The Serbian Šumadija Division I, routed the Bulgarians occupying the line Golo Bilo-Preslap.
1942: The US aircraft carrier USS "Wasp" (CV-7), while escorting transports carrying the 7th Marine Regiment to Guadalcanal was struck by three torpedoes fired by a Japanese submarine. All three struck in the vicinity of the gasoline tanks and magazines, causing additional explosions and fires. Having expended great effort but unsuccessful in containing the fires, her CO, Captain Forrest Sherman gave the order to abandon ship at 15:20 hours. She sank by the bow at 21:00 hours.
1950: During the Korean War, United States forces land at Incheon. At 06:33 hours, following an intense air, rocket and naval gunfire bombardment, landing craft carrying the first wave of Marines from the 3rd Battalion Landing Team (BLT,) 5th Marine Regiment, reached Green Beach located on the north arm of Wolmi-do and the first amphibious assault by American forces against an enemy since 1 April 1945 at Okinawa was underway. The initial landing was unopposed and the Marines quickly moved inland against scattered and very light resistance.
324: The final and decisive battle of the second civil war between Licinius and Constantine took place in Asia Minor on 18 September 324. The Βattle of Chrysopolis was a rout and Licinius abdicated his throne. After his conquest of the eastern portion of the Roman Empire, Constantine made the momentous decision to give the east its own capital, and the empire as a whole its second. He chose the city of Byzantium - renamed New Rome/Constantinople - as the site of this new foundation. The battle also opened the prisons throughout the east, and set free all who were suffering for their Christian faith.
1454: During the Thirteen Years' War, the Battle of Konitz occurs. The Teutonic army with around 9,000 horse and 6,000 infantry under Bernard von Zinnenberg, routed the Polish army comprised 16,000 horse, 3,000 infantry under the Polish King Casimir IV Jagiellon. The Polish defeat was complete. 3,000 bodies lied in the battlefield, 300 knights were captured by Teutons. The Teutonic Knights lost only around 100 men.
[size=1]The large cross that marks the hill where a mass grave with the remains of 2,000 warriors who had died in the battle of Konitz was discovered in 1826[/size]
1573: During the Eighty Years' War, the Siege of the Dutch city of Alkmaar begins. Alkmaar successfully withstood a siege by Spanish forces under the leadership of Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba. It was a turning point in the war and gave rise to the Dutch expression Bij Alkmaar begint de victorie (=Victory begins at Alkmaar). The event is still celebrated every year in Alkmaar on 8 October, the day the siege ended.
1759: Shortly after their victory at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, the British capture Québec City.
1812: The 1812 Fire of Moscow dies down after destroying more than three quarters of the city. Napoleon returns from the Petrovsky Palace to the Moscow Kremlin, spared from the fire.
1898: The Fashoda Incident, occurs. A powerful flotilla of British gunboats arrived at the isolated Fashoda fort, East Africa, led by Sir Herbert Kitchener. There they met the French of Major Jean-Baptiste Marchand who had already reached Fashoda in June with orders to secure the area around it as a French protectorate. The incident brought the United Kingdom and France to the verge of war.
[size=1]French Major Marchand at Fashoda[/size]
WWI-1918: The two-day Battle of Dojran begins. The British XII and XVI Corps supported by the Greek Serræ and Cretan Divisions and the Greek 3rd Cavalry Regiment, under the British Field Marshal Sir John Milne, 1st Baron Milne, assaulted the Bulgarian positions near the Lake Dojran. The Allies suffered huge casualties due to their advance on open terrain against Bulgarian fortified positions: They were caught in a crossfire coming from the slopes and machine gun fire coming from the bunkers on the hills. The Allies lost about 14,000 soldiers (4,000 Greeks). The Bulgarians suffered 2,000 killed and wounded; 1,008 made prisoners.
[size=1]The Bulgarian General Vladimir Minchev - Vazov. He managed to hold the Dojran line against the greatly superior British and Greek forces outnumbering him 5:1. The British paid great honour to General Vazov when he visited London in 1936, as they lowered their national flags in his name. The chairman of the Royal British Legion said in his speech: He is one of the few foreign officers whose name features in our history[/size]
1931: Near Mukden (now Shenyang) in southern Manchuria, a section of railroad owned by Japan's South Manchuria Railway was sabotaged. The Imperial Japanese Army, accused Chinese dissidents of the act and responded with the invasion of Manchuria, leading to the establishment of Manchukuo the following year. This Mukden Incident represented an early event in the Second Sino-Japanese War, although full-scale war would not start until 1937. While the responsibility for this act of sabotage remains a subject of controversy, the prevailing view is that Japanese militarists staged the explosion in order to provide a pretext for war.
[size=1]The Memorial to the Incident in Shenyang, China[/size]
1940: Following the Italian Invasion of Egypt on 9 September with five army corps (XX, XXI, XXII, XXIII) and the newly created Gruppo Divisioni Libiche (=Group of Libyan Divisions) under the overall command of Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, the Italian Divisione CC.NN. "23 Marzo" (Blackshirt Division "23 March") of the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (=National Security Volunteer Militia) takes Sid Barani.
1944: The US Ninth Army (Lt. Gen. Simpson) finally takes Brest after a long struggle.
1944: British Submarine HMS "Tradewind" (P329) (Lt. Cdr. Stephen Lynch Conway Maydonof) sinks the Japanese army cargo ship Jun'yo Maru which was headed for Sumatra. She was carrying 4,200 Javanese slave labourers and 2,300 Allied prisoners of war from Batavia to Padang. 5,620 lives were lost in the sinking.
1947: The United States Air Force becomes an independent branch of the United States armed forces.
1948: Communist uprising during the Indonesian National Revolution in the town of Madiun. An Indonesian Soviet Republic was declared in Madiun, in the western part of East Java, by members of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) and the Indonesian Socialist Party (PSI). It was quashed by Republican forces.
451: During the Hunnic invasion of Gaul the Battle of Chalons (near today's Châlons-en-Champagne in France) occurs. A coalition army of some 30,000 men led by the Roman general Flavius Aetius and the Visigothic king Theodoric I defeated a 30,000-strong army of the Huns and their allies commanded by Attila. Attila's retreat across the Rhine confessed the last victory which was achieved in the name of the Western Roman Empire. The battle marks the apex of the career of Flavius Aetius.
1187: The Siege of Jerusalem by an Ayyubid army under Saladin begins. It resulted in the recapture of Jerusalem by Saladin on 2 October and the near total collapse of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1792: During the War of the First Coalition, the Battle of Valmy occurs. A 47,000-strong French army under Charles-François du Périer Dumouriez and François Christophe de Kellermann, 1st Duc de Valmy, defeated a combined invading force of some 35,000 men comprised Prussians, Austrians, Hessians and French Royalists, under Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, the Prince Friedrich William, Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Kirchberg, the Walloon François Sebastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt and the Prince of Condé, Louis Joseph de Bourbon. Despite the minimal casualties (fewer than 500 total) the battle of Valmy was really the first victory of a European army inspired by citizenship and nationalism, and marked the end of the era of absolute monarchy. The day after this first victory of the French revolutionary troops, on 21 September, in Paris, the French monarchy was abolished and the First French Republic proclaimed.
1854: During the Crimean War, the Battle of Alma, the first battle of the War occurs. A 54,000-strong Anglo-French army with 132 guns, under the French General Armand-Jacques Leroy de Saint-Arnaud and the British General FitzRoy James Henry Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan, defeated General Aleksandr Sergeyevich Menshikov's Russian army comprised 33,000 infantry, 3,400 cavalry with 120 guns, south of the River Alma in the Crimea. Eventually the Russian retreat became a rout. The Russians lost 5,709 killed and wounded. The British lost 2,002 and the French 1,340 killed or wounded.
1870: During the Italian Unification (Risorgimento, the Resurgence) the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy captured the Vatican, thus ending the millennial temporal rule of the popes over central Italy and allowed Rome to be designated the capital of the new nation. For the next 59 years, beginning with Pope Pius IX, the popes refused to leave the Vatican in order to avoid any appearance of accepting the authority wielded by the Italian government over Rome as a whole. They were the prigionieri del Vaticano (=prisoners of the Vatican)
1939: German troops in eastern Poland withdraw to the line agreed upon in the German-Soviet treaty. The Red Army moves in behind them to occupy the formerly Russian territory. The Battle of Grodno between Polish troops and Red Army begins. The Poles inflict 800 Red Army casualties (Soviet counts: 220) and destroy ten tanks, whilst defending the city.
1942: In the Jewish ghetto of Letychiv, Ukraine, established to assist Organisation Todt in providing human labor for the road building project, three separate mass shootings of Jews occurred on 20 and 21 September 1942 where 3,000 Jews were killed (almost half the ghetto) by the Einsatzgruppen.
1943: The British 8th Army occupies Bari in southern Italy. The allies also bomb Venice.
1944: British armoured forces of XXX Corps link up with the US paratroops of the 82nd Division at Nijmegen, capturing the bridge intact.
1970: During Black September, Syrian tanks roll into Jordan in response to continued fighting between Jordan and the fedayeen.
1984: Hezbollah suicide bomber attacks US Embassy in Beirut killing twenty-two people.
1217: During the Livonian Crusade (the German and Danish conquest and colonization of medieval Livonia, the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia), the Battle of St. Matthew's Day occurs. A 3,000-strong combined army of Livonians, Lettigallians and German Crusaders of the military order of Schwertbrüderorden (=Order of the Brethren of the Sword) commanded by the Master of the Order, Volkewîn, defeated the 6,000 Estonians under Lembit of Lehola who attempted to unite the Estonians in order to withstand the German conquest. Estonian casualties numbered from 1,000 - 1,400 (including Lembit).
[size=1]The Memorial to the battle[/size]
1745: During the Second Jacobite Rising, the Battle of Prestonpans, fought near Edinburgh, in Scotland, occurs. A 2,500-strong Jacobite army loyal to the old pretender to the English, Scottish and Irish thrones, James Francis Edward Stuart, led by his son, Charles Edward Stuart, defeated a 2,300-strong army loyal to the Hanoverian George II, led by Sir John Cope. The battle was over in less than 10 minutes with hundreds of government troops killed or wounded and 1,500 taken prisoner.
[size=1]Hey, Johnnie Cope, are ye waking yet?, a Scottish folk song, written by Adam Skirving, gives an account from the Jacobite viewpoint of the Battle of Prestonpans[/size]
1860: During the Second Opium War (a war pitting the British Empire and the Second French Empire against the Qing Dynasty of China, lasting from 1856–1860), an Anglo-French force of 10,000 under Sir James Hope Grant and Charles Guillaume Marie Appollinaire Antoine Cousin Montauban, who would later become comte de Palikao, defeats 30,000 Chinese troops under the Mongol nobleman and General Sengge Rinchen at the Battle of Baliqiao (or Palikao). British and French sources estimated Chinese losses as 25,000 men.
1896: The Sirdar (=British Commander-in-Chief) of the Anglo-Egyptian army, Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, defeated the revolted Sudanese Mahdists and took Dongola in northern Sudan.
1942: The inter-allied information committee estimates that the Germans have so far, executed 207,373 people in occupied Europe.
Greek and Soviet Partisans executed by the Germans
1944: Polish paratroopers land between Arnhem and Nijmegen as the British force at Arnhem bridge is overwhelmed. Autumn rains impede the allied advance as the US 85th Division takes Firenzwold.
[size=1]Sosabowski's Polish Paras of the 1st Independent Parachute Brigade[/size]
[size=1]Maj. Gen. Stanisław Sosabowski[/size]
1944: The British Eighth Army’s, III Greek Mountain Brigade (Colonel Thrasybulus Tsakalotos) takes the Italian town of Rimini on the Adriatic coast. The 2nd Greek Battalion (1 Company under 1st Lieutenant Constantine Gerakines, 3 Company under 1st Lt Georgios Beligiannes) reached the city center via the Ausa River. The Greek flags that were flying from the balcony of the municipal building signalled a success won by 13 days of rugged fighting against elements of both the 1. Fallschirmjäger-Division and the 162.Turkestanisch Infanterie Division, at a cost of 128 Greeks. At 07:45 hours, the mayor unconditionaly surrendered the city to the III Greek Mountain Brigade with an official protocol that was written in Greek, English and Italian.
On the same day, the German forces of Heeresgruppe E (=Army Group E) (Generaloberst Löhr) evacuate the Peloponnese peninsula in Greece.
[size=1]The CO of III Greek Mountain Brigade, Colonel Thrasybulus Tsakalotos[/size]
[size=1]The crest of the current Greek III Mechanised Brigade with the honorific title "Rimini" ("ΡΙΜΙΝΙ" in Greek); Motto: Virtue is a weapon no one can ablate (a philosopher Antisthenes' teaching) [/size]
1964: The North American XB-70 Valkyrie, the world's first Mach 3 bomber, makes its maiden flight from Palmdale, California.
1236: During the Livonian Crusade, the Battle of Saule, fought probably near today's Šiauliai in Lithuania, occurs. A 3,000-strong Crusader army of Livonians, Rus from the Pskov Republic and Knights from the Order of the Brethren of the Sword, under the overall command of the Order's Master Volkewîn, were defeated by the 4 or 5,000 Lithuanians, Samogitians and Semigallians of the Duke of Samogitia, Vykintas. Some 50 to 60 knights were killed, including their Livonian Master, Volkewîn and 2,700 Livonians and Rus. The battle inspired Curonians, Semigallians, Selonians and other Baltic tribes previously conquered by the Brethren of the Sword, to rebel.
[size=1]Latvian folk-metal band Skyforger wrote a song Kauja pie Saules (=Battle of Saule), found on an eponymous album, about the battle[/size]
1586: During the Eighty Years' War, the Battle of Zutphen occurs. It was fought between a 17,000-strong combined force from the United Provinces of the Netherlands and England, under the English nobleman Peregrine Bertie, 13th Baron Willoughby de Eresby, and the 25,500 Spaniards who sought to regain the northern Netherlands. The battle was won by the Spanish.
1789: During the Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1792, the Battle of Rymnik occurs. It was fought in Wallachia (today's Romania) near the town of Rymnik (now Râmnicu Sărat). The combined forces (ca 25,000) of Russia and Habsburg Empire under the command of the Russian General Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov, acting together with the Habsburg General, Prince Friedrich Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, defeated the 60,000 Ottomans under Koca Yusuf Pasha. For this victory, Suvorov was awarded the title of Count of Rymnik. The victory resulted in the retreat of Ottoman forces from the Danubian Principalities.
[size=1]The conqueror of Rymnik, Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov[/size]
1866: During the War of the Triple Alliance (a military conflict in South America fought from 1864 to 1870 between Paraguay and the allied countries of Argentina, Empire of Brazil, and Uruguay), the Battle of Curupaity occurs. A joint force of the Imperial (Brazilian), Argentine and Uruguayan armies numbering some 20,000 men, under the Argentine Bartolomé Mitre Martinez, attacked the 5,000 Paraguayans defending the trenches on Curupaity under José Eduvigis Díaz. 4,000 of the 20,000 allied (Brazilian and Argentine) troops involved in the attack were lost. Paraguayan losses accounted for 92 killed or wounded.
[size=1]The Curupaity March, a composition of the Uruguayan musician, nationalized Argentine, Cayetano Alberto Silva[/size]
1908: Prince (later Tsar) Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, proclaims Bulgaria's de jure Independence (Bulgaria since 1878 had been de facto an autonomous principality) in the church of Saints Forty Martyrs, in the town of Veliko Tarnovo in Bulgaria, the former capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
[size=1]The ancient Orthodox Church of Saints Forty Martyrs (built in 1230) in Veliko Tarnovo[/size]
[size=1]Knyaz (=Prince) Ferdinand, proclaiming Bulgaria's Independence in Veliko Tarnovo[/size]
1939: Germany and USSR agree on partition of Poland. 217,000 Polish troops who are fighting against the Red Army surrender at Lvov. The NKVD begins rounding up thousands of Polish officers and deporting them to Russia. A Polish regiment repels attacks by forty Soviet tanks and infantry units at the Battle of Kodziowce. Soviet losses amount to hundreds killed and twenty tanks destroyed. Joint victory parade of Wehrmacht and Red Army in Brest-Litovsk.
1941: On Jewish New Year Day, the members of Einsatzgruppe massacre the last 6,000 Jews in Vinnytsya, Ukraine.
28,000 Jews were massacred in Vinnytsya
1942: Five members of the PEAN (Panhellenic Union of Fighting Greeks) resistance group, Constantine Perrikos, a former Air Force officer, the electrician Antonios Mytilenæos, the Law students Spyridon Galates and Nikolaos Lazares, and the teacher Julia Bimbas, planted a home-made bomb in the basement of the building in downtown Athens, housing the National-Socialists of ESPO (National-Socialist Patriotic Organization) a pro-Nazi group headed by the doctor Spyridon Sterodemos, that at the time recruited Greeks in order to form a SS Greek Legion. The bomb exploded at 12:30 killing 29 ESPO members and 48 German officers. The 37-year old Perrikos was captured and put before the firing squad on 4 February 1943. Bimbas was captured also and she was killed by decapitation. Lazares joined Napoleon Zervas' EDES (=National Republican Greek League) partisans. Mytilenæos managed to escape to Egypt.
[size=1]Flying Officer, Constantine Perrikos[/size]
1943: The British 78th Division (Maj. Gen. D.C.Butterworth) begins landings at Bari on the SE coast of Italy.
[size=1]The 78th Infantry Division was known as the Battleaxe Division[/size]
1944: The British Second Army (Lt. Gen. Dempsey) is now five miles North of Nijmegen, but still six miles from Arnhem. The US First Army (Lt. Gen. Hodges) halts its offensive West of Aachen. German troops holding out in the port city of Boulogne finally surrender to Canadian forces.
[size=1]German soldiers surrendering to the 31st Field Company, Royal Canadian Engineers (R.C.E.) Boulogne, France - wwii.ca/photos/[/size]
1944: The Soviets take Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
1965: The Indo-Pakistani War (also known as the Second Kashmir War) between India and Pakistan over Kashmir, ends after the UN calls for a cease-fire. India suffered 3,000 killed or wounded, at least 175 tanks destroyed, 60–75 aircraft lost. Pakistan suffered 3,800 killed or wounded, 200 tanks destroyed, 20-73 aircraft lost. Strategic miscalculations by both India and Pakistan ensured that the war ended in a stalemate.
1980: Iraq invades Iran, launching a simultaneous invasion by air and land into Iranian territory, thus opening a 8-year War that claimed the lives of at least a million people.
1993: A Transair Georgian Airlines Tupolev Tu-154 flying from Tbilisi (and reportedly carrying Georgian soldiers) was shot down while attempting to land at the Sukhumi airport and crashed on the runway, killing 108 of the 132 people on board.
2006: The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is retired from the United States Navy.
1409: During the Sino-Mongol War, fought between Ming China and Mongolia, the Battle of the Kherlen Gol (=River) occurs. Hundreds of thousands of Mongolians and Ming Chinese fought at the banks of Kherlen River for the control of Mongolia. The Ming army was completely routed and defeated.
1459: During the Wars of the Roses the Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle in the English Wars of the Roses occurs. On Saint Thecla's Day, a Lancastrian force of some 6 - 12,000 men under James Touchet, 5th Baron Audley and John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, was defeated by a Yorkist army of some 3 - 6,000 men under Richard Neville, jure uxoris (=by right of his wife) 5th Earl of Salisbury. It is believed that at least 3,000 men died in the battle, with at least 2,000 of these from the Lancastrian side. Audley himself was killed and buried in Darley Abbey in Derbyshire.
[size=1]The battle is commemorated by a re-enactment each year in September at Blore Heath[/size]
1779: During the American War of Independence, the Naval Battle of Flamborough Head, fought in the North Sea, off the coast of Yorkshire, England, occurs. An American Continental Navy squadron led by John Paul Jones comprised five warships, attacked and defeated two British escort vessels protecting a large merchant convoy. Despite its relatively small size, it became one of the most celebrated naval actions of the American Revolutionary War.
[size=1]Captain John Paul Jones[/size]
1803: During the Second Anglo-Maratha War (fought between the Indian Maratha Empire and the British East India Company from 1803 - 1805) the Battle of Assaye occurs. 50,000 Marathas under the Hanoverian Colonel Anthony Pohlmann, were defeated by the ca 10,000 men of East India Company and British Army under the 34-year old Major General, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. East India Company and British Army casualties amounted to 428 killed, 1,138 wounded and 18 missing. Approximately 6,000 Maratha were killed and wounded. The battle was the Duke of Wellington's first major victory and one he later described as his finest accomplishment on the battlefield.
1821: During the Greek War for Independence, the biggest town in the Peloponnese and administrative centre for Ottoman rule, Tripolitsá (now Tripolis) falls to an army of 10,000 Greeks under General Theodoros Kolokotrones, after several months of siege. About 30,000 Turks were massacred in Tripolitsá, including its entire Jewish population (the massacre of Jews is considered more of a tragic side-effect by most historians, than a specific action against Jews per se). For the massacre, Kolokotrones writes in his memoirs: Tripolitsá was three miles in circumference. The host which entered it, cut down and were slaying men, women, and children from Friday until Sunday. Thirty-two thousand were reported to have been slain. One Hydran boasted that he had killed ninety.. My horse from the walls to the Saray (=Palace) never touched the earth.
1941: Professor of History, Comnenus Pyromáglu arrives amidst secrecy in occupied Athens from Paris and organizes with the former Army Colonel Napoléon Zervas, the National Republican Greek League (EDES) resistance group. EDES acted mostly in Epirus, against the German and Italian occupation forces under orders of the Greek government in exile and the Allied Middle East Command (General Sir Claude Auchinleck).
[size=1]Colonel Napoléon Zervas, EDES' leader[/size]
[size=1]EDES' co-founder, Professor Comnenus Pyromáglu[/size]
1943: Following Mussolini's liberation, the Repubblica Sociale Italiana (=Italian Social Republic) a Nazi-Germany's puppet state, with its capital in Salò, a small town on Lake Garda, in Northern Italy, is proclaimed.
1645: During the English Civil War, the Battle of Rowton Heath occurs. A Parliamentarian force of 3,000 foot, 300 musketeers, under Colonel-General Sydenham Poyntz, defeated the 3,000 Royalists of Sir Marmaduke Langdale, 1st Baron Langdale and the 22-year old, Lord Bernard Stewart, a Scottish aristocrat who served as a Royalist commander. Stewart was killed, together with 600 royalists while 800 made prisoners.
1877: During the Satsuma Rebellion (a revolt of Satsuma ex-samurai against the Meiji government from 29 January, 1877 to 24 September, 1877) the Battle of Shiroyama occurs. On the night of 24 - 25 September, 30,000 troops of the Imperial Japanese Army under the Prince Yamagata Kyosuke assaulted the hill of Shiroyama, occupied by a force of ca 400 - 500 Satsuma Samurai under Saigo Takamori. For a short time Saigo's lines held, but was forced back due to weight of numbers. By 06:00 hours, only 40 rebels were still alive. Takamori was mortally wounded in the femoral artery and stomach.
[size=1]Takamori's statue in Kagoshima, Japan[/size]
1939: 1,150 German planes bomb Warsaw. German Special Task Force troops execute 800 Polish intellectuals and leaders in Bydgoszcz.
1942: Greek Submarine RHNS "Nereus" (Y4) (Lt. Cdr. Alexandros Ralles) sinks off the island of Syme, the Italian Liner Fiume (1,100 tons) which was headed for Rhodes. She was carrying 249 Italian officers and other ranks, an Ansaldo 76/40 M1917 gun and 150 Greek workers. 326 lives were lost in the sinking.
1944: The British Second Army (Lt. Gen. Dempsey) reaches the Lower Rhine in force. The British paratroops at Arnhem are now under severe pressure. British troops cross the German border to the Southeast of Nijmegen. The US Third Army's (Gen. Patton) Moselle bridgeheads to the South of Metz are sealed off by the Germans.
Last edited by valtrex; 09-24-2010 at 05:53 AM.
1066: During the Viking invasions of England, the Battle of Stamford Bridge occurs. A 6,000-strong English force under the last Anglo-Saxon King of England, Harold II Godwinson defeated a 15,000-strong army comprised Norsemen, Flemmish and Scottish troops under the Norwegian King Harald III Sigurdsson, the Hardrada (=Hard Ruler). Harald assembled a fleet of 300 ships carrying Norsemen to invade England. Arriving off the English coast he was joined by further forces recruited in Flanders and Scotland by Tostig Godwinson the English king's brother. The Norwegian army was routed, pursued by the English army. Harald's army was so heavily beaten that only 24 of the 300 longboats used to transport his forces to England were used to carry the survivors back to Norway. Both Harald and Tostig died in the battle.
1396: During the Ottoman Wars in Europe, the Battle of Nicopolis (today's Nikopol in Bulgaria) occurs. A force of ca 7 - 16,000 Crusaders (comprised Knights Hospitaller, Hungarians, Venetians, Bulgarians of the Second Bulgarian Empire, contingents from German princedoms of the Holy Roman Empire, Poles, Czechs of Bohemia, Basques of Navarre, and Wallachians) under the overall command of the French nobleman Enguerrand VII Sieur de Coucy, was defeated by the 20 - 25,000 Ottomans (including 1,500 Serbian heavy cavalry knights under the Prince Stefan Lazarević, who was Ottoman Sultan's vassal since the Battle of Kosovo in 1389), under Sultan Bayezid I. Most of the Crusader army was destroyed or captured; a small portion, including Sigismund, escaped. 300 - 3,000 prisoners were executed by the Ottomans.
[size=1]Battle of Nicopolis; the executions[/size]
1846: During the Mexican-American War the Mexican city of Monterrey is captured by General Zachary Taylor, commander of all US forces, following the Mexican defeat in the 3-day battle for the city.
WWI-1915: The Second Battle of Champagne, a French offensive against the invading German army, opens. The offensive proved to be disappointing for the French. Despite their initial success they had only made quick progress during the time it took for the Germans to ***** reserves from elsewhere and ruch them up. The battle ended on 6 November. The French lost 145,000 men, while the Germans lost 72,500 - 80,000 men. The French had taken 25,000 prisoners and captured 150 guns.
1939: The Luftwaffe bomb Warsaw with 420 planes. Casualties in the city since the start of the war have now reached 40,000 dead.
1943: Greek Submarine RHNS "Nereus" (Y4) (Lt. Cdr. Alexandros Ralles) sinks with her guns a large fully loaded Italian Sailer in the strait of Nisyrus-Tenus.
1944: The Canadians begin all-out attack on the German stronghold at Calais. Hitler orders the formation of the Volksturm, the German home guard. The British evacuate the remaining paratrooper at Arnhem, but only 2,163 men out of nearly 10,000 return.
[size=1]1st Polish Parachute Brigade prisoners being escorted through Arnhem[/size]
1944: A Greek Sacred Band detachment raids the Greek island of Mykonos. They destroy ammo depots, and in their clash with the German garrison, kill six and wound seven Germans.
1955: Royal Jordanian Air Force is founded.
1970: Cease-fire between Jordan and the Palestinian Fedayeen ends fighting. Black September is over.
Last edited by valtrex; 09-25-2010 at 06:56 AM.
1687: The Parthenon, the temple in the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, is partially destroyed by an explosion caused by the bombing from Venetian forces led by the Venetian Doge and General Francesco Morosini who are besieging the Ottoman Turks stationed in Athens.
WWI-1918: The Meuse-Argonne Offensive, the bloodiest single battle in American history, begins. The US I Corps (77th, 28th and 35th Divisions under French command; in the the final phases of the Meuse-Argonne offensive under Lt. Gen. Hunter Liggett), V Corps (91st, 37th and 79th Divisions under Maj. Gen. Charles Pelot Summerall), III Corps (4th, 80th and 33rd Divisions), and the French Fourth (General Henri Gouraud) and Fifth (General Henri Mathias Berthelot) Armies commenced advancing against the German Fifth (General Johannes Georg von der Marwitz) Army's defence line in order to breach the Hindenburg line and ultimately force the opposing German forces to capitulate. The battle ended on Armistice day (11 November, 1918). Allied losses were severe. The US suffered ca 117,000 killed and wounded, while the French lost approximately 70,000 troops. The Germans suffered ca 190,000 killed and wounded.
1943: Greek Destroyer RHNS "Vasilissa Olga" (Queen Olga) (D-15) was sunk during a German air attack carried out by 25 Junkers Ju 88 while anchored in Lakki bay of Leros island after the capitulation of Italy. Her CO Lt. Cdr. Georgios Blessas, 6 officers and 63 petty officers and other ranks were lost.
[size=1]The Queen Olga is sinking[/size]
[size=1]The signal informing the Navy HQ in Alexandria about Queen Olga's loss. It reads: Destroyer Queen Olga sunk in Leros harbour at 10:14 26/9/43[/size]
1943: British Destroyer HMS "Intrepid" (D-10) (Cdr. Charles Arthur de Winton Kitcat) was sunk during a German air attack carried out by 25 Junkers Ju 88 while anchored in Lakki bay of Leros island.
1944: III Greek Mountain Brigade's 1st Battalion (Major Ioannes Karavías) relieves the 24th New Zealand Battalion (it would go into reserve) and becomes the first allied unit that crosses the Rubicon River in NE Italy: At 06:30 hours after a quick but intense firefight takes the town of Bellaria, near Cesena.
[size=1]Greeks of the III Mountain Brigade. It comprised 205 Officers, 89 WO, 3,083 other ranks[/size]
[size=1]The III Greek Mountain Brigade's crest in WWII[/size]
1944: The Brazilian 1ª Divisão de Infantaria Expedicionária - 1ª DIE (=1st Expeditionary Infantry Division) (Gen. João Baptista Mascarenhas de Morais), on the central front of the Gothic Line, controls the Serchio valley region, after ten days of rugged fighting at a cost of 290 killed or wounded.
[size=1]Brazilian troops of the 1ª DIE enter an Italian town[/size]
1944: The Caserta Agreement is signed in Caserta, Italy, between the Greek Prime Minister Georgios Papandreou, the British Minister Resident in the Mediterranean (representative to the Allies in the Mediterranean) Harold MacMillan, the C-in-C Middle East, General Henry Maitland Wilson, the EDES' (=National Republican Greek League) leader Colonel Napoléon Zervas, and the ELAS' (=Greek People's Liberation Army) leader Gen. Stephanos Saraphes. According to it, "...all resistance forces in Greece were placed under the command of a British officer, Lt. Gen. Sir Ronald MacKenzie Scobie".
[size=1]Saraphes (left), Scobie, Zervas[/size]
1950: United Nations 1st Cavalry Division Task Force 777, enters Seoul, South Korea, shortly after dark. The city was full of North Korean soldiers, most wandering aimless around. None fired on the American unit, led by tank platoon from the 70th Tank Battalion.
480 BC: During the Second Persian invasion of Greece, the Naval Battle of Salamís occurs. A joint Greek fleet of ca 366 - 378 triremes from Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Megara, Croton (from S. Italy) and other Greek minor city-states, under the overall command of the Athenian Stratēgós (=Army leader, general) Themistocles, but nominally led by the Spartan Návarchos (=Ship leader, admiral), Eurybiades, defeated the Persian Achæmenid fleet of some 600 - 800 warships (triremes mostly) led by the eldest brother of Persian King Xerxes I, Ariabignes (or Ariamenes according to Plutarch). The Persian fleet sailed into the Straits of Salamís and tried to block both entrances. In the cramped conditions of the Straits the great Persian numbers were an active hindrance, as ships struggled to maneuver and became disorganised. Seizing the opportunity, the Greek fleet formed in line and scored a decisive victory, sinking or capturing at least 200 Persian ships. Ariabignes died in the battle.
480 BC: During the Greco-Punic Wars (a series of conflicts fought between the Carthaginians and the Greeks headed by Syracusans, over control of Sicily and western Mediterranean from 7th - 3rd c. BC), the Battle of Himéra occurs. A 50,000-strong, according to modern estimates, (according to Herodotus' account, 300,000) Carthaginian army comprised Iberians, Libyans, Carthaginians and Libyo-Phœnecians, with Gaullic and Sardinian cavalry, under General Hamilcar, the son of Hanno, invaded Sicily and marched along the coast in order to capture the city of Himéra. The Greeks fielded a few tens of thousands (Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus give 50,000) hoplites, mostly from the major Greek city in Sicily, Syracuse, but also hired mercenaries from Greece and local Sicels and Sikans, under the overall command of the Tyrant (=Ruler) of Syracuse, Gelo, acting together with the Tyrant of Acragas (today's Agrigento in Sicily), Theron. About half of the Carthaginian army and majority of the fleet was destroyed, numerous prisoners and rich booty had fallen into Greek hands. The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus comments that "..the surviving Carthaginian ships were sunk in a storm on their return journey to Africa".
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[size=1]On December 18, 2008 archeologists uncovered the mass graves of more than 10,000 soldiers holding the remains of 5th century B.C. soldiers near the site of the ancient Greek city of Himéra during the construction of a railway extension, on the island of Sicily: news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/12/081217-himera-mass-grave.html[/size]
1364: During the Hundred Years' War, the Battle of Auray occurs. A 3,500-strong Anglo-Breton army, comprised English and Bretons led by Jean V the Conqueror, Duc de Montfort, assisted by Sir John Chandos, Viscount of Saint-Sauveur, defeated a 4,000-strong Franco-Breton army, under Charles of Blois. In the battle, the troops of Charles of Blois broke and fled and he was killed.
1848: During the Hungarian Revolution (the revolution in the Kingdom of Hungary that grew into a war for independence from Habsburg rule) the Battle of Pákozd occurs. Lt. Gen. János Móga in command of 27,000 Hungarians with 82 cannon, fought and defeated the Habsburg army, numbering from 35 - 40,000 men under Croatian Ban (=Ruler), Count Josip Jelačić of Bužim. Although the Battle of Pákozd was one of the smaller of the Revolution, its consequences were very important. The battle became an icon for the Hungarian army because of its influence on politics and morale.
[size=1]The victor, János Móga[/size]
1911: The claims of Italy over Ottoman Libya, lead Italy to formally Declare War against Ottoman Empire on 29 September, although the Italian fleet appeared off Tripoli, Libya, on the previous evening (28 September, 1911).
WWI-1918: Following the breach on the Salonika front occured on 15 September, Bulgaria capitulated and concluded armistice negotiations with the Allies. The Armistice with Bulgaria was signed at the Bulgaria Armistice Convention in Thessaloniki, Greece, between the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Allied Powers.
[size=1]The Allied Military Cemetery in Thessaloniki, Greece. 21,000 allied soldiers killed in the Salonika Front (French, Italian, British and Russian) repose there; 7,000 of them are Serbs[/size]
1932: During the Chaco War (fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over control of the northern part of the Gran Chaco region from 1932 - 1935) the Battle of Boquerón ends (it opened on 7 September). A Bolivian army of ca 1,000 men, reinforced by a cavalry regiment and three infantry regiments as the battle progressed (totalling 4,000 troops), under Lt. Col. Manuel Marzana, was decisively defeated by the 14,000 Paraguayan troops under Col. José Félix Estigarribia Insaurralde. Bolivia suffered 1,000 dead or wounded, 800 made prisoners. Paraguay lost ca 1,500 - 2,000 dead or wounded.
1939: Poland formally surrenders. Polish Armed Forces suffered 66,000 dead, 133,700 wounded, 694,000 captured in their desparate 28-day, two-front struggle.
1941: The SS Einsatzgruppen operating in the Ukraine, massacre between 50,000 and 96,000 Ukranians (of which 33,771 are Jews), at Babi Yar, a ravine about 30 miles outside of Kiev.
[size=1]The Babi Yar memorial in Kyiv, Ukraine[/size]
1941: During the night of 28 - 29 September, an insurrection against the Bulgarian occupation troops occured in the town of Doxáto, Drama Prefecture, Greece. The local police station in the town was attacked, leading to the death of 6 - 7 Bulgarian policemen. Although those who participated in the insurrection were killed or fled to the mountains, reprisals were harsh. The next day, Bulgarian forces rounded up all the men in town aged 14 and over, and after dividing them into groups of ten, executed them on the night of 29 September, 1941. 200 men were massacred.
[size=1]The Memorial to the massacre in Doxáto[/size]
1990: The YF-22, which would later become the F-22 Raptor, flies for the first time.
1744: During the War of the Austrian Succession, the Battle of Cuneo, fought on the outskirts of Cuneo in Piedmont, occurs. A combined Hispano-French force of some 26,000 soldiers under Louis François de Bourbon, Prince of Conti, defeated a Sardinian army under the Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia, Charles Emmanuel III. Out of a total number of 25,000, the King of Sardinia lost 4,400 men, whilst the Bourbon losses were a little over half their enemies at 2,700 men killed or wounded.
[size=1]The conqueror of Cuneo, Louis François de Bourbon[/size]
1938: The Munich Aggreement is signed by the UK, France, Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. It permitted Nazi German annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland.
1941: The German strategic offensive named Operation Typhoon begins, when Guderian's Panzergruppe 2 opens its offensive against Moscow, 2 days ahead of the rest of Heeresgruppe Mitte (=Army Group Centre) (von Bock) and makes 80 km (50 miles) in its advance towards Orel.
[size=1]Generaloberst Heinz Guderian; USSR autumn 1941[/size]
1943: On the eve of the Jewish New Year, the Gestapo and Danish Nazis begin rounding up all Danish Jews. However, a large number of Danish Jews had been saved when the anti-nazi politician Hans Hedtoft got wind of the German plan and passed the details to the Danish resistance who, with the help of Danish fishermen ferried many Jews to neutral Sweden.
[size=1]The Danish resistance movement as a collective effort, rather than as individuals, has been honoured at Yad Vashem in Israel as being part of the Righteous Among the Nations[/size]
1944: The 7,500 strong Calais garrison surrenders to the First Canadian Army (General H.D.G. Crerar). Rejoicing in the streets of Dover at the announcement that the last of the German cross-channel guns, which have pounded the southeast coast of Britain for three years, have been silenced.
1954: The U.S. Navy submarine USS "Nautilus" ((SSN-571) is commissioned as the world's first nuclear reactor powered vessel.
1975: The Hughes (later McDonnell-Douglas, now Boeing) AH-64 Apache makes its first flight.
1187: Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, commonly known as Saladin recaptures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule, following Balian of Ibelin's surrender (Ibelin was a a castle in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem). The fall of Jerusalem, provoked the Third Crusade by providing it with its principal goal: The return of Jerusalem to Christendom a second time.
1263: During the Scottish-Norwegian War, the Battle of Largs (present day Largs in North Ayrshire, Scotland) occurs. It was the most important military engagement of the war. The Norwegian forces were led by King Håkon Håkonsson the Old and the Scottish forces by King Alaxandair III mac Alaxandair. The result was inconclusive, but in the long term favoured the Scots.
1552: During the War between Muscovite Russia and the Tatar Khanate of Kazan, the siege of Kazan, the final battle of the war occurs. The 150,000 Muscovite army under Ivan IV the Terrible besieged Kazan and on 2 October the Russians entered the city. The civil population as well as Kazan's army (totalling 80 - 85,000 men) opposed them. The city was totally sacked and burned. Dozens of thousands of Tatars killed, both civilians and garrison, and 60,000 - 100,000 Russians who had been kept captive in khanate were released.
[size=1]The conqueror of Kazan, Ivan IV Vasilyevich the Terrible[/size]
1814: During the Chilean War of Independence, the Battle of Rancagua occurs. A 1,200-strong Spanish Royalist army under the Seville born, Spanish General Mariano de Osorio, defeated the 600 Chilean Revolutionaries under the Chilean patriot Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme. The Chilean force retreated with heavy losses.
[size=1]The victor, Don Mariano de Osorio[/size]
1835: During the Texas War of Independence, the Battle of Gonzales, the first military engagement of the Texas Revolution occurs. Up to 140 Texians under John Henry Moore, one of the Old Three Hundred (=the first Anglo settlers who received land grants along the rich bottomlands of the Brazos, Colorado, and San Bernard rivers) fought a Mexican force of ca 100 cavalry under Lt. Francisco de Castañeda. Castañeda was sent by Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea to retrieve a cannon lent to the citizens of Gonzales in 1831 for their defence. The citizens of Gonzales refused to relinquish the Gonzales cannon, and the battle of Gonzales resulted.
[size=1]The Come and Take It flag flown by Texians[/size]
1939: The first Poles are imprisoned in Pawiak Prison in Warsaw. Some 100,000 people will undergo Nazi interrogations here, of whom 37,000 will be executed and 60,000 sent to concentration camps.
[size=1]The infamous Pawiak Prison[/size]
1941: Heeresgruppe Mitte (=Army Group Centre) (von Bock) launches Operation Typhoon, the main offensive towards Moscow with one million men, 1,700 tanks, 14,000 artillery pieces, 549 aircraft. Heeresgruppe Süd (=Army Group South) (von Rundstedt) begins an advance against Kursk and Kharkov.
[size=1]Soviet documentary for the Battle of Moscow with English subtitles[/size]
1943: The British 2nd Special Service Brigade (Bgd. Ronald John Frederick "Ronnie" Tod) lands at Termoli on East coast of Italy and links up with troops moving North from Foggia.
1944: Warsaw falls to the Germans after 63-day siege, with the Polish Home Army surrendering only after all its food and ammunition had run out. The Germans recognise their valour and treat the survivors not as partisans, but as regular POW.
1950: During the Korean War, General MacArthur issues United Nations Command Operations Order 2 which is the plan to order for U.N. forces to cross into North Korea. ROKA troops are already 30 to 50 km (20 to 30 miles) north of the 38th Parallel on the east coast at this time.
52 BC: During the Gallic Wars, the Siege of Alesia (today's Alise-Sainte-Rein), a major town centre and fort of the confederation of Gaullic tribes, named Mandubii, who lived in the areas of modern-day Bourgogne and Jura in France, ended with the Gallic leader Vercingetorix surrendering to Gaius Julius Cæsar. The country was then subdued, becoming a Roman province. Vercingetorix was taken prisoner, exhibited at Cæsar's triumph and most likely executed.
[size=1]Vercingetorix's statue in Alise-Sainte-Rein[/size]
42 BC: During the Wars of the Second Triumvirate (Roman Civil Wars fought by the forces of Marcus Antonius and Octavian against the forces of Cæsar's assassins Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus) the First Battle of Philippoi (today's Philippi, Eastern Macedonia, Greece) occurs. The Triumvirs' army of nineteen legions and 33,000 horse (total over 100,000 men) under Octavian and Marcus Antonius decisively defeated the forces of Cæsar's assassins numbering some 100,000 men (seventeen legions, 17,000 horse) under Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. The battle ended in a draw: Cassius lost 9,000 men, while Octavian had about 18,000 casualties. Cassius believing that he had suffered a crushing defeat, committed suicide.
[size=1]The battlefield, as seen from the Acropolis of Philippi[/size]
1935: Mussolini's Italy invades Ethiopia. The war resulted in the military occupation of Ethiopia and its annexation into the newly created colony of Italian East Africa.
1943: On the night of 3 October, Germans invade the Greek island of Kos in the Dodekanese, with the assistance of massive air support. German paratroopers landed in and around the airfield at Antimachia. The island was defended by the men of the 1st Durham Light Infantry (Colonel John Kirby) arrived on 16 September. The 1st DLI were almost wiped out on Kos with only some 60 men managing to escape.
[size=1]The Athens Memorial stands within Phaleron War Cemetery and commemorates nearly 3,000 members of the land forces of the Commonwealth who lost their lives during the campaigns in Greece and Crete and the Dodecanese Islands including those of the 1st Durham Light Infantry who were killed on the island of Kos 1943[/size]
1951: During the Korean War, the First Battle of Maryang San occurs, pitting Australian and British forces against communist China. It ended 5 days later. The 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (Lt. Col. Francis George "Frank" Hassett) dislodged a numerically superior Chinese force from the tactically important Kowang-San (Hill 355) and Maryang San (Hill 317) features, in conjunction with other units of the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade.
1952: Operation Hurricane was the test of the first British atomic device. A plutonium implosion device was detonated in the lagoon between the Montebello Islands, Western Australia.
1990: German Unity Day: The German Democratic Republic ceases to exist and its territory becomes part of the Federal Republic of Germany.
1993: During Operation Gothic Serpent (a military operation conducted by special operations forces of the United States with the primary mission of capturing Somali warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid in Mogadishu, Somalia), the Battle of Mogadishu occurs. It was fought on 3 and 4 October, 1993, in Mogadishu, Somalia, by forces of the United States supported by UNOSOM II against Somali militia fighters loyal to warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid, with support from armed civilian fighters. 18 US Soldiers and hundreds of Somalis were killed in heavy fighting.