1279: During the Northern Crusades, the Battle of Ascheraden occurs. A Lithuanian army under the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Traidenis, defeated an army from the Livonian Order under its Grand Master, Ernst von Rassburg, at Ascheraden (present-day Aizkraukle, Latvia). The Order suffered a great defeat; 71 knights, the Grand Master, and the leader of the knights from Danish Estonia, Eilart Hoberg were killed.
[size=1]The conqueror of Ascheraden, Grand Duke Traidenis[/size]
1770: The Boston Massacre occurs; British troops threatened by a mob, opened fire at them and killed five civilian men. This incident helped spark the rebellion in some of the British American colonies, which culminated in the American Revolutionary War. At a subsequent trial the soldiers were defended by the future U.S. President, John Adams.
1770: During the Orlov Events, Maniots assisted by Russians take Mistra, the capital of the Byzantine Despotate of the Morea. The whole of Laconia falls under Greek control again, after 309 years.
[size=1]Mistra today; the town is named a UNESCO World Heritage Site[/size]
1799: During the French Revolutionary Wars, the Russians under Admiral Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov take the island of Corfu and single-handedly carved out the Greek Septinsular Republic (=a limited self-government, island republic under nominal Ottoman sovereignty). Ushakov cleared the French from Corfu and all the Ionian islands. The Septinsular Republic was the first autonomous Greek state in 346 years.
1824: The British officially declare war on Burma. The First Anglo-Burmese War opens, over the control of northeastern India.
1912: During the Italo-Turkish War (fought between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Italy over the control of Tripolitania, in present-day Libya), Italian forces are the first to use airships for military purposes, employing them for reconnaissance behind Turkish lines. The Italo-Turkish war of 1911-1912 was the first in history in which air attacks were also carried out by dirigible airships.
1913: During the First Balkan War, the Epirus Cavalry Rgt. of the Greek VIII Infantry Division (Crown Prince Constantine) takes Tepelenë in southern Albania. Five arty pieces left behind by the fleeing Turks are captured.
1913: During the First Balkan War, King George I of the Hellenes is assassinated in Thessaloniki by a certain Alexandros Schinas. The king's oldest son, Crown Prince and C-in-C of the Army, Constantine, becomes King Constantine I of the Hellenes. Schinas (who was around 40 at the time) shot King George I in the back from a distance of two paces. His motives remain unclear to this day; according to contemporary journalists, he was an anarchist opposing aristocracy and monarchy.
1933: The National Socialist German Workers' Party receives 43.9% of the vote at the German federal election. Thanks to the success of the Nazi Party and its allies in the poll, its leader and Chancellor of Germany, Adolf Hitler, was able to pass the Enabling Act, which effectively gave him the power of a dictator. President Paul von Hindenburg will sign the bill on 24 March.
[size=1]Hitler's Reichstag speech promoting the bill[/size]
1940: Members of Soviet politburo sign an order for the execution of 25,700 Polish intelligentsia, including 14,700 Polish prisoners of war, known as the Katyń Massacre.
[size=1]Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria's memo to Stalin, proposing execution of Polish officers[/size]
1943: Maiden flight of Gloster Meteor jet aircraft in the United Kingdom.
1944: Ivan Stepanovich Konev's 2nd Ukrainian Front launches an attack towards Uman in the central Ukraine. Uman will fall on 6 March and Konev will immediately launch an offensive towards the Southern Bug and Dnieper rivers.
1945: Advance patrols of the U.S. First Army (Lt. Gen. Courtney Hicks Hodges) reach Cologne. Germany is now conscripting 15 and 16-year-olds into the regular army.
1945: The German 2. Armee (General der Infanterie Walter-Otto Weiß) is cut off in Pomerania as the Soviet 19th Army (Lt. Gen. G.K. Kozlov) reaches the Baltic. Festung Graudenz (present-day Grudziądz, Poland) on the Vistula, surrenders to the 2nd Belorussian Front (Marshal Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky).
1946: Winston Churchill uses the phrase Iron Curtain in his speech at Westminster College, Missouri, to symbolise the ideological fighting and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas.
1965: A Leftist uprising erupts in Bahrain against British colonial presence, led by the Marxist Popular Front for the Liberation of Bahrain and the Marxist-Leninist National Liberation Front - Bahrain, calling for the end of the British presence in the country.
1970: The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons goes into effect after ratification by 43 states worldwide.
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1454: During the Thirteen Years' War, delegates of the Prussian Confederation pledged allegiance to Casimir IV Jagiellon, the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania; they agreed to bring Prussia into the Polish kingdom. The king agrees to commit his forces in aiding the Confederation's struggle for independence from the Teutonic Knights.
[size=1]Casimir IV the Jagiellonian[/size]
1919: During the Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War, a fiercely waged battle begins (it will conclude on the 21st) between elements of the Greek 3rd (Col. Georgios Kondyles), 5/42 Evzonic (Col. Nikolaos Plastiras) and 34th (Col. Petros Karakassones) Infantry Regiments of the Greek Expeditionary Corps in southern Russia, and Red Communist forces in the environs of Odessa.
[size=1]Nikolaos Plastiras is the most highly decorated officer in the history of the Greek armed forces[/size]
1945: The U.S. Third Army (Gen. George Smith Patton Jr) reaches the Rhine, NW of Koblenz, as Cologne falls to U.S. First Army (Lt. Gen. Courtney Hicks Hodges).
1945: Operation Spring Awakening (Frühlingserwachen), the last major German offensive launched during WWII opens when the 2. Panzerarmee (General der Artillerie Maximilian de Angelis) and 6. SS-Panzerarmee (SS-Oberstgruppenführer Josef Dietrich) launch a major counter-attack from Lake Balaton towards Budapest, against the Soviet 3rd Ukrainian Front (Gen. Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky).
[size=1]Regimental colours of the 3rd Ukrainian Front[/size]
1975: The Algiers Accord is signed by the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the Vice-Chairman of the Revolution Command Council of Iraq, Saddam Hussein. It was an agreement between the two countries to settle their border disputes. Less than six years after signing the treaty, Iraq attacked Iran to invade the border lands.
[size=1]Iran's Shah (left), Algeria's President Houari Boumediène (second from left) and Saddam Hussein[/size]
1988: The operation conducted by a Special Air Service (SAS) team tasked with preventing a Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb plot ends in success. Operation Flavius concludes when three Provisional Irish Republican Army volunteers, conspired to detonate a car bomb where a military band assembled for the weekly changing of the guard at the governor’s residence are killed by SAS on the territory of Gibraltar.
238: Roman subjects in Africa revolt against Emperor Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus, commonly known as Maximinus Thrax and proclaim the aged governor of the province, Marcus Antonius Gordi**** Sem****i****, and his son, Marcus Antonius Gordi**** Sem****i**** Rom**** Afric****, as co-emperors. The senate in Rome switched allegiance, gave both Gordi**** and his son the title of Augustus, and set about rousing the provinces in support of the pair. Maximinus, wintering at Sirmium immediately assembled his army and advanced on Rome, the Pannonian legions leading the way.
[size=1]The standard of X Gemina, one of the Pannonian Legions; the other three were XIV Gemina, I Adiutrix and II Adiutrix[/size]
962: Byzantine General Nicephorus Phocas captures Chandax (present-day Herakleion), the principal city in Crete, from the Arabs, after two years of siege and inflicting some 40,000 casualties. The Arabs resist tenaciously, but are forced to yield to the overwhelming force of the Byzantines. After this event, Crete is liberated and comes again under Byzantine rule.
1799: During the French Revolutionary Wars, the French Armée d'Orient (=Army of the Orient) under Napoleon Bonaparte, capture Jaffa from the Ottomans. Napoleon ordered that a large part of the Ottoman prisoners (according to some sources around 2,440, according to others 4,100), many of them Albanians in the service of the Ottoman Sultan (perhaps as much as 2,000), be shot or stabbed to death with bayonets.
1814: During the War of the Sixth Coalition, the Battle of Craonne occurs. A 37,000-stong French Army under Emperor Napoleon I defeated a 85,000-strong Russo-Prussian army under the Prussian Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Fürst von Wahlstatt, at Craonne, in northern France. Craonne cost Blucher 5,000 casualties, while Napoleon lost some 5,400.
[size=1]Napoleon surveys the Craonne battlefield - statue in Craonne, on the north bank of the Aisne[/size]
1822: During the Greek War of Independence, 300 revolutionaries under Nikolaos Kasomúles, attempt to capture from the Turks the fort at Kolindros in Pieria. With this act the Greek Revolution spreads to the area north of Thessaly, around Olympus mountain.
[size=1]The statue of Kasomúles in his hometown, Siatista, W. Macedonia[/size]
1827: During the Cisplatine War (fought from 1825 - 1828 between Argentina and Brazil over the fate of Banda Oriental - an area approximately consistent with present-day Uruguay), the Brazilian Marines attempted to take Carmen de Patagones, a temporary Argentine naval base on the north bank of the Río Negro, near the Atlantic Ocean, but they were repelled by local militias and armed civilian bands. 7 March is still commemorated with a festival in the city of Carmen de Patagones.
[size=1]The monument to the battle[/size]
1914: Prince William of Wied, Prince of Albania, of the House of Wied-Neuwied, arrives in Albania with Princess consort, Sophie of Schönburg-Waldenburg, to begin his reign as Mbret (=King) Vidit I of Albania. With Albania in a state of civil war from July 1914 (when peasants from central Albania, mostly Muslims, revolted demanding return of Albania under suzerainty of sultan of Ottoman Empire), Greek army occupying the south of the country and encouraging the formation of a provisional government of North Epirus, and the breaking out of the Great War, he will reign just for 214 days, until 3 September, when his regime collapsed and left for Venice, Italy.
1936: In violation of the Treaty of Versailles, 19 German infantry battalions and a handful of planes entered the Rhineland at dawn of 7 March. They reached the river Rhine by 1100 hours and then 3 battalions crossed to the west bank of the Rhine. Despite mobilisation on the Franco-German border, the French did not intervene. Heinz Guderian, a German general interviewed by French officers after WWII, claimed: If you French had intervened in the Rhineland in 1936 we should have been sunk and Hitler would have fallen.
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, Georgios Vlakhos, editor of the prominent Kathimerini Greek daily newspaper, publishes his famous article titled, Open Letter to Hitler.
1943: The four-day Battle of Phardykampos concludes. The people of Siatista and the surrounding region, with the guidance of the local resistance chapter attack a convoy of Italian occupation troops at Phardykampos near Siatista, Macedonia. They capture 598 prisoners and huge war material and inflict 174 casualties. For a more thorough presentation, please check here.
1945: The U.S. 9th Armored Division (Maj. Gen. John W. Leonard) makes a surprise dash across the undestroyed Rhine bridge at Remagen, the Ludendorff Bridge, establishing a crucial bridgehead on the East bank. The 14th Tank Battalion (Lt. Col. Leonard E. Engeman), task force from Combat Command B (Brig. Gen. William M. Hoge) of the 9th Armored Division was the first unit that crossed the only Rhine bridge Germans had failed to blow in their frantic withdrawal.
1948: The Dodecanese, the island chain composed of 12 larger plus 150 smaller islands and islets in the Aegean Sea, off the southwest coast of Turkey, inhabited by Greek speaking populations since 1400 BC, formally unites with Greece, ending 740 years of foreign rule over the islands.
1951: During the Korean War, Operation Ripper, an offensive launched by the U.S. I Corps (Lt. Gen. Frank W. Milburn), IX Corps (Lt. Gen. John B. Coulter), X Corps (Lt. Gen. Edward Mallory "Ned" Almond), and the ROK III Corps (Lt. Gen. Paik Sun-yup) intended to destroy as much of the Chinese communist People's Volunteer Army and North Korean military around Seoul, begins. In the month-long battle, units from Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Greece and the UK also participated. Eventually the UN will drive the Communists back to the 38th Parallel and retake Seoul.
1965: During the American Civil Rights Movement, the first of three marches from Selma to Montgomery took place in Selma, Alabama; 600 civil rights marchers were attacked by state and local police with billy clubs and tear gas, an incident known today as Bloody Sunday.
1722: During the Afghano-Persian War, the Battle of Gulnabad occurs. A Hotaki Pashtun army of Afghanistan under Shah Mahmud Hotaki, defeated a Persian Safanid army under Soltan Hossein, at Gulnabad (present-day Gonabad, Razavi Khorasan, Iran). The battle resulted in Afghanistan, winning and controlling much of Persia. Persian Soltan Hossein was taken captive during the battle.
1782: 96 Christian Lenape Native Americans, are massacred at Gnadenhutten, the Moravian missionary village in Ohio, by colonial American militia from Pennsylvania. The militia collected the remains of the Lenape and buried them in a mound on the southern side of the village. Before burning the villages, they had looted, gathering plunder which they needed 80 horses to carry furs for trade, pewter, tea sets, clothing, everything the people held.
[size=1]The memorial to the massacre[/size]
1862: During the American Civil War, the three-day Battle of Pea Ridge ends. 11,000 Union troops of the Army of the Southwest under Gen. Samuel Ryan Curtis defeated 16,000 attacking Confederate troops of the Army of the West, led by Generals Earl Van Dorn, Sterling Price, and Ben McCulloch. Following a fierce opening assault from the rear that almost overwhelmed Curtis’ forces, the outnumbered Union troops rallied. After a desperate struggle with severe losses on both sides, Union forces counterattacked on 8 March. The Confederates were forced to retreat, thus thwarting their hopes of regaining control of Arkansas. The U.S. suffered 1,384 casualties while the C.S. sustained ca 2,000 killed and wounded.
1940: During the Winter War, heavy fighting is reported at the outskirts to Viipuri (today's Vyborg, Russia), as the Red Army continues its attempt to capture the city. This prompts the Finns to seek an immediate armistice, which the Soviets refuse. Therefore the Finnish delegation in Moscow is instructed to sue for peace.
1945: The British XXX Corps (Lt. Gen. Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks) and Canadian 1st Army (Gen. Henry Duncan Graham "Harry" Crerar) involved in Operation Blockbuster, enter Xanten on the Rhine after several days of heavy fighting. Further to the south, U.S. troops enter Bonn.
1945: Beginning of Operation Crossword a series of secret negotiations at Bern, Switzerland, between representatives of the American OSS (Allen Welsh Dulles) and the German High Command in Italy (Generaloberst Heinrich Gottfried Otto Richard von Vietinghoff and SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS Karl Wolff) for an early surrender of German forces in Italy.
[size=1]From left to right: Vietinghoff, Wolff and Dulles[/size]
1963: The Syrian Ba'ath party's military committee succeeded in persuading Nasserist and independent officers to make common cause with it, and they successfully carried out a military coup. A National Revolutionary Command Council took control of Syria and assigned itself legislative power; it appointed Salah al-Din al-Bitar as head of a National Front government.
Last edited by valtrex; 03-08-2011 at 05:33 AM.
1009: In the Annales Quedlinburgenses (Chronicles of Quedlinburg) of the Imperial Abbey of Quedlinburg in Saxony-Anhalt, the first known mention of the name of Lithuania is recorded. The Chronicle recorded a Latinised Slavic form of the name Lietuva: Litua. It was mentioned in a narrative describing the mission of Bruno, the future saint, to pagan lands, and his death by martyrdom. In 1009, Bruno and his entourage reached the borderlands of Rus and Lithuania. There he succeeded in converting the pagan ruler Netimeras and his people to Christianity, but was martyred by some of Netimeras’s clansmen who refused to be baptised.
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1230: During the Bulgaro-Byzantine Wars, the Battle of Klokotnitsa occurs. A Bulgarian army under the Tsar and sovereign of the Bulgarians, Ivan Asen II, defeated a Byzantine army of the Despotate of Epirus (=one of the Byzantine Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire that emerged in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204) under Theodore Comnenus Ducas, at Klokotnitsa, in southern Bulgaria near Haskovo. To mark the victory, the Bulgarian tsar had an inscription carved in one of the marble columns of the church "Holy Forty Martyrs" in the capital of the Secong Bulgarian Empire, Great Tarnovo. The text of this inscription is the most accurate evidence of the outcome and the aftermath of the battle. Bulgaria became the biggest medieval country on the Balkan peninsula, stretching from the Black Sea, to the Aegean Sea and the Adriatic Sea, and the power of the Despotate of Epirus faded.
1811: During the Hispano-American Wars of Independence, the Battle of Tacuarí occurs. A 1,100-strong revolutionary force under the command of Argentine General Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano, usually referred to as Manuel Belgrano, were defeated by the 2,000 Spanish and Paraguayan troops under Col. Manuel Atanasio Cabañas, by the Tacuarí river, in Southern Paraguay. Although the revolutionaries suffered a serious defeat, Paraguayans started to seriously consider independence from Spain, even without joining the United Provinces (modern Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay and the Brazilian historic region of Eastern Missions). Eventually, the Paraguayans will declare their independence from Spain on 17 May.
[size=1]The Tambor de Tacuarí (Tacuarí Drummer) Band of the Argentine 1st Regiment of Patricians, was established together with the Regiment in 1806; this military band serves as the regiment's musical support service, acting as one of Argentina's most celebrated military bands. It's the only band in the nation to have a child musician among its ranks as a snare drummer, in memory of the young 12-year old drummer Pedrito Ríos, who was killed in the Battle of Tacuarí[/size]
1847: During the Mexicano-American War, the 20-day Siege of Veracruz opens. The siege began with the first large-scale amphibious assault conducted by U.S. military; more specifically, by two regular and one volunteer divisions of the U.S. Expeditionary Force under the overall command of Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott. General Scott's entire army was brought ashore without a single man lost.
1862: During the American Civil War, the Naval Battle of Hampton Roads occurs. From her berth at Norfolk, the Confederate ironclad, CSS "Virginia" (Lt. Catesby R. Jones) initiated the first engagement of ironclads in history when after she sank USS "Cumberland" and ran USS "Congress" aground, she fought the Union ironclad, USS "Monitor" (Lt. John Worden), off Sewell's Point, near the mouth of Hampton Roads, Virginia. The two ships fought each other to a standstill, but Virginia retired.
1925: The first RAF operation conducted independently of the British Army or Royal Navy begins when RAF aircraft of No. 2 (Indian) Wing, under Wing Commander Richard Charles Montagu Pink, carried out an air-to-ground bombardment and strafing against the mountain strongholds of Masood tribesmen in South Waziristan, a mountainous region of northwest Pakistan, bordering Afghanistan, an action known also as Pink's War. The campaign's commander, Wing Commander Pink, received speedy promotion to Group Captain.
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, the Italians launch Operation Spring (Primavera) the last attempt of the war to defeat the Greek forces that had already advanced deep into Albanian territory. The Italian offensive was concentrated along a 5-km (3-mile) front, against which they threw the entire XIX Corpo d'Armata (19th Army Corps) consisted of seven divisions under Gen. Gastone Gambara. The Greek line was defended by six infantry divisions under the overall command of Lt. Gen. Ioannes Pitsikas, but its central sector, held by the men of the I Infantry Division (Maj. Gen. Vasilios Vrakhnós) with 6 frontline battalions and 3 in reserve, absorbed intense pressure. The Italian attack began at 0600 hours while Mussolini observed the battlefield. Within the next two-three hours, tens of thousands of artillery shells hit the Greek positions. 190 planes also bombed the Greek entrenchments. At 0800 hours, the Italians launch a primary attack and at 0900 hours the main effort begins against Hill 731 and Hill 717. Despite the intense Greek artillery fire, Italian troops managed to reach the steep slopes of both heights (elements of the 59 Mountain Infantry Division Cagliari commanded by Maj. Gen. Antonio Scuero). The Greeks counter-attacked the oncoming Italians with fixed bayonets, under the cover of dense smoke. By late afternoon, the Italians had launched four attacks, all repulsed by the Greeks. Hill 717, (731's watch-dog according to a Greek officer), was finally captured and held firmly by the Italians, despite a series of Greek atempts to recapture it. A new Italian attack was launched against Hills 1308 (Trebeshin) and 1030 (Qjafe-Luzhit), to no avail. At the same time, a diversionary Italian assault on Hills 709 and 710 was also repelled by the Greeks.
[size=1]From left to right: Mussolini observing the battlefield; C-in-C of Italian XIX. Army Corps, Gen. Gambara and C-in-C of Greek I Division, Maj. Gen. Vrakhnós[/size]
1944: Japanese troops counter-attack American forces on Hill 700 in Bougainville, an island of the North Solomons, in a battle that would last five days. The Japanese onslaught did not wane until 13 March, when Hill 700, which had been partially overrun by the Japanese, was retaken by U.S. 37th Infantry Division's forces (Maj. Gen. Robert S. Beightler).
1945: In an attempt to break the Japanese morale and wear away resistance to surrender, the USAAF begins the firebombing of Japans major city's with a raid by 334 B-29 Superfortress bombers on Tokyo, saturating the city's crowded downtown residential district. 16 and a half acres of Tokyo are burnt out and 100,000 people killed in a single night. The attacks by the USAAF continue against Tokyo for 10 days, before switching to Nagoya, Osaka and Kobe.
1956: As a reaction to Nikita Khrushchev's de-Stalinization policy, thousands of Georgians protesting Khrushchev's denunciation of Stalin, turned the protest into an uncontrollable mass demonstration and rioting which paralysed Tbilisi. The Soviet military suppressed the demostrations by firing upon the students picketing the government buildings. Various estimates put the number of casualties from 106 - 800. Hundreds were wounded and injured. Over 200 were arrested in the ensuing reprisals and many were subsequently deported to labor camps in Siberia.
1991: Massive demonstrations are held against Slobodan Milošević in Belgrade, organised by Vuk Drašković's Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO). Two people (a policeman and a protester) are killed and tanks are deployed in the streets. Additionally, 203 protesters were injured and further 108 were arrested.
241 BC: During the First Punic War, the Naval Battle of Aegates Islands occurs. A 200-strong Roman Republican fleet of quinqueremes, under Gaius Lutatius Catulus, decisively defeated a Carthaginian fleet of about 250 warships under Hanno (or Hanno II the Great according to historians), near the Aegates, off the western coast of Sicily. About half of the Carthaginian fleet was either destroyed or captured. The rest were saved only by an abrupt change in the direction of the wind, allowing them to flee from the Romans. The Roman victory forced an end to the protracted conflict, to the advantage of Rome.
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298: Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximi****, concludes his campaign in North Africa; he successfully combats Berber incursions in Mauretania, and makes a triumphal entry into Carthage. Inscriptions there record the people's gratitude to Maximian, hailing him as redditor lucis æternæ (=restorer of the eternal light).
[size=1]3rd c. Roman North Africa[/size]
1607: Susenyos, the founder of the Gondar line of the Ethiopian Solomonic dynasty, defeats the combined armies of Yaqob and the Archbishop of Axum and of All Ethiopia, of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Abun Petros II, at the Battle of Gol in Gojjam, making him Emperor of Ethiopia. According to some sources, Abun Petros was amongst the casualties.
1804: In St. Louis, Missouri, a formal ceremony is conducted to transfer ownership of the 828,800-square mile (2,147,000-square km) of the territory of Louisiana, from France to the United States.
1814: During the War of the Sixth Coalition, the two-day Battle of Laon ends. 37,000 Frenchmen under Emperor Napoleon I, were defeated by the combined, 90,000-strong, Prusso-Russian army of Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Fürst von Wahlstatt, near Laon, in Picardy, France. Napoleon lost about 6,500 men, while the allies suffered 4,000 killed and wounded. This setback did not by itself spell the end for Napoleon.
[size=1]Napoleon and staff are retuning from Soissons after the Battle of Laon[/size]
1821: Alexander Ypsilanti, forms the Sacred Company, which is consisted of Greek students of European universities and the Greek School in Odessa.
[size=1]Sacred Band's regimental colours; on the obverse bears the Cross with laurels and the inscription in Greek: By this sign, thou shalt Conquer. On the reverse depicts the Phœnix, the mythical bird that dies in flames and is reborn from its ashes, with the inscription: From my ashes I am reborn[/size]
1831: La Légion Étrangère (=The French Foreign Legion) is established by the King of the French, Louis Philippe I, to support his war in Algeria. In late 1831, the first Legionnaires landed in Algeria, the country that would be the Legion's homeland for 130 years and shape its character.
1861: El Hadj Umar ibn Sa'id Tall, the Toucouleur Senegalese military commander and conqueror, seizes the city of Ségou in south-central Mali, the principal city of the Bamana Empire of Mali, thus destroying it.
[size=1]The Toucouleur Empire (1848 - 1890)[/size]
1864: During the American Civil War, the 72-day Red River Campaign, an unsuccessful Union effort (30,000 troops under Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Prentice Banks) to seize control of the important cotton-growing states of Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas begins. The failure of the Red River Campaign ended any significant trans-Mississippi Union operations, and the Confederates, under General Edmund Kirby-Smith, succeeded in holding the area until the end of the war.
1905: The Insurrection of Therisso, a village in Crete, breaks out against the government of Crete, then an autonomous state under Ottoman suzerainty. The revolt was led by the Cretan politician Eleutherios Venizelos (the future Prime Minister of Greece) that led to a quasi civil war on the island, when Prince George, the High Commissioner, declared Martial Law. The insurrection led to the ousting of Prince George, who was replaced by the veteran Greek politician, Andreas Zaimes and the drafting of a new Cretan Constitution. The Therisso revolt established Venizelos’ fame in Crete and also in continental Greece; he would go on to serve as Prime Minister of Crete from April to September 1910. In October 1910, King George I invited him to become Prime Minister of Greece, an office he would hold seven times between 1910 and 1933.
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, the Italian 47th Infantry Division Bari (Maj. Gen. Ernesto Zaccone), attempts to break the Greek defensive line at Hill 1308 (Trebeshin) while simultaneously launching three consecutive attacks on Hill 731. The Greeks hold their positions with heavy toll: The I Infantry Division (Maj. Gen. Vasilios Vrakhnós) suffers 181 casualties.
1945: Generalfeldmarschall Albert Kesselring replaces Generalfeldmarschall Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt as C-in-C of German forces in the West. German troops evacuate Wesel on the lower Rhine. The U.S. Third Army (Gen. George Smith Patton Jr) captures Bonn.
1945: The 2nd Belorussian Front (Marshal Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky) captures Zoppot (modern Sopot, Poland), during its attack towards Danzig. The Kriegsmarine evacuates 25,000 civilian refugees from the besieged Baltic fortress of Kolberg in Pomerania.
[size=1]Memorial to the Armia Krajowa, the dominant Polish resistance movement, in Sopot; Polish resistance was very active in the city and the region[/size]
1952: Three months before general elections in Cuba, Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar, with army backing, staged a coup and seized power. He ousted outgoing President Carlos Prío Socarrás, canceled the elections and assumed control of the government as "provisional president". Shortly after the coup, the United States government recognized his regime.
1959: About 300,000 Tibetans surrounded the Dalai Lama's palace to prevent him from leaving or being removed. The huge crowd had gathered in response to a rumor that the Chinese communists were planning to arrest the Dalai Lama when he went to a cultural performance at the PLA's headquarters. This marked the beginning of the Tibetan uprising in Lhasa.
1980: Formation of the Sciathán Fianóglach an Airm, the Irish Defence Forces' Army Ranger Wing (special forces).
1387: During the Italian Wars, the Battle of Castagnaro occurs. The army of Verona led by the famous condottieri, Giovanni Ordelaffi and Ostasio Polentani, was defeated by the Paduan army under the English condottiere John Hawkwood (Italian alias, Giovanni Acuto) and the Lord of Padua, Francesco Novello da Carrara, at Castagnaro about 50 km (31 mi) southeast of Verona. Castagnaro is hailed as Sir John Hawkwood's greatest victory.
[size=1]Engraving representing John Hawkwood[/size]
1845: During the New Zealand Wars, the Hone Heke's Rebellion begins. The conflict is best remembered for the actions of Hone Wiremu Heke Pokai and Te Ruki Kawiti, the Māori chiefs and war leaders in Northern New Zealand, who challenged the authority of the British by cutting down the flagstaff on Flagstaff Hill at Kororareka (now Russell), and taking down the British flag flying.
WWI-1917: The British India Army (I and II Corps under Lt. Gen. Sir Frederick Stanley Maude) after a two-year campaign against the Ottoman 6th Army (Halil Kut Pasha) seizes Baghdad in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq).
[size=1]General Maude enters Baghdad[/size]
1941: The U.S. House of Representatives passes the Lend-Lease Bill by 317 votes to 71, where upon it is immediately signed by U.S. President Roosevelt. Initial priority for war supplies was to be given to the UK and Greece.
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, on the night of 10 - 11 March, two battalions of the Itallian 26th Blackshirt Assault Legion "Alberto da Giussano" (26a Legione CC.NN. d'Assalto "Alberto da Giussano") advanced through the gorge between the hills Proi-Madh and 1030 (Qjafe-Luzhit) attempting to bypass the defenders on 731. Their advance was detected, trapping them between deadly fire coming from the defensive positions on both hills. 250 Blackshirts were killed or wounded and 500 captured despite diversionary attacks to rescue them.
[size=1]Blackshirt Legion collar badges[/size]
1942: General Douglas MacArthur leaves Corregidor and the Philippines for Australia, after being ordered to assume command of the new South-West Pacific area, which in effect meant all Allied forces in the Pacific. MacArthur's last words before leaving were I shall return! Gen. Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV takes over command in the Philippines.
[size=1]Wainwright (left) with MacArthur[/size]
1944: Gen. Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky's 3rd Ukrainian Front opens a fresh offensive towards Kherson in the Crimea. Meanwhile, Marshal Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov's 1st Ukrainian Front drive to the Bug River.
1945: The Red Army advances towards Gotenhafen (present-day Gdynia, Poland, on the south coast of the Baltic Sea), a vital port of embarkation for tens of thousands of refugees from East Prussia.
1945: Operation Tan No. 2, a long-range Kamikaze mission directed at the main Allied naval fleet anchorage at Ulithi atoll in the western Pacific occurs. The Japanese hoped to take the U.S. Pacific fleet by surprise and sink or damage a significant number of the fleet's aircraft carriers or other large ships. One aircraft hit U.S. aircraft carrier USS "Randolph" (CV-15) on the starboard side aft just below the flight deck, killing 27 crewmen and wounding 105. The Japanese lost 13 aircraft destroyed, 60 - 70 killed.
1990: Lithuania declares itself independent from the Soviet Union by signing the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania by all members of the Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR.
1809: During the Swedish Revolt (against the inept and erratic reign of King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden), seven conspirators led by the chief promoter of the revolt, Gen. Carl Johan Adlercreutz, broke into the royal apartments in the palace, seized the king, and imprisoned him and his family in Gripsholm castle; the king's uncle, Duke Karl, was thereupon persuaded to accept the leadership of a provisional government, which was proclaimed the same day; and a diet, hastily summoned, solemnly approved of the revolution.
[size=1]King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden[/size]
1869: During the Titokowarus' War (an armed conflict between the Ngāti Ruanui Māori tribe under chief Riwha Titokowaru, and the New Zealand Government in the South Taranaki region of New Zealand's North Island), a British force under Col. George Stoddart Whitmore, in an attempted assault on the Māori camp of Titokowaru and his Māori force, at Otautu, north of Patea, suffers six colonial soldiers killed and 12 wounded.
1881: Russian Tsar, Aleksandr II Nikolaevich, also known as Alexander the Liberator (due to his Emancipation Reform of 1861; the Emancipation Law freeing serfs, was signed and published by the Tsar on 3 March, 1861) is killed near his palace when a bomb is thrown at him. Alexander, gravely wounded, was carried by sleigh to the Winter Palace in his study where he died; ironically, twenty years before almost to the day, he had signed the Emancipation Edict freeing the serfs in the same room. The perpetrators were members of the Narodnaya Volya (=The People's Will), a leftist organization.
[size=1]The monument to Alexander II in front of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow. His assassination caused a great setback for the reform movement[/size]
1884: During the Mahdist Revolt in Sudan, the Siege of Khartoum opens. A 50,000-strong Mahdist Sudanese army under the Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd'Allah, laid siege to the principal city of Sudan, Khartoum, that was defended by Egyptian forces led by British Maj. Gen. Charles George Gordon. The siege will be lifted on 26 January, 1885 with the fall of the city to the Mahdist Sudanese. The entire garrison of ca 7,000, physically weakened by starvation, offered only patchy resistance and were slaughtered to the last man within a few hours, as were 4,000 of the town's inhabitants, while many others were carried into slavery.
[size=1]The death of General Gordon[/size]
1900: During the Second Boer War, the city of Bloemfontein falls to the British who built a concentration camp nearby to house Boer women and children.
[size=1]The National Women's Memorial, on the outskirts of the city, pays homage to the 26,370 women and children as well as 1,421 old men (including 14,154 black people, though some sources feel that the records are unsatisfactory, and that this number could be as high as 20,000) who died in British concentration camps in various parts of the country[/size]
1921: During the Outer Mongolian Revolution, Mongolia, with the assistance of Russian Lt. Gen. and hero of the Great War, Baron Roman Fyodorovich von Ungern-Sternberg, after the capture of a fortified Chinese base at Choiryn in the south of the country, declares its independence from China.
[size=1]The flag of Independent Mongolia[/size]
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, on this day, the Italian attacks were almost entirely concentrated on 731. A series of Italian attacks on the hill, were once again repelled by the Greeks. During the height of this engagement the Greek 9th coy under 1st Lt Isaac Lavrentides charges into the oncoming attacking Italians.
[size=1]Reservist 1st Lt. Isaac Lavrentides, recepient of the Greek Cross of Valour (in gold)[/size]
1942: The Red Army launches a major attack with the 44th (Col. Gen. Sergei Ivanovich Chernyak) and 51st Armies (Col. Gen. Dmitry Timofeyevich Kozlov) against Heeresgruppe B (=Army Group B) (Generalfeldmarschall Fedor von Bock), from the Kerch peninsula in the eastern Crimea.
[size=1]Monument to the Soviet 51st Army in Sevastopol[/size]
1944: The 4th Ukrainian Front (Col. Gen. Fyodor Ivanovich Tolbulkhin) takes Kherson in the southern Ukraine.
1945: The 2nd Belorussian Front (Marshal Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky) launches an offensive against the Braunsberg pocket to the South of Königsberg.
1954: During the First Indochina War, the Battle of Điện Biên Phủ opens. It was a climactic confrontation between the 10,800 (with more reinforcements totaling nearly 16,000-strong) troops of the French Operational Group North-West (GONO) under Col. Christian Marie Ferdinand de la Croix de Castries, and the 49,000 Viet Minh communist revolutionaries (under Gen. Võ Nguyên Giáp).
45 BC: During the Cæsar's Civil War, the Battle of Munda occurs. A 40,000-strong Populares' army under Gaius Julius Cæsar, decisively defeated a 70,000-strong Optimates' army under Pompey the Younger, Sextus Pompey (both sons of Gnæus Pompeius Magnus) and Titus Atius Labienus, in the plains of Munda in southern Spain. The Pompeian legions lost ca 30,000 men while Julius Cæsar lost just 1,000 soldiers. Titus Labienus was killed on the field and was granted a burial by Cæsar, Pompey the Younger was captured and executed while Sextus escaped and became leader of Mediterranean pirates based in Sicily, where he was caught by Augustus and executed in 35 BC, ten years after Munda. This was the last battle of Julius Cæsar's civil war against the republican armies of the Optimates.
1860: During the First Taranaki War (fought between Māori and the New Zealand Government in the Taranaki district of New Zealand's North Island), the Battle of Te Kohia, occurs (the first battle of the war). 500 British colonial troops from the 65th (2nd Yorkshire, North Riding) Regiment of Foot, the Taranaki Militia and the Taranaki Rifle Volunteers, supported by two 24-pound howitzers, under Col. Charles Emilius Gold, attacked Chief Wiremu Kingi Te Rangitake's Pā (=hillfort fortified with palisades and defensive terraces) defended by 80 Māori warriors, at Te Kohia. Despite the firepower, the Māori suffered no casualties and abandoned the pā that night.
1861: The Kingdom of Italy is proclaimed with Victor Emmanuel Maria Albert Eugene Ferdinand Thomas, King of Piedmont - Sardinia, of the House of Savoy, as King Victor Emmanuel II, the first king of a united Italy, a title he held until his death in 1878. The Italians gave him the epithet Father of the Fatherland.
[size=1]The Flag and C-o-A of the Kingdom of Italy[/size]
1939: During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the 52-day Battle of Nanchang begins. Three IJA infantry divisions, with one cavalry and two arty regiments, supported by some 30 warships and several air squadrons, under Gen. Yasuji Okamura, defeated the ca 200,000 Chinese of the National Revolutionary Army, under Gen. Xue Yue, at Nanchang, in southeastern China. The Chinese retreated on 9 May after they had conducted a major, yet unsuccessful, counter-attack on 21 April. The Chinese suffered up to 51,500 casualties. The Japanese lost ca 24,000 killed or wounded.
1942: The deportation of Jews from Lublin to Bełżec begins. The first Jews are gassed at the Bełżec extermination camp in what is today eastern Poland.
[size=1]A woman about to be executed in Bełżec extermination camp; the soldier on the left is a SS guard, the soldiers in the background are Ukrainian guards. Picture found on an SS prisoner[/size]
1944: The 2nd New Zealand Division (Brig. Graham Beresford Parkinson; he had replaced Maj. Gen. Howard Karl Kippenberger when the latter was wounded by an anti-personnel mine and lost both his feet) take Cassino railway station across the Rapido River, less than a mile (1.6 km) south of Cassino town.
1945: The U.S. Third Army (Gen. George Smith Patton Jr) takes Koblenz. The Ludendorff bridge at Remagen, seized by US troops on the 7th March, suddenly collapses, killing 28 U.S. Army engineers working to reinforce it.
1947: Maiden flight of the North American B-45 Tornado, USAF's first operational jet bomber, and the first jet aircraft to be refueled in the air.
1948: The Treaty of Brussels is signed in Brussels, Belgium, by the Benelux countries, France and the UK. It was a precursor to NATO and similar to it in the sense that it promised European mutual defence.
1951: During the Korean War, the Greek Sparta Battalion (Lt. Col. Georgios Kumanakos) of the Greek Expeditionary Force, takes Hill 325, near Han River, after a fierce battle.
1988: During the Eritrean War of Independence, the three-day Battle of Afabet begins. About 15,000 Eritrean revolutionaries of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) defeated the 20,000-strong army of the Ethiopian Nadew Command near Afabet, a town in northern Eritrea. By the end of the three-day battle, the Eritreans had killed or captured over 18,000 Ethiopian soldiers. This was Ethiopia's Communist military junta's first humiliating defeat at the hands of the Eritreans.
2004: The two-day Kosovo unrest breaks out. More than 22 are killed and 200 wounded. 35 Serbian Orthodox religious and cultural symbols in Kosovo and two mosques in Belgrade and Niš are destroyed.
1241: The city of Crakow in Poland was destroyed by the Mongols.
1871: The Paris Commune events begin. After the German evacuation of Paris, the city was in a state of high political excitement. The President of the French Republic, Adolphe Thiers, orders evacuation of Paris when French army units instead of suppressing the tumoult, fraternised with National Guards and local Parisians forming the revolutionary Central Committee of the National Guard comprised political activists, ranging from reformist republicans, through various types of socialists, to the Jacobins.
[size=1]Paris barricade, 18 March 1871[/size]
WWI-1915: The Naval Battle of the Dardanelles, occurs. A combined allied fleet of 18 warships from the UK and France under Vice-Admiral Sackville Hamilton Carden, suffered serious casualties when they tried to pass through and close on the Straits' Ottoman forts. Three allied warships were sunk, three more were severely damaged, either from accurate arty fire from the Ottoman defences, or from sea mines (20 - 26 mines were moored at 15 ft (4.6 m) and spaced about 100 yd (91 m) apar by the Ottomans).
[size=1]HMS "Irresistible" (1898) having struck a mine, is sinking[/size]
1921: The Peace of Riga ends the Polono-Soviet War. It was signed by the plenipotentiaries of the Russian Soviet Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Republic and the Second Polish Republic. The Soviet-Polish borders established by the treaty remained in force until WWII.
[size=1]Caricature showing the partition of Belarus between Poland and Russia[/size]
1944: During the Third Battle of Monte Cassino, a New Zealand tank attack on Monte Cassino launched by tanks of the 20th Armoured Brigade, is repulsed, with the loss of all 17 tanks.
1945: Kolberg (present-day Kołobrzeg, Poland) falls to the Polish 1st Army (Gen. Zygmunt Berling), of the 2nd Belorussian Front (Marshal Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky), although the Germans manage to evacuate 80,000 refugees and wounded first. During the fights the Poles suffered 1,013 killed, 142 missing and 2,652 wounded.
1952: During the Korean War, the Greek Sparta Battalion (Lt. Col. Georgios Kumanakos) of the Greek Expeditionary Force, holds Hill 199, near Imjin River, despite repeated attacks conducted by a Chinese regiment to take it.
1969: During the Vietnam War, Operation Menu, the covert bombing campaign conducted by the USAF on the Sihanouk Trail, a logistical supply system in Cambodia used by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and its National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (Viet Cong) allies, begins.
1994: Bosnia's Bosniaks and Croats sign the Washington Agreement, ending warring between the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia and the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and establishing the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
[size=1]The flag and state emblem of the self-proclaimed Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia[/size]
Thanks for the powerfull images and this incredible thread.
1739: During the Perso-Mughal War, the sack of Delhi in India, occurs. An Afshanid-Persian army under Nader Shah Afshar, entered the city of Delhi, the principal city of the Mughal Empire. When a rumour broke out that Nader had been assassinated, some of the Indians attacked and killed Persian troops. Nader reacted by ordering his soldiers to plunder the city. The forces of the Persian Shah looted Delhi, carrying away many treasures, including the famous Peacock Throne and massacred 20 - 30,000 Indian residents. Nader's soldiers also took with them thousands of elephants, horses and camels, loaded with the booty they had collected. The plunder seized from India was so rich that Nader stopped taxation in Persia for a period of three years following his return.
[size=1]The Peacock Throne thereafter served as a symbol of Persian imperial might[/size]
1815: Napoleon, after proceeding through the countryside promising constitutional reform and direct elections to an assembly, to the acclaim of gathered crowds, triumphantly entered Paris, whence Louis XVIII had recently fled. The period known as Napoleon's Hundred Days (les Cent Jours), begins. It will conclude with the Waterloo Campaign.
1833: During the Murniés Insurrection (=a Cretan protest against very heavy taxation imposed by Ottoman authorities turned revolution), 7,000 unarmed Cretans from the villages around Canea in western Crete, assemble and prepare a petition to the UK, France and Russia by which they ask for political autonomy. Mustafa Pasha, the military commander of Crete, sends cavalry which disperses the crowd arresting fifty individuals, who will later be hanged as chief instigators of the revolt.
[size=1]Phrangiós Mastrachás, a Cretan revolutionary, took part in dozens of battles against the Ottomans in the Cretan insurrections of 1833, 1866 and 1868. He was killed in the Battle of Asites on 3 September, 1868 against the Turks. He was 75 years old[/size]
1848: During the German States Revolutions, King Ludwig I of Bavaria abdicates in an attempt to pacify the public, contain the spreading of revolutionary ideas and save the monarchy by offering concessions.
[size=1]Ludwig I of Bavaria[/size]
1914: During the Northern Epirotan War of Independence, the army of Autonomous Northern Epirus takes Korçë.
[size=1]The Seal of the government of Autonomous Northern Epirus; it reads Autonomous Epirus - 1914[/size]
1922: USS "Langley" (CV-1) the United States Navy's first aircraft carrier, converted in 1920 from the collier USS "Jupiter" (AC-3), and also the US Navy's first electrically-propelled ship, is commissioned.
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, Mussolini admits defeat in Albania at a conference with Italian military leaders and presents a document of historical importance: Therein he accepts the failure of his Spring Offensive, and puts the blame on the military officers and the state of the Italian Army.
1942: The Red Army offensive at Kerch in the Crimea, is defeated with heavy losses to the Soviets: 162,282 were left behind, killed and captured.
1945: The U.S. Seventh Army (Lt. Gen. Alexander McCarrell "Sandy" Patch) takes Saarbrücken.
1945: German troops of Heeresgruppe Weichsel (=Army Group Vistula) (Generaloberst Gotthard Heinrici) evacuate their bridgehead across the Oder at Stettin. The Soviets take Braunsberg (present-day Braniewo, Poland), 64 km (40 mi) S of Königsberg.
2003: During the Second Gulf War, coalition forces (148,000 U.S. troops, 45,000 British soldiers, 2,000 Australian soldiers and 194 Polish soldiers from the special forces unit GROM) launched an incursion into Basra Province from their massing point close to the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border.
2006: Over 150 Chadian soldiers are killed in eastern Chad by members of the rebel UFDC. The rebel movement sought to overthrow Chadian president Idriss Déby Itno.
1622: The Jamestown Massacre occurs. Algonquian native Americans kill 347 English settlers around Jamestown, Colony of Virginia, a third of the colony's population.
1849: During the First Italian War of Independence, the Battle of Novara occurs. A 72,380-strong Imperial Austrian army, supported by 156 arty pieces, under the Czech nobleman and Austrian General Johann Josef Wenzel Graf Radetzky von Radetz, defeated the ca 85,000-strong Piedmontese-Sardinian force, under the Polish-born General Wojciech Chrzanowski, who served as C-in-C of the Piedmontese-Sardinian army in 1849. The Piedmontese were driven back to Borgomanero at the foot of the Alps, and the Austrian forces occupied Novara, Vercelli and Trino, with the road to the Piedmontese capital, Turin, lying open to them.
1939: Nazi Germany takes Memelland (present-day Klaipėda Region) from Lithuania.
[size=1]Antanas Smetona (=First President of independent Lithuania) street, is changed to Adolf Hitler st.[/size]
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, a last large scale Italian attack was launched on Goliko mountain (behind Hill 731), defended by the Greek II Infantry Division (Maj. Gen. Georgios Lavdas). The Italians concentrated on a hill named Dhonti (Tooth) where 2,000 artillery shells rained down in a few short hours but the attack fails.
1942: The Second Battle of Sirte; late in the afternoon after an unsuccessful Italian torpedo-aircraft attack, Vice-Admiral Angelo Iachino's squadron engages the British convoy. This protected itself with a smokescreen, but the cruiser HMS "Cleopatra" (33) was damaged. Rear-Admiral Philip Louis Vian, commanding the British escorts, now sent his destroyers in a torpedo attack on the Italian battleship "Littorio". However, by now it was getting dark and so Vice-Admiral Iachino turned away from the British convoy and sailed for home. The British suffered 39 crewmen killed. The Italians suffered no casualties.
1943: The Khatyn Massacre, occurs in Belarus. The Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon nr. 118, reinforced by troops from the SS-Sturmbrigade "Dirlewanger", in reprisal for partisan attacks against German military police, entered the village of Khatyn and massacred 149 people, including 75 children. The village was then looted and burned to the ground.
[size=1]The Memorial to the massacre[/size]
2004: Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Hassan Yassin, co-founder and leader of the Palestinian Sunni Islamist group Hamas, two bodyguards, and nine civilian bystanders are killed in the Gaza ***** when hit by IDF AH-64 Apache fired Hellfire missiles.
1401: During the Timurid-Mamluk War, the Timurid Mongolians under Timur, besieged Damascus. The Mamluk Sultan, An-Nasir Naseer ad-Din Faraj, dispatched a deputation from Cairo, who negotiated with Timur, but after their withdrawal Timur put the city to sack. The city's inhabitants were massacred, except for the artisans, who were deported to Samarkand.
[size=1]Statue of Timur in his birthplace Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan[/size]
1869: The last of Titokowaru's forces surrendered to the New Zealand government, ending his uprising.
1878: RN Corvette, HMS "Eurydice" (1843) was caught in a heavy snow storm off the Isle of Wight, capsized and sank. Only two of the ship's 319 complement survived, most of those who were not carried down with the ship, died of exposure in the freezing waters. One of the witnesses to the disaster was a young Winston Churchill, who was living at Ventnor with his family at the time.
[size=1]Memorial to HMS Eurydice in RN Cemetery, Haslar, Gosport, UK[/size]
1944: The US Fifth Army's (Lt. Gen. Mark Wayne Clark) bridgehead at Anzio is bombarded by German heavy long-range guns and Luftwaffe aircraft using guided bombs, causing severe casualties in men, ships and equipment. Persistent U.S. and British attacks against the Gustav Line at Cassino are repulsed by the German defenders.
1944: In reprisal to the killing of 35 German soldiers in Rome by the Italian resistance, SS Obersturmbannführer Herbert Kappler orders the execution of 335 Italians, at least 255 of whom are civilians. All are shot by German troops in the Fosse Ardeatine caves outside of Rome.
[size=1]American composer William Schuman subtitled his 9th Symphony, Le Fosse Ardeatine in memory of the victims[/size]
1944: Allied POW begin breaking out of infamous Stalag Luft III, a POW Camp for Airmen near the town of Sagan (now Żagań in Poland), 160 km (100 mi) SE of Berlin. Of 76 escapees, 73 were captured. 50 were executed.
[size=1]Memorial to the 50 Airmen executed; the majority were of British, Canadian, Polish, Australian, South African nationality. Two were New Zealanders (Flying Ofc Porokoru Patapu Pohe, Fl. Lt. Arnold G. Christensen), two were Norwegians (Lt. Nils Fuglesang, Sgt. Haldor Espelid), one was Greek (Pilot Ofc Sotirios Skantzikas), one Lithuanian (Fl. Lt. Romualdas Marcinkus), one Belgian (Fl. Lt. Henri A. Picard), one Czechoslovak (Fl. Lt. Bedrich Dvorak), one French (SLt. Bernard W. M. Scheidhauer)[/size]
1945: Field Marshal Montgomery's 21st Army Group attacks across the Rhine, 24 km (15 mi) N of Duisburg in the Wesel area, at the confluence of the Lippe River and the Rhine after 3,500-gun barrage in Operation Plunder. 16,870 paratroopers of the British 6th Airborne Division (Maj. Gen. Eric Bols) and U.S. 17th Airborne Division (Maj. Gen. William Miles "Bud" Miley) land across the river Rhine in Operation Varsity and succeed in linking up with advancing British troops and establishing four bridgeheads. The U.S. Third Army (Gen. George Smith Patton Jr) captures Speyer and Ludwigshafen on the upper Rhine.
[size=1]Private First Class Stuart S. Stryker, E Company, 513th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 17th Airborne Division, MoH recipient (posthumously) during Operation Varsity[/size]
1976: A right-wing coup d'état that overthrew President Isabel Perón takes place in Argentina. A military junta is installed, which is headed by General Jorge Rafael Videla, Admiral Emilio Eduardo Massera and Brigadier Orlando Ramón Agosti. The junta took the official name of National Reorganization Process, and was responsible for the Falkland crisis and the armed confrontation with the UK. Since 2006, a public holiday known as Day of Remembrance for Truth and Justice is held on this day in Argentina, commemorating the victims of the military dictatorship.
[size=1]The junta triumvirate in 1978; from left to right: Admiral Massera, General Videla, Brigadier Agosti[/size]
1980: During the Salvadoran military junta, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of San Salvador, Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez, is assassinated while celebrating Mass at a small chapel located in a hospital called "La Divina Providencia", one day after a sermon where he had called on Salvadoran soldiers, as Christians, to obey God's higher order and to stop carrying out the government's repression and violations of basic human rights. On 24 March 2010, Salvadoran president Mauricio Funes, offered an official state apology for Romero's assassination.
1999: Following the failure of the Rambouillet Conference, Operation Allied Force (or, by the United States, Operation Noble Anvil) begins: NATO commences air bombardment against Yugoslavia, marking the first time NATO has attacked a sovereign country. Over the ten weeks of the conflict, NATO aircraft flew over 38,000 combat missions.
1199: During the suppressing of a revolt instigated by the Viscount of Limoges, Aimar V Boso in France, the King of England Richard I Lionheart, was struck by an arrow in the left shoulder near the neck. The wound swiftly became gangrenous. Although there are numerous variations of the story's details, it is generally agreed that King Richard ordered that the French bowman (a Limousin boy) responsible for the attack, suffer no punishment (and, in fact, that he be paid 100 shillings). Richard died on 6 April in the arms of his mother. He was 42. His death was later referred to by chroniclers as the Lion, who by the Ant was slain.
[size=1]Tomb of Richard I of England at Fontevraud Abbey near Chinon, in Anjou, France. Richard died at Le Château de Châlus Chabrol in Châlus. His entrails were buried at the château while his heart was taken to Rouen and the rest of the body to Fontevraud[/size]
1306: Richard the Bruce was crowned King of Scots by Bishop William de Lamberton at Scone, near Perth, with all formality and solemnity.
[size=1]Statue of King Robert the Bruce of Scots - Stirling, Scotland[/size]
1802: The Treaty of Amiens is signed by France and Great Britain in the city of Amiens that ended hostilities between the two countries. Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte represented France and Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, represented the UK. The consequent Peace of Amiens lasted only one year.
[size=1]Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte (left) and the Marquess Cornwallis[/size]
1865: During the American Civil War, the Battle of Fort Stedman occurs. The Union Army fortification in the siege lines around Petersburg, Virginia, was attacked in a pre-dawn, last-gasp offensive launched by the Confederates directed by Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon. Confederate Batteries X, XI, and XII overpowered the garrisons of Fort Stedman but counterattacks conducted by elements of the II and VI Corps, led by Maj. Gens. John G. Parke and John F. Hartranft captured the entrenched picket lines in their respective fronts, which had been weakened for the assault on Fort Stedman. This was a devastating blow for Gen. Lee's army, setting up the Confederate defeat at Five Forks on 1 April and the fall of Petersburg on 2 - 3 April. The U.S. suffered 950 casualties. The C.S. lost 2,900 killed, wounded, missing or captured.
1924: On the anniversary of Greek Independence, Prime Minister Alexandros Papanastasíu proclaims the Second Hellenic Republic. The issue was submitted to a plebiscite with the voters approving the abolition of the monarchy on 13 April, 1924.
[size=1]The Flag and National Emblem of the Second Hellenic Republic (1924 - 1935)[/size]
1941: Under heavy pressure the Kingdom of Yugoslavia finally signs the Tripartite pact and joins Axis Powers.
[size=1]Yugoslav PM Dragiša Cvetković (left) signs the Tripartite pact with Nazi Germany's Foreign Minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop[/size]
1943: On the anniversary of Greek Independence, Greek partisans temporarily take over Samos Island from the Italian garrison.
1945: The U.S. First Army (Lt. Gen. Courtney Hicks Hodges) breaks out of the Remagen bridgehead. The British Second Army (Lt. Gen. Miles Christopher Dempsey) captures Wesel which has been nearly 97% destroyed by Allied bombing.
1949: Operation Priboi; Soviet mass deportation from the Baltic states that lasted until 28 March, begins. Some 90,000 Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians, labeled as enemies of the people, were deported to inhospitable areas of the Soviet Union.
[size=1]72% of deportees were women and children under the age of 16[/size]
1958: Maiden flight of the Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow.
1971: Operation Searchlight, a planned military pacification carried out by the Pakistan Army started on 25 March, 1971 to curb the Bengali nationalist movement by taking control of the major cities of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) on 26 March, and then eliminating all opposition, political or military, within one month. In an attempt to crush forces seeking independence for East Pakistan, the West Pakistani military regime unleashed a systematic campaign of mass murder and deportations. The killings which began on 25 March, 1971 and sparked the Bangladesh Liberation War led to the deaths of at least 26,000 people, as admitted by Pakistan (by the Hamoodur Rahman Commission) or of up to 3,000,000 Bengalis (as claimed by Bangladesh).