1489: The Queen consort of Cyprus, Caterina Cornaro, after the deaths of her spouse, King of Cyprus, Jacques II de Lusignan le Bâtard (=the Bastard), and firstborn son, Crown Prince Jacques de Lusignan, sells her kingdom to Venice.
[size=1]Gaetano Donizetti's opera, Caterina Cornaro ossia La Regina di Cipro (=Caterina Cornaro or the Queen of Cyprus), is based on the tragic life of Caterina Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus from 1474 to 1489[/size]
1590: During the French Wars of Religion, the Battle of Ivry occurs on the plain of Épieds, Eure near Ivry (later renamed Ivry-la-Bataille), Normandy. Henry of Navarre, the future Henry IV of France, leading an 11,000-strong Huguenot force, decisively defeated a 16,000-man Catholic League force led by Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne. Thomas Babbington Macaulay wrote a famous poem about the battle, entitled The Battle of Ivry.
1647: The Truce of Ulm, suspending the Thirty Years' War until the autumn of the same year, is signed by France, Sweden, and Bavaria.
1757: Royal Navy Admiral, John Byng, following his inability to hold Fort St. Philip, on the island of Minorca, from the French, is court-martialed for breach of the Articles of War, which had recently been revised to mandate capital punishment for officers who did not do their utmost against the enemy, either in battle or pursuit. He'll be put before the firing squad aboard HMS "Monarch".
1780: During the American Revolutionary War, America's allies, the Spaniards, under Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Viscount of Galveston and Count of Gálvez, capture Fort Charlotte in Mobile, Alabama, the last British frontier post capable of threatening New Orleans in Spanish Louisiana. Spain ruled the place until 1783 and renamed it Fort Carlota.
[size=1]A bastion sentry box, at corner of Fort Conde[/size]
1782: The Battle of Wuchale occurs near the homonymous town in northern Ethiopia. Emperor Tekle Giyorgis I of Ethiopia and his army, defeated the hostile Oromo who conspired with Kenfu Adam and had brought the former Emperor, Salomon, to replace Tekle Giyorgis.
1815: Marshal Michel Ney, 1st Duc d'Elchingen, 1st Prince de la Moskowa, now one of King Louis XVIII's key commanders, bound with the duty to capture Napoleon and brought him to Paris in an iron cage, joined Napoleon with 6,000 men.
WWI-1915: The Naval Battle of Más a Tierra occurs. Imperial German Navy Light Cruiser, SMS "Dresden" (Kapitän zur See Fritz Lüdecke) the last remnant of the German East Asian Squadron, was cornered inside Cumberland Bay, Más a Tierra Island (present-day Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile) by three RN warships, HMS "Kent" (1901) (Cpt. John D. Allen), HMS "Glasgow" (1909) (Cpt. John Luce) and the armed merchant cruiser RMS Orama (1911) (Captain John R. Seagrave) challenging Dresden to battle. After exchanging fire for a short period of time, the captain of the Dresden decided the situation was hopeless as his vessel was vastly outgunned and outnumbered so, he gave the order to abandon and scuttle Dresden. The Germans suffered 4 crewmen killed, 14 wounded; 315 made prisoners.
[size=1]Dresden before scuttling[/size]
1921: During the Greek Campaign to Asia Minor, the city of Afyon (present-day Afyonkarahisar) in western Turkey, is taken by the Greek A' Corps (Lt. Gen. Alexandros Kontules).
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, the Italians launched a new assault on 731. When the Greek units ran short of ammunition, they attacked the Italians with their bayonets. Greeks troops under Cpt. Kutrides and 2nd Lt. Hatzikyriakos counter-attacked with such fury that the Italian troops later nicknamed this assault Contrataccato dei Animali (Counter-attack of the Beasts). Kutrides who was leading the assault, was wounded twice but continued giving orders to his troops. Hatzikyriakos was killed in the melee at close quarters that followed.
1943: The Jewish Ghetto in Kraków, Poland, is liquidated. The final liquidation of the ghetto was carried out under the command of SS-Untersturmführer Amon Göth: 8,000 Jews deemed able to work were transported to the Plaszow labour camp. Those deemed unfit for work - some 2,000 - were executed in the streets of the ghetto. Any remaining were sent to Auschwitz.
1945: German counterattacks to recapture the oilfields near Lake Balaton come to an end. The 3rd Belorussian Front (Marshal Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Vasilevsky) cuts all communications between Königsberg and the German 4. Armee (General der Infanterie Friedrich-Wilhelm Müller) fighting in the Braunsberg pocket.
[size=1]General Müller, "The Butcher of Crete." After the war, he was tried by a Greek military court for war crimes, convicted and executed by firing squad on 20 May, 1947, on the 6th anniversary of the German invasion of Crete[/size]
1945: RAF Bomber Command make its first use of the 22,000-lb (9,979 kg) Grand Slam bomb, wrecking the Bielefeld viaduct. The U.S. 15th Air Force (Maj. Gen. Nathan F. Twining), taking off from Italian airfields, launches a heavy raid (500 bombers) against Regensburg, while the RAF attacks Wuppertal with 400 aircraft.
[size=1]The British Grand Slam bomb[/size]
1978: Israeli Operation Litani; over 25,000 Israeli troops invade Lebanon up to the Litani River in order, a) to push Palestinian militant groups, particularly the PLO, away from the border with Israel, and, b) to bolster Israel's ally at the time, the Christian militia in the south, later known as South Lebanon Army (Maj. Sa'ad Haddad). During the 7-day offensive, the IDF first captured a belt of land approximately 10 km (6 mi) deep, but later expanded north to the Litani river. 20 Israeli soldiers and 1,100 - 2,000 PLO fighters were killed. The PLO retreated north of the Litani River, continuing to fire at the Israelis.
44 BC: Gaius Julius Cćsar, Dictator Perpetuo of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death in the Theatre of Pompey on the Ides of March (=15 March) by Marcus Junius Brutus, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus and several other Roman senators.
933: During the Franco-Magyar Wars, the Battle of Riade occurs. An East Frankish army under King Heinrich I der Vogler (=The Fowler) defeated the Magyars of Horka (=military leader) Bulcsú, in northern Thuringia along the river Unstrut. The Magyar forces readily fled at the coming of Heinrich's horsemen. In his lifetime the Magyars did not dare to make a further raid on East Francia. The Nazis used Heinrich as a founding father of the German nation, who fighting both the Latin Western Franks and the Slavic tribes of the East, was a precursor of the German Drang nach Osten (=drive toward the East).
[size=1]Himmler at Heinrich's grave, 1 July, 1938[/size]
1311: During the Catalan Expedition to Romania (=Byzantine Empire), the Battle of Halmyros (present-day Almyros, in Thessaly, Greece) occurs. A mercenary force of the Catalan Company numbering some 2,000 cavalry, 4,000 foot, including Catalan and Aragonese knights under Roger Desllor, achieved a devastating victory over the force of the Frankish Duchy of Athens, comprised 700 Frankish knights, Greek horsemen and up to 24,000 Vlach and native Greek infantry, under Gauthier V de Brienne, the Duke of Athens. 20,000 of the infantry were killed, and all of the native horse. Gauthier de Brienne was killed in the battle. The Catalan Company then, proceeded to occupy the Duchy of Athens, which they placed under the protection of a prince of the House of Aragon and ruled until 1387.
[size=1]The entrance of Roger de Flor, founder of the Catalan Company, in Constantinople (1303); the emperor sitting on his throne, is Andronicus II Palćologus[/size]
1781: During the American Revolutionary War, the Battle of Guilford Court House occurs. A 1,900-strong British army under Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, defeated a 4,400-strong comprised militia and regular troops, under Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene, in Guilford county, North Carolina. The battle lasted only ninety minutes, and although the British technically defeated the American force, they lost over a quarter of their own men.
1848: The Hungarian Revolution begins that will grow into a Hungarian war for independence from Habsburg rule. The Revolution started with bloodless events in Pest and Buda (mass demonstrations forcing the imperial governor to accept all demands), followed by various insurrections throughout the kingdom, which enabled Hungarian reformists to declare Hungary's new government and the first Prime Minister Lajos Batthyány of Hungary.
[size=1]The Nemzeti Dal (=National Poem), written by Sándor Petőfi, is the poem that is said to have inspired the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. Petőfi read the poem aloud on 15 March in Vörösmarty Square in Budapest to a gathering crowd, which by the end was chanting the refrain as they began to march around the city:
The National Poem
On your feet, Magyar, the homeland calls!
The time is here, now or never!
Shall we be slaves or free?
This is the question, choose your answer! -
By the God of the Hungarians
We vow, that we will be slaves
We were slaves up til now,
Damned are our ancestors,
Who lived and died free,
Cannot rest in a slave land.
By the God of the Hungarians
We vow, that we will be slaves
Useless villain of a man,
Who now, if need be, doesn't dare to die,
Who values his pathetic life greater
Than the honor of his homeland.
By the God of the Hungarians
We vow, that we will be slaves
The sword shines brighter than the chain,
Decorates better the arm,
And we still wore chains!
Return now, our old sword!
By the God of the Hungarians
We vow, that we will be slaves
The Magyar name will be great again,
Worthy of its old, great honor;
Which the centuries smeared on it,
We will wash away the shame!
By the God of the Hungarians
We vow, that we will be slaves
Where our grave mounds lie,
Our grandchildren will kneel,
And with blessing prayer,
Recite our sainted names.
By the God of the Hungarians
We vow, that we will be slaves
1914: During the Northern Epirotan War of Independence, the army of Autonomous Northern Epirus defeated the Albanians at Këlcyrë and takes the homonymous town and gorge.
[size=1]The flag of Autonomous North Epirus as depicted by the French magazine L'Illustration (April 1914) in the Sarandë headquarters. Sarandë was one of the first cities that joined the autonomists' movement[/size]
1916: During the Pancho Villa's Expedition, and following a cross-border attack against Columbus, New Mexico and Glenn Spring, Texas, conducted by hundreds of Mexicans ordered by José Doroteo Arango Arámbula, nom-de-guerre Pancho Villa, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, sends 4,800 United States troops under Gen. John Joseph Pershing, over the U.S.-Mexico border to pursue Pancho Villa.
1922: Egypt gains nominal independence from the United Kingdom; Fuad I becomes King of Egypt.
[size=1]The flag and C-o-A of the Kingdom of Egypt[/size]
1939: German troops occupy parts of Bohemia and Moravia; Czechoslovakia ceases to exist.
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, the Italian High Command orders a series of night attacks. Each one fails with significant casualties.
1943: The Third Battle of Kharkov (present-day Kharkiv, Ukraine) ends with the recapture of the city by the Germans of the Heeresgruppe Süd (=Army Group South) (Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Manstein).
1944: The allies pound Cassino, dropping 1,250 tons (1,133 tonnes) of bombs and firing 195,969 arty shells in seven and a half hours, but the troops make slow headway.
1944: The Soviet 1st Ukrainian Front (Marshal Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov) breaks through German defenses and reaches the Bug river, the starting point in 1941 for Operation Barbarossa.
1945: The Soviet 1st Ukrainian Front (Marshal Ivan Stepanovich Konev) begins an offensive in the Ratibor area of Upper Silesia.
1951: During the Korean War, UN (U.S. and ROK) forces retake Seoul from the Communists.
597 BC: On the 2d day of the month of Adar, in the 7th year of the reign of Nebuchadrezzar II (15 or 16 March, 597 BC), Babylonians capture Jerusalem. King Jeconiah, his entire household and three thousand prestigious Jews, were exiled to Babylon.
[size=1]Cuneiform tablet, mentioning Jeconiah (Pergamonmuseum, Berlin)[/size]
37: Gaius Julius Cćsar Augustus Germanicus, commonly known as Caligula (=little soldier's boot), becomes Roman Emperor after the death of his great uncle, Tiberius Julius Cćsar Augustus.
[size=1]Caligula fed his favourite horse Incitatus (=Swift) at his table from golden tableware, and appointed him to the Roman Senate[/size]
1322: During the Despenser War (a baronial revolt from 1321 to 1322 in England against King Edward II, who was dominated by his favourites, the Despensers, led by Hugh Despenser, 1st Lord Despenser), the Battle of Boroughbridge occurs. A 4,000-strong Royalist army under Andrew Harclay, 1st Earl of Carlisle, defeated a Baronial force of ca 1,000 men, under the leader of the opposition, Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster. Thomas Lancaster and some thirty of his followers were captured alive and beheaded on 22 March.
1689: The 23rd Regiment of Foot, Royal Welch Fusiliers, is founded. As of 2004, it was one of only five line infantry regiments never to have been amalgamated in their entire histories. The regiment was however amalgamated with the Royal Regiment of Wales (RRW) on 1 March 2006, to become 1st Battalion, The Royal Welsh (RRW becoming the 2nd Bn).
[size=1]23rd Regiment of Foot, Royal Welch Fusiliers, brass glengarry badge[/size]
1802: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is established to operate the United States Military Academy at West Point.
[size=1]The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers branch insignia, worn by engineer officers (left) and enlisted personnel[/size]
1802: The U.S. Congress formally authorises the establishment and funding of the United States Military Academy at West Point.
1812: During the Peninsular War, the Siege of Badajoz begins. It proved to be one of the bloodiest and costly in the Napoleonic Wars. A 27,000-strong allied Anglo-Portuguese army under Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, besieged Badajoz for 20 days. The city's garrison comprised 5,000 French regular troops under Maj. Gen. Armand Philippon. The siege drew to an end on 6 April when the allies stormed the city. About 5,000 allied troops were killed and 4,000 Spanish civilians were massacred by the allies as a result of mass looting and disorder. The French suffered ca 1,500 casualties; 3,500 were captured.
[size=1]The men of the 88th Regiment of Foot ("The Devil's Own") dinstinguished themselves in the battle[/size]
1815: Prince William of the House of Orange-Nassau proclaims himself King Willem I of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, the first constitutional monarch in the Netherlands.
[size=1]The Royal Arms of the House of Orange-Nassau and C-o-A of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands[/size]
1818: During the Chilean War of Independence, the Second Battle of Cancha Rayada occurs. A South American revolutionary Army of the Andes, comprised contingents from Chile and Argentina, numbering some 7,000 troops, under the Argentine José Francisco de San Martín Gómez y Matorras, also known as José de San Martín, and the Chilean Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme, were defeated by the 5,000 Spanish and Royalist troops of Don Mariano de Osorio at the Cancha Rayada plains. The result was a huge defeat for the rebels, who took their revenge at the Battle of Maipú, three weeks later.
[size=1]Monument to the Ejército de los Andes (=Army of the Andes)[/size]
1865: During the American Civil War, the Battle of Averasborough occurs. After rampaging through South Carolina, Gen. William T. Sherman's Union army marched into North Carolina in two great wings. The right wing, commanded by Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard, marched toward Goldsborough, while Maj. Gen. Henry W. Slocum's left wing, to confuse Rebel defenders, feinted toward the state capital of Raleigh. Confederate Gen. Joseph E. Johnston sent Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee's corps to attack Slocum's left wing while it was separated from the rest of Sherman's forces. Slocum's troops crossed the Cape Fear River near Averasborough, where they encountered Hardee's corps. Hardee suffered 865 casualties to Slocum's 182, but had carried out his mission to delay Slocum's wint. The road no longer blocked, Slocum's wing continued its march.
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1939: From Prague Castle, Hitler proclaims Bohemia and Moravia a German protectorate.
[size=1]Hitler in Prague[/size]
1943: Greek Submarine RHNS "Papanikolís" (Y-2) (Lt. Cdr. Nikolaos Russén) sinks an Italian troop transporter off the island of Rhodes.
[size=1]Lt. Cdr. Russén on the Papanikolís; he was killed by "brothers in arms", during the Mutiny of April 1944 (communist instigated mutiny broke out in the land, sea and air forces of the Greek government-in-exile in the Middle East, one of the most infamous events in the history of the Greek Armed Forces): on 22 April 1944, while leading his detachment to recover the corvette RHNS "Apostóles" (F-10), Russén was mortally wounded[/size]
1945: The Battle of Iwo Jima ends but small pockets of Japanese resistance persist. Total number of U.S. killed on Iwo Jima is 6,891, with more than 20,000 Japanese being killed and only 216 captured.
1945: The US 8th Air Force launches a massive attack (675 bombers) against the HQ complex of the Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH), Nazi Germany's High Command of the Army, at Zossen, 12 km (20 mi) south of Berlin, but with minimal effect. Ninety percent of Würzburg is destroyed in only 20 minutes by British bombers; 5,000 are killed.
1968: During the Vietnam War, one of the most infamous events of the war occurs, the My Lai Massacre. U.S. troops of Charlie Company, 11th Brigade, 23rd Infantry Division, under the command of 2nd Lt. William Laws Calley, entered the village poised for engagement with their elusive enemy. The "search and destroy" mission was soon degenerated into the massacre of between 350 - 500 unarmed civilians including women, children, and the elderly.
1988: During the Iran-Iraq War, the Halabja Massacre or Bloody Friday occurs. The Iraqi government forces attacked with chemical weapons the Kurdish town of Halabja in Iraqi Kurdistan, in the closing days of the war. The attack killed between 3,200 and 5,000 people and injured around 7,000 and 10,000 more, most of them civilians. Many more have suffered from complications, diseases, and birth defects in the years after the attack. Ali Hassan al-Majid (Chemical Ali) was condemned to death by hanging by an Iraqi court in January 2010, after being found guilty of orchestrating the Halabja massacre.
45 BC: During the Cćsar's Civil War, the Battle of Munda occurs. A 40,000-strong Populares' army under Gaius Julius Cćsar, decisively defeated a 70,000-strong Optimates' army under Pompey the Younger, Sextus Pompey (both sons of Gnćus Pompeius Magnus) and Titus Atius Labienus, in the plains of Munda in southern Spain. The Pompeian legions lost ca 30,000 men while Julius Cćsar lost just 1,000 soldiers. Titus Labienus was killed on the field and was granted a burial by Cćsar, Pompey the Younger was captured and executed while Sextus escaped and became leader of Mediterranean pirates based in Sicily, where he was caught by Augustus and executed in 35 BC, ten years after Munda. This was the last battle of Julius Cćsar's civil war against the republican armies of the Optimates.
1860: During the First Taranaki War (fought between Māori and the New Zealand Government in the Taranaki district of New Zealand's North Island), the Battle of Te Kohia, occurs (the first battle of the war). 500 British colonial troops from the 65th (2nd Yorkshire, North Riding) Regiment of Foot, the Taranaki Militia and the Taranaki Rifle Volunteers, supported by two 24-pound howitzers, under Col. Charles Emilius Gold, attacked Chief Wiremu Kingi Te Rangitake's Pā (=hillfort fortified with palisades and defensive terraces) defended by 80 Māori warriors, at Te Kohia. Despite the firepower, the Māori suffered no casualties and abandoned the pā that night.
1861: The Kingdom of Italy is proclaimed with Victor Emmanuel Maria Albert Eugene Ferdinand Thomas, King of Piedmont - Sardinia, of the House of Savoy, as King Victor Emmanuel II, the first king of a united Italy, a title he held until his death in 1878. The Italians gave him the epithet Father of the Fatherland.
[size=1]The Flag and C-o-A of the Kingdom of Italy[/size]
1939: During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the 52-day Battle of Nanchang begins. Three IJA infantry divisions, with one cavalry and two arty regiments, supported by some 30 warships and several air squadrons, under Gen. Yasuji Okamura, defeated the ca 200,000 Chinese of the National Revolutionary Army, under Gen. Xue Yue, at Nanchang, in southeastern China. The Chinese retreated on 9 May after they had conducted a major, yet unsuccessful, counter-attack on 21 April. The Chinese suffered up to 51,500 casualties. The Japanese lost ca 24,000 killed or wounded.
1942: The deportation of Jews from Lublin to Bełżec begins. The first Jews are gassed at the Bełżec extermination camp in what is today eastern Poland.
[size=1]A woman about to be executed in Bełżec extermination camp; the soldier on the left is a SS guard, the soldiers in the background are Ukrainian guards. Picture found on an SS prisoner[/size]
1944: The 2nd New Zealand Division (Brig. Graham Beresford Parkinson; he had replaced Maj. Gen. Howard Karl Kippenberger when the latter was wounded by an anti-personnel mine and lost both his feet) take Cassino railway station across the Rapido River, less than a mile (1.6 km) south of Cassino town.
1945: The U.S. Third Army (Gen. George Smith Patton Jr) takes Koblenz. The Ludendorff bridge at Remagen, seized by US troops on the 7th March, suddenly collapses, killing 28 U.S. Army engineers working to reinforce it.
1947: Maiden flight of the North American B-45 Tornado, USAF's first operational jet bomber, and the first jet aircraft to be refueled in the air.
1948: The Treaty of Brussels is signed in Brussels, Belgium, by the Benelux countries, France and the UK. It was a precursor to NATO and similar to it in the sense that it promised European mutual defence.
1951: During the Korean War, the Greek Sparta Battalion (Lt. Col. Georgios Kumanakos) of the Greek Expeditionary Force, takes Hill 325, near Han River, after a fierce battle.
1988: During the Eritrean War of Independence, the three-day Battle of Afabet begins. About 15,000 Eritrean revolutionaries of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) defeated the 20,000-strong army of the Ethiopian Nadew Command near Afabet, a town in northern Eritrea. By the end of the three-day battle, the Eritreans had killed or captured over 18,000 Ethiopian soldiers. This was Ethiopia's Communist military junta's first humiliating defeat at the hands of the Eritreans.
2004: The two-day Kosovo unrest breaks out. More than 22 are killed and 200 wounded. 35 Serbian Orthodox religious and cultural symbols in Kosovo and two mosques in Belgrade and Niš are destroyed.
1241: The city of Crakow in Poland was destroyed by the Mongols.
1871: The Paris Commune events begin. After the German evacuation of Paris, the city was in a state of high political excitement. The President of the French Republic, Adolphe Thiers, orders evacuation of Paris when French army units instead of suppressing the tumoult, fraternised with National Guards and local Parisians forming the revolutionary Central Committee of the National Guard comprised political activists, ranging from reformist republicans, through various types of socialists, to the Jacobins.
[size=1]Paris barricade, 18 March 1871[/size]
WWI-1915: The Naval Battle of the Dardanelles, occurs. A combined allied fleet of 18 warships from the UK and France under Vice-Admiral Sackville Hamilton Carden, suffered serious casualties when they tried to pass through and close on the Straits' Ottoman forts. Three allied warships were sunk, three more were severely damaged, either from accurate arty fire from the Ottoman defences, or from sea mines (20 - 26 mines were moored at 15 ft (4.6 m) and spaced about 100 yd (91 m) apar by the Ottomans).
[size=1]HMS "Irresistible" (1898) having struck a mine, is sinking[/size]
1921: The Peace of Riga ends the Polono-Soviet War. It was signed by the plenipotentiaries of the Russian Soviet Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Republic and the Second Polish Republic. The Soviet-Polish borders established by the treaty remained in force until WWII.
[size=1]Caricature showing the partition of Belarus between Poland and Russia[/size]
1944: During the Third Battle of Monte Cassino, a New Zealand tank attack on Monte Cassino launched by tanks of the 20th Armoured Brigade, is repulsed, with the loss of all 17 tanks.
1945: Kolberg (present-day Kołobrzeg, Poland) falls to the Polish 1st Army (Gen. Zygmunt Berling), of the 2nd Belorussian Front (Marshal Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky), although the Germans manage to evacuate 80,000 refugees and wounded first. During the fights the Poles suffered 1,013 killed, 142 missing and 2,652 wounded.
1952: During the Korean War, the Greek Sparta Battalion (Lt. Col. Georgios Kumanakos) of the Greek Expeditionary Force, holds Hill 199, near Imjin River, despite repeated attacks conducted by a Chinese regiment to take it.
1969: During the Vietnam War, Operation Menu, the covert bombing campaign conducted by the USAF on the Sihanouk Trail, a logistical supply system in Cambodia used by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and its National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (Viet Cong) allies, begins.
1994: Bosnia's Bosniaks and Croats sign the Washington Agreement, ending warring between the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia and the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and establishing the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
[size=1]The flag and state emblem of the self-proclaimed Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia[/size]
1205: During the Franco-Byzantine Wars, the Battle of Adrammytium occurs. A Frankish army of the Latin Empire of Romania (=the feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Byzantine Empire) under Henry of Flanders, defeated the army of the Empire of Nicća (=the largest Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire) under General Theodore Mangaphas, at Adrammytium (present-day Edremit, Turkey), on the west coast of Asia Minor. The entire north-western part of Asia Minor fell under Latin domination. Only the cities of Nicća (present-day İznik, Turkey) and Prusa (present-day Bursa, Turkey) are ruled by the Despot Theodore I Comnenus Lascaris.
1279: During the Mongol-Song War, the Naval Battle of Yamen occurs. A Mongolian naval force of the Great Yuan Empire under the Chinese commander of the Mongol army and navy, Zhang Hongfan, although outnumbered 10:1, delivered a crushing victory over the Chinese Song fleet who were commanded by Admiral Zhang Shijie. Even seven days after the battle, hundreds of thousands of Song corpses floated to the surface of the sea. Amongst the casualties was the last Song emperor, Huaizong. His recorded death effectively ended the Song Dynasty.
[size=1]A park dedicated to the battle, in Xinhui, Guangdong, PRC[/size]
1865: During the American Civil War, the three-day Battle of Bentonville begins. Sherman's Right Wing (XX and XIV Corps) of the Union army under Maj. Gen. Henry Slocum, encountered the 20,000 entrenched Confederates of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston who had concentrated to meet his advance at Bentonville, North Carolina. A series of attacks and counter-attacks conducted by both parties, ended with Johnston's retreat across the bridge at Bentonville during the night of 21 March. Union forces pursued at first light, but their pursuit was halted at Hannah's Creek after a severe skirmish. The U.S. suffered 1,646 casualties. The C.S. sustained 3,092 killed or wounded.
1885: The North-West Rebellion, a brief and unsuccessful uprising by the Métis (one of the Aboriginal peoples in Canada) people of the District of Saskatchewan under Louis David Riel against the Dominion of Canada begins. They organized a newly formed coalition called the Métis provisional government with Pierre Parenteau as President and Gabriel Dumont as adjutant-general to action. With the help of First Nations Chiefs Poundmaker and Big Bear they facilitated the return of Louis David Riel (instigator of the Red River Rebellion of 1869 - 1870). This led to a series of unsuccessful conflicts collectively known as the North-West Rebellion.
1916: Eight American planes take off in pursuit of Pancho Villa, the first ever U.S. air-combat mission.
1921: During the Irish War of Independence, the Crossbarry Ambush occurs. It was one of the largest engagements of the war. 104 Irish Republican Army (IRA) volunteers of the 3rd West Cork Brigade under Thomas "Tom" Barry and Charles "Charlie" Hurley, escaped an attempt by 1,200 British troops of the Essex Regiment and 120 Royal Irish Constabulary to encircle them. The British suffered at least 10 casualties while the rebel force lost at least 3 killed (including Hurley) and 9 wounded. Crossbarry is regarded as victory for the IRA, but can also be seen as a missed opportunity for the British.
[size=1]The monument to the battle[/size]
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, the Italians threw in the battle, elements of an elite storm-troop unit of the 51st Infantry Division Siena (Gen. Gualtiero Gabutti), the Arditi d'Italia supported by four medium tanks. The Greek troops on 731 were caught by surprise and despite the effective fire of the Greek artillery, the first tank accompanied by the Arditi troops seized a portion of Hill 731. The Greeks are forced to abandon some of their positions but the tenacious defence by a platoon from the 10th company under 2nd Lt. Georgios Tzathas delays the Italian advance, "buying" time for the Greeks to launch a counter-attack. The main Greek attack was launched again by the 9th Company under 1st Lt. Isaac Lavrentides. Carrying just 20 rounds each, the Greeks fixed bayonets and rushed headlong into the Italians, attempting to organize a defence of their newly gotten gains. 2nd Lt. Tzathas, climbed onto one enemy tank and destroyed it by throwing a couple of grenades through the hatch. Again, the bayonet proved to be the decisive weapon in the hands of the Greeks; of the approximately 300 Italians who gained the summit of 731 only four survived. 150 Greeks payed the butcher's bill for possession of the strategic height. Hill 731 remained in Greek hands.
1942: An offensive by Heeresgruppe Nord (=Army Group North) (Generalfeldmarschall Georg von Küchler) cuts off the Soviet 2nd Shock Army, commanded by Lt. Gen. Andrei Andreyevich Vlasov, in a salient between Novgorod and Gruzino. Operation Munich, a joint German-Romanian offensive is launched. Joined by a new air detachment, German troops attack partisan bases of the Dorogobuzh Partisan Krai, around Yelnya and Dorogobuzh. Operation Bamberg, a major anti-partisan operation kicks off near Bobruysk, Belarus, with SS-Schutzpolizei troops attacking Soviet villages. The German security forces burn many villages and kill 3,500 people, which only infuriate Soviet civilians more; many of them join the partisans, making the whole exercise very counter-productive. The partisan movement in the region of Velikiye Luki, Vitebsk, Rudnya, Velizh, is now being organised on a large scale. The fighting strength of the partisans hitherto active, is being bolstered by individual units of regular Red Army troops.
1944: The USAAF and RAF launch Operation Strangle, a series of air operations during the Italian Campaign aimed at German communications in Italy.
1944: In order to ensure Hungary's continued support as an axis partner, Hitler orders its occupation. Eleven German divisions cross the border from Austria into Hungary, encountering minimal resistance.
1945: The U.S. Seventh Army (Lt. Gen. Alexander McCarrell "Sandy" Patch) take Worms, 96 km (60 mi) to the SE of Koblenz. Hitler orders the demolition of all German industrial, utility and transport facilities in danger of falling into enemy hands; this order (Verbrannte Erde or Scorched Earth) is sabotaged by Minister of Armaments and War Production, Albert Speer and most local commanders.
1945: Off the coast of Japan, a dive bomber hits the aircraft carrier USS "Franklin" (CV-13), killing 724 of her crew. Badly damaged, the ship is able to return to the U.S. under her own power, becoming the most heavily damaged USN carrier to survive the war.
1982: A party of Argentine scrap metal merchants illegally arrive at Leith Harbour, South Georgia, 900 km (600 miles) east of the Falkland Islands, on board the transport ship ARA "Bahía Buen Suceso" (B6) and raise the Argentine flag. The scrap workers had been infiltrated by Argentine Marines posing as civilian scientists, precipitating war with the United Kingdom.
2003: U.S. President George W. Bush, orders the start of the Second Gulf War, a campaign against Saddam Hussein's Iraq.
Thanks for the powerfull images and this incredible thread.
1739: During the Perso-Mughal War, the sack of Delhi in India, occurs. An Afshanid-Persian army under Nader Shah Afshar, entered the city of Delhi, the principal city of the Mughal Empire. When a rumour broke out that Nader had been assassinated, some of the Indians attacked and killed Persian troops. Nader reacted by ordering his soldiers to plunder the city. The forces of the Persian Shah looted Delhi, carrying away many treasures, including the famous Peacock Throne and massacred 20 - 30,000 Indian residents. Nader's soldiers also took with them thousands of elephants, horses and camels, loaded with the booty they had collected. The plunder seized from India was so rich that Nader stopped taxation in Persia for a period of three years following his return.
[size=1]The Peacock Throne thereafter served as a symbol of Persian imperial might[/size]
1815: Napoleon, after proceeding through the countryside promising constitutional reform and direct elections to an assembly, to the acclaim of gathered crowds, triumphantly entered Paris, whence Louis XVIII had recently fled. The period known as Napoleon's Hundred Days (les Cent Jours), begins. It will conclude with the Waterloo Campaign.
1833: During the Murniés Insurrection (=a Cretan protest against very heavy taxation imposed by Ottoman authorities turned revolution), 7,000 unarmed Cretans from the villages around Canea in western Crete, assemble and prepare a petition to the UK, France and Russia by which they ask for political autonomy. Mustafa Pasha, the military commander of Crete, sends cavalry which disperses the crowd arresting fifty individuals, who will later be hanged as chief instigators of the revolt.
[size=1]Phrangiós Mastrachás, a Cretan revolutionary, took part in dozens of battles against the Ottomans in the Cretan insurrections of 1833, 1866 and 1868. He was killed in the Battle of Asites on 3 September, 1868 against the Turks. He was 75 years old[/size]
1848: During the German States Revolutions, King Ludwig I of Bavaria abdicates in an attempt to pacify the public, contain the spreading of revolutionary ideas and save the monarchy by offering concessions.
[size=1]Ludwig I of Bavaria[/size]
1914: During the Northern Epirotan War of Independence, the army of Autonomous Northern Epirus takes Korçë.
[size=1]The Seal of the government of Autonomous Northern Epirus; it reads Autonomous Epirus - 1914[/size]
1922: USS "Langley" (CV-1) the United States Navy's first aircraft carrier, converted in 1920 from the collier USS "Jupiter" (AC-3), and also the US Navy's first electrically-propelled ship, is commissioned.
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, Mussolini admits defeat in Albania at a conference with Italian military leaders and presents a document of historical importance: Therein he accepts the failure of his Spring Offensive, and puts the blame on the military officers and the state of the Italian Army.
1942: The Red Army offensive at Kerch in the Crimea, is defeated with heavy losses to the Soviets: 162,282 were left behind, killed and captured.
1945: The U.S. Seventh Army (Lt. Gen. Alexander McCarrell "Sandy" Patch) takes Saarbrücken.
1945: German troops of Heeresgruppe Weichsel (=Army Group Vistula) (Generaloberst Gotthard Heinrici) evacuate their bridgehead across the Oder at Stettin. The Soviets take Braunsberg (present-day Braniewo, Poland), 64 km (40 mi) S of Königsberg.
2003: During the Second Gulf War, coalition forces (148,000 U.S. troops, 45,000 British soldiers, 2,000 Australian soldiers and 194 Polish soldiers from the special forces unit GROM) launched an incursion into Basra Province from their massing point close to the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border.
2006: Over 150 Chadian soldiers are killed in eastern Chad by members of the rebel UFDC. The rebel movement sought to overthrow Chadian president Idriss Déby Itno.
717: During the Frankish Civil War, the Battle of Vincy occurs. A Frankish army from Austrasia (=north-eastern portion of the Kingdom of the Merovingian Franks, comprising parts of the territory of present-day eastern France, western Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) under Charles Martel, defeated the Franks of Neustrasia (=the regions from Aquitaine to the English Channel which constituted the "New [western] Land"), under King Chilperic II, at Vincy (present-day Les Rues-des-Vignes, Cambrai). The defeated Chilperic II was essentially broken after this battle.
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1801: During the French Revolutionary Wars, the Battle of Canope occurs. The 14,000-strong British Expeditionary Force under Lt. Gen. Ralph Abercromby, defeated the 20,000 Frenchmen of Gen. Jacques-François de Menou, Baron de Boussay on the narrow spit of land between the sea and Lake Abukir, near Alexandria, Egypt. The British suffered ca 1,500 casualties, including Abercromby who was gravely wounded and succumbed to his wounds a week later. French losses accounted for 4,160 killed or wounded. With this victory, the British put an end to Napoleon's Egyptian empire and with it the French threat to British India and other territories east of Suez.
1821: According to the French diplomat and writer, François Charles Hugues Laurent Pouqueville, a strong philhellene and present at the scene, over the Orthodox Monastery of Hagia Lavra, near the town of Kalavryta, in north-western Peloponnese, the Greek revolt was precipitated on 21 March, 1821 (N.S.), when Archbishop Germanos of Old Patras raised the flag of revolution before a crowd of 3,000 - 5,000 Greek fighters. The cry Freedom or Death became the motto of the revolution. The incident was also reported in the French newspaper Le Constitutionnel, three months later. According to the British Consul for the Peloponnese, Philip James Green, Archbishop Germanos has been named in this emergency the chief commander (Sketches of the War in Greece, Letter V, page 12). The Greek War of Independence officially begins.
1821: First action of the Greek War of Independence: 600 Greek revolutionaries under Asimakes Photilas and Sotirios Kharalampes, besiege the town of Kalavryta, in north-western Peloponnese, near Patras. Ibrahim Pasha Arnautoglu and his Ottoman garrison, will surrender on the 25th. The beginning of the Greek Revolution is celebrated on 25 March by the modern Greek state (the day of the liberation of Kalavryta), which is a national holiday.
WWI-1918: The Ludendorff Offensive (Operation Michael) begins with Germany launching its Spring push with the Battle of Picardy against the British. This will eventually amount to five major offensives against Allied forces.
1919: The Hungarian Soviet Republic with Béla Kun as its leader, is established becoming the first Communist government to be formed in Europe after the October Revolution in Russia.
1937: The Ponce Massacre occurs, in Puerto Rico. 17 people were killed and more than 100 wounded when police opened fire on demonstrators who protested the incarceration by the U.S. government of nationalist leader Pedro Albizu Campos on sedition charges. Responsibility for the massacre fell on US-appointed Puerto Rico Governor, Blanton C. Winship, and he is considered to have, in effect, ordered the massacre. It was the biggest massacre in Puerto Rican history.
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, a group of Italian stretcher bearers escorted by Catholic chaplains, holding a white flag, reached the foothill of 731, seeking a short cessation of hostilities, to bury their dead. The sight of the battlefield exceeded the limits of human imagination: human limbs scattered everywhere, weapons, chewed up trees. The stench was unbearable. When the winds shift, carrying it toward the enemy positions, either Greek or Italian, the troops cheer.
[size=1]Greek military cemetery in Albania[/size]
1942: In what was to become known as the 2nd Battle of Sirte, 4 freighters, escorted by 3 cruisers, 1 anti-aircraft cruiser and 17 destroyers of the Royal Navy, under Rear-Admiral Philip Louis Vian, leave Alexandria bound for Malta. This force would later be strengthened by the cruiser HMS "Penelope" (97) and a destroyer from Force K. The Axis, now aware of the large British supply convoy sailing towards Malta, dispatch Vice-Admiral Angelo Iachino from Taranto with the Battleship "Littorio" and 4 destroyers. Rear-Admiral Angelo Parona also sets sail from Messina with 3 cruisers and 4 destroyers.
[size=1]Italian battleship, "Littorio", Adm. Iachino's flag-ship[/size]
1945: Operation Carthage; 20 RAF de Havilland Mosquito fast bombers, escorted by 30 RAF North American Mustang fighters bomb Gestapo headquarters in Copenhagen, Denmark. Unfortunately, a Mosquito in the first wave hit a lamp post and crashed into the Jeanne d'Arc School, about 1.5 km (1 mile) from the target. Several bombers in the second and third wave attacked the burning school thinking it was their target. 125 Danish civilians died in the school, including 86 schoolchildren.
1945: The US 8th Air Force launches a major attack (650 bombers) against Hamburg. They pound the Erdölwerke oil refinery and succeed in putting out of action for the rest of the war.
1960: The Sharpeville Massacre occurs in South Africa. After a day of demonstrations, at which a crowd of black protesters of between 5,000 to 7,000 gathered to protest against Apartheid, the South African police, far outnumbered, opened fire on the crowd, killing 69 (including 8 women and 10 children) and wounding over 180. Since 1994, 21 March has been commemorated as Human Rights Day in South Africa. UNESCO also marks March 21 as the yearly International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, in memory of the massacre.
1968: Operation Inferno; two IDF brigades (one armoured, one infantry), a paratroop battalion, an engineering battalion and five battalions of artillery, attacked simultaneously, at 0530 hours, on the three bridges around the town of al-Karameh which span the Jordan River (Karameh served as the political and military headquarters of the Palestinian al-Fatah movement, led by Yasser Arafat, in 1968). One Jordanian infantry division and an armoured brigade, engaged the Israelis. In the Battle of Karameh (as is now known), 900 - 1,000 Palestinian fighters of the al-Fatah fought alongside the Jordanians. Both sides declared victory. On a tactical level, the battle did end in Israel's favour: the Israelis withdrew at the end of a day's battle, having destroyed most of the Karameh PLO camp and taken hundreds of prisoners. Israeli casualties are estimated between 28 - 33 killed and 69 - 161 wounded. Israel also lost four tanks, three half-tracks, two armored cars and a Dassault M.D.450 Ouragan aircraft (113 Sq.), although the pilot succeeded in parachuting to safety. The Jordanians suffered 84 killed, 250 wounded, 4 made prisoners; 30 tanks were destroyed, four Jordanian aircraft were shot down. PLO lost 100 - 200 killed, around 100 wounded, 120 - 150 captured.
[size=1]King Hussein of Jordan inspecting a destroyed tank after the battle[/size]
Last edited by valtrex; 03-21-2011 at 07:18 AM.
1622: The Jamestown Massacre occurs. Algonquian native Americans kill 347 English settlers around Jamestown, Colony of Virginia, a third of the colony's population.
1849: During the First Italian War of Independence, the Battle of Novara occurs. A 72,380-strong Imperial Austrian army, supported by 156 arty pieces, under the Czech nobleman and Austrian General Johann Josef Wenzel Graf Radetzky von Radetz, defeated the ca 85,000-strong Piedmontese-Sardinian force, under the Polish-born General Wojciech Chrzanowski, who served as C-in-C of the Piedmontese-Sardinian army in 1849. The Piedmontese were driven back to Borgomanero at the foot of the Alps, and the Austrian forces occupied Novara, Vercelli and Trino, with the road to the Piedmontese capital, Turin, lying open to them.
1939: Nazi Germany takes Memelland (present-day Klaipėda Region) from Lithuania.
[size=1]Antanas Smetona (=First President of independent Lithuania) street, is changed to Adolf Hitler st.[/size]
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, a last large scale Italian attack was launched on Goliko mountain (behind Hill 731), defended by the Greek II Infantry Division (Maj. Gen. Georgios Lavdas). The Italians concentrated on a hill named Dhonti (Tooth) where 2,000 artillery shells rained down in a few short hours but the attack fails.
1942: The Second Battle of Sirte; late in the afternoon after an unsuccessful Italian torpedo-aircraft attack, Vice-Admiral Angelo Iachino's squadron engages the British convoy. This protected itself with a smokescreen, but the cruiser HMS "Cleopatra" (33) was damaged. Rear-Admiral Philip Louis Vian, commanding the British escorts, now sent his destroyers in a torpedo attack on the Italian battleship "Littorio". However, by now it was getting dark and so Vice-Admiral Iachino turned away from the British convoy and sailed for home. The British suffered 39 crewmen killed. The Italians suffered no casualties.
1943: The Khatyn Massacre, occurs in Belarus. The Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon nr. 118, reinforced by troops from the SS-Sturmbrigade "Dirlewanger", in reprisal for partisan attacks against German military police, entered the village of Khatyn and massacred 149 people, including 75 children. The village was then looted and burned to the ground.
[size=1]The Memorial to the massacre[/size]
2004: Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Hassan Yassin, co-founder and leader of the Palestinian Sunni Islamist group Hamas, two bodyguards, and nine civilian bystanders are killed in the Gaza ***** when hit by IDF AH-64 Apache fired Hellfire missiles.
1821: During the Greek War of Independence, 2,000 Maniot revolutionaries under Theodoros Kolokotrones, Petros "Petrobey" Mavromichales and Georgios "Papaflessas" Dikćos, take the city of Kalamata in south-western Peloponnese. The revolutionaries send their proclamation of independence to the European courts.
[size=1]"..We have decided unanimously to live free or die...we seek nothing more than Freedom"[/size]
1862: During the American Civil War, the First Battle of Kernstown occurs. Confederate forces under Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson struck at the Union forces under the command of Gen. Shields at Kersnstown just south of Winchester, Virginia. It resulted in Jackson's first and only defeat in the Shenandoah valley. After the battle his forces retired up the Shenandoah harrying the Federal advance with its cavalry rearguard. Union casualties were 118 killed, 450 wounded, 22 captured or missing); the Confederates suffered 80 killed, 375 wounded, 263 captured or missing. Although the battle was a Confederate tactical defeat, it represented a strategic victory for the South by preventing the Union from transferring forces from the Shenandoah Valley to reinforce the Peninsula Campaign against the Confederate capital, Richmond.
1879: During the War of the Pacific, the Battle of Topáter occurs. On their way to occupy Calama (then a town of Bolivia), 554 Chilean troops, including cavalry and with two Krupp arty pieces, under Eleuterio Ramírez, were opposed by 135 Bolivian soldiers and civilian residents led by Dr. Ladislao Cabrera, a civilian and a political authority in the region. Outnumbered and low in ammunition, most of the Bolivian force eventually withdrew, excepting a small group of civilians led by Col. Eduardo Abaroa Hidalgo who fought to the bitter end. The Chileans suffered 7 killed, 6 wounded. Bolivian casualties accounted for 20 killed, 3 wounded, 24 made prisoners.
[size=1]Abaroa is a Bolivian national hero[/size]
1919: In Milan, Italy, Benito Mussolini establishes his Fascist political movement.
1931: The three most influential revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement, Bhagat Singh, Shivaram Rajguru and Sukhdev Thapar are hanged by the British. Their request to be executed by firing squad is refused. The day is now remembered in India as Shahidi divas or Martyr's day.
1937: During the Spanish Civil War, the Battle of Guadalajara ends. Spanish Republicans defeated the Italian and Nationalist forces attempting to encircle Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. The Nationalist forces involved in the Battle of Guadalajara were primarily the Italian Corpo Truppe Volontarie (=Corps of Volunteer Troops or CTV).
[size=1]Italian POW after the battle. Many Spanish Nationalist officers, resenting Mussolini's henchmen for carrying their own personal war into Spain, were amused to see their boasting and well-equipped allies, so full of bluster before entering battle, brought so low at the hands of fellow Spaniards, even enemy Spaniards. Franco's soldiers began singing popular Italian tunes (especially "Faccetta Nera") with lyrical changes mocking the defeated Italians:
Guadalajara no es Abisinia,
Los espańoles, aunque rojos, son valientes,
Menos camiones y más cojones
Guadalajara is not Abyssinia,
Spaniards, even the Red ones, are brave,
(You need) fewer trucks and more balls[/size]
1939: The Slovako-Hungarian War, fought from 23 March to 31 March, 1939, begins. At dawn, Hungary suddenly attacked Slovakia from Carpatho-Ukraine without any declaration of war, catching the Slovak army unprepared. Although Slovakia had signed a "Protection Treaty" with Nazi Germany, Germany refused to help the country and did not support Slovakia. Casualty claims in the Little War as it is also known, on both sides were contradictory. The Slovaks suffered 22 killed, 671 were captured (311 of them, Czech troops). The Hungarians lost 8 killed, 30 wounded. Slovakia was forced to cede to Hungary a ***** of eastern Slovak territory (1697 km˛/655 mi˛, 69,930 inhabitants, 78 municipalities), corresponding today to the area around the towns of Stakčín and Sobrance.
1941: The Greek submarine RHNS "Triton" (Y-5), under the command of Lt. Cdr Dionysius Zepos, torpedoed and sank the Italian merchant 5,500-ton vessel "Carnia" near Brindisi. The vessel was part of an Italian convoy that was protected by destroyers and aircraft.
1942: In the Indian Ocean, Japanese forces capture the Andaman Islands. During the Japanese occupation, Subhas Chandra Bose, who was controversially allied with the Japanese, first raised the flag of Indian independence there.
[size=1]Subhas Chandra Bose[/size]
1945: The U.S. Third Army (Gen. George Smith Patton Jr) crosses the Rhine North of Worms, as the British Second (Lt. Gen. Miles Christopher Dempsey) and Canadian First (Gen. Henry Duncan Graham "Harry" Crerar) Armies begin their assault across the Rhine above the Ruhr.
[size=1]General Dempsey crossing the Rhine[/size]
1991: The Revolutionary United Front, with support from the special forces of Charles Taylor’s National Patriotic Front of Liberia, invades Sierra Leone in an attempt to overthrow Joseph Saidu Momoh, sparking a gruesome 11-year Sierra Leone Civil War.
1994: The Green Ramp disaster occurs. It was a mid-air collision between an F-16D fighter aircraft and a C-130E Hercules and subsequent ground collision with a C-141 at Pope Air Force Base (Pope AFB), North Carolina that killed twenty-four members of the U.S. Army's 82nd Airborne Division preparing for an airborne operation.
2003: In Nasiriyah, Iraq, 11 soldiers of the 507th Maintenance Company as well as 18 U.S. Marines are killed during the first major conflict of Operation Iraqi Freedom. 654 Iraqi combatants are also killed.
2007: Iranian military personnel seized 15 Royal Navy sailors and Royal Marines and held them for 13 days.
1401: During the Timurid-Mamluk War, the Timurid Mongolians under Timur, besieged Damascus. The Mamluk Sultan, An-Nasir Naseer ad-Din Faraj, dispatched a deputation from Cairo, who negotiated with Timur, but after their withdrawal Timur put the city to sack. The city's inhabitants were massacred, except for the artisans, who were deported to Samarkand.
[size=1]Statue of Timur in his birthplace Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan[/size]
1869: The last of Titokowaru's forces surrendered to the New Zealand government, ending his uprising.
1878: RN Corvette, HMS "Eurydice" (1843) was caught in a heavy snow storm off the Isle of Wight, capsized and sank. Only two of the ship's 319 complement survived, most of those who were not carried down with the ship, died of exposure in the freezing waters. One of the witnesses to the disaster was a young Winston Churchill, who was living at Ventnor with his family at the time.
[size=1]Memorial to HMS Eurydice in RN Cemetery, Haslar, Gosport, UK[/size]
1944: The US Fifth Army's (Lt. Gen. Mark Wayne Clark) bridgehead at Anzio is bombarded by German heavy long-range guns and Luftwaffe aircraft using guided bombs, causing severe casualties in men, ships and equipment. Persistent U.S. and British attacks against the Gustav Line at Cassino are repulsed by the German defenders.
1944: In reprisal to the killing of 35 German soldiers in Rome by the Italian resistance, SS Obersturmbannführer Herbert Kappler orders the execution of 335 Italians, at least 255 of whom are civilians. All are shot by German troops in the Fosse Ardeatine caves outside of Rome.
[size=1]American composer William Schuman subtitled his 9th Symphony, Le Fosse Ardeatine in memory of the victims[/size]
1944: Allied POW begin breaking out of infamous Stalag Luft III, a POW Camp for Airmen near the town of Sagan (now Żagań in Poland), 160 km (100 mi) SE of Berlin. Of 76 escapees, 73 were captured. 50 were executed.
[size=1]Memorial to the 50 Airmen executed; the majority were of British, Canadian, Polish, Australian, South African nationality. Two were New Zealanders (Flying Ofc Porokoru Patapu Pohe, Fl. Lt. Arnold G. Christensen), two were Norwegians (Lt. Nils Fuglesang, Sgt. Haldor Espelid), one was Greek (Pilot Ofc Sotirios Skantzikas), one Lithuanian (Fl. Lt. Romualdas Marcinkus), one Belgian (Fl. Lt. Henri A. Picard), one Czechoslovak (Fl. Lt. Bedrich Dvorak), one French (SLt. Bernard W. M. Scheidhauer)[/size]
1945: Field Marshal Montgomery's 21st Army Group attacks across the Rhine, 24 km (15 mi) N of Duisburg in the Wesel area, at the confluence of the Lippe River and the Rhine after 3,500-gun barrage in Operation Plunder. 16,870 paratroopers of the British 6th Airborne Division (Maj. Gen. Eric Bols) and U.S. 17th Airborne Division (Maj. Gen. William Miles "Bud" Miley) land across the river Rhine in Operation Varsity and succeed in linking up with advancing British troops and establishing four bridgeheads. The U.S. Third Army (Gen. George Smith Patton Jr) captures Speyer and Ludwigshafen on the upper Rhine.
[size=1]Private First Class Stuart S. Stryker, E Company, 513th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 17th Airborne Division, MoH recipient (posthumously) during Operation Varsity[/size]
1976: A right-wing coup d'état that overthrew President Isabel Perón takes place in Argentina. A military junta is installed, which is headed by General Jorge Rafael Videla, Admiral Emilio Eduardo Massera and Brigadier Orlando Ramón Agosti. The junta took the official name of National Reorganization Process, and was responsible for the Falkland crisis and the armed confrontation with the UK. Since 2006, a public holiday known as Day of Remembrance for Truth and Justice is held on this day in Argentina, commemorating the victims of the military dictatorship.
[size=1]The junta triumvirate in 1978; from left to right: Admiral Massera, General Videla, Brigadier Agosti[/size]
1980: During the Salvadoran military junta, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of San Salvador, Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez, is assassinated while celebrating Mass at a small chapel located in a hospital called "La Divina Providencia", one day after a sermon where he had called on Salvadoran soldiers, as Christians, to obey God's higher order and to stop carrying out the government's repression and violations of basic human rights. On 24 March 2010, Salvadoran president Mauricio Funes, offered an official state apology for Romero's assassination.
1999: Following the failure of the Rambouillet Conference, Operation Allied Force (or, by the United States, Operation Noble Anvil) begins: NATO commences air bombardment against Yugoslavia, marking the first time NATO has attacked a sovereign country. Over the ten weeks of the conflict, NATO aircraft flew over 38,000 combat missions.
1199: During the suppressing of a revolt instigated by the Viscount of Limoges, Aimar V Boso in France, the King of England Richard I Lionheart, was struck by an arrow in the left shoulder near the neck. The wound swiftly became gangrenous. Although there are numerous variations of the story's details, it is generally agreed that King Richard ordered that the French bowman (a Limousin boy) responsible for the attack, suffer no punishment (and, in fact, that he be paid 100 shillings). Richard died on 6 April in the arms of his mother. He was 42. His death was later referred to by chroniclers as the Lion, who by the Ant was slain.
[size=1]Tomb of Richard I of England at Fontevraud Abbey near Chinon, in Anjou, France. Richard died at Le Château de Châlus Chabrol in Châlus. His entrails were buried at the château while his heart was taken to Rouen and the rest of the body to Fontevraud[/size]
1306: Richard the Bruce was crowned King of Scots by Bishop William de Lamberton at Scone, near Perth, with all formality and solemnity.
[size=1]Statue of King Robert the Bruce of Scots - Stirling, Scotland[/size]
1802: The Treaty of Amiens is signed by France and Great Britain in the city of Amiens that ended hostilities between the two countries. Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte represented France and Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, represented the UK. The consequent Peace of Amiens lasted only one year.
[size=1]Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte (left) and the Marquess Cornwallis[/size]
1865: During the American Civil War, the Battle of Fort Stedman occurs. The Union Army fortification in the siege lines around Petersburg, Virginia, was attacked in a pre-dawn, last-gasp offensive launched by the Confederates directed by Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon. Confederate Batteries X, XI, and XII overpowered the garrisons of Fort Stedman but counterattacks conducted by elements of the II and VI Corps, led by Maj. Gens. John G. Parke and John F. Hartranft captured the entrenched picket lines in their respective fronts, which had been weakened for the assault on Fort Stedman. This was a devastating blow for Gen. Lee's army, setting up the Confederate defeat at Five Forks on 1 April and the fall of Petersburg on 2 - 3 April. The U.S. suffered 950 casualties. The C.S. lost 2,900 killed, wounded, missing or captured.
1924: On the anniversary of Greek Independence, Prime Minister Alexandros Papanastasíu proclaims the Second Hellenic Republic. The issue was submitted to a plebiscite with the voters approving the abolition of the monarchy on 13 April, 1924.
[size=1]The Flag and National Emblem of the Second Hellenic Republic (1924 - 1935)[/size]
1941: Under heavy pressure the Kingdom of Yugoslavia finally signs the Tripartite pact and joins Axis Powers.
[size=1]Yugoslav PM Dragia Cvetković (left) signs the Tripartite pact with Nazi Germany's Foreign Minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop[/size]
1943: On the anniversary of Greek Independence, Greek partisans temporarily take over Samos Island from the Italian garrison.
1945: The U.S. First Army (Lt. Gen. Courtney Hicks Hodges) breaks out of the Remagen bridgehead. The British Second Army (Lt. Gen. Miles Christopher Dempsey) captures Wesel which has been nearly 97% destroyed by Allied bombing.
1949: Operation Priboi; Soviet mass deportation from the Baltic states that lasted until 28 March, begins. Some 90,000 Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians, labeled as enemies of the people, were deported to inhospitable areas of the Soviet Union.
[size=1]72% of deportees were women and children under the age of 16[/size]
1958: Maiden flight of the Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow.
1971: Operation Searchlight, a planned military pacification carried out by the Pakistan Army started on 25 March, 1971 to curb the Bengali nationalist movement by taking control of the major cities of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) on 26 March, and then eliminating all opposition, political or military, within one month. In an attempt to crush forces seeking independence for East Pakistan, the West Pakistani military regime unleashed a systematic campaign of mass murder and deportations. The killings which began on 25 March, 1971 and sparked the Bangladesh Liberation War led to the deaths of at least 26,000 people, as admitted by Pakistan (by the Hamoodur Rahman Commission) or of up to 3,000,000 Bengalis (as claimed by Bangladesh).
1881: The annexation of Thessaly and of the district of Arta in Epirus, by Greece, was peacefully realised in accordance with the articles of the Treaty of Constantinople.
[size=1]The flag of Thessaly during the Greek War of Independence; the smaller four crosses represent the four historic regions of Thessaly: Magnesia, Thessaliotis, Pelasgiotis and Hestićotis[/size]
1913: During the First Balkan War and the Siege of Adrianople (today's Edirne, Turkey), the three-day final battle for capturing the city, concludes. A combined Bulgaro-Serbian offensive began at 0300 hours of 23/24 March, against the 75,000 Ottoman defenders under Shukru Pasha. During the first two nights the first and the second belts of external fortifications were captured, and during the third night the fortress itself, at the point of the bayonet. A graphic account of the Bulgarian infantry's predilection for the bayonet was written by an Austrian war correspondent:
"When it came to realities the Bulgarian infantry raised their charging shout "Na nos!" ("With the knife!" i.e. the bayonet), paying no regard to modern tactical theory. 400 paces or even more in front of the enemy's position, whole regiments in the firing line would rise up and hurl themselves upon the Turks in one irresistible rush, without pausing, without firing, and disdaining all cover. Each Bulgar longed to run his bayonet into the body of a Turk, and officers were powerless to control the excitement of their men. Even a regiment that was following in support would raise the wild battle cry and hurl itself upon the enemy, perhaps at the call of one of its sergeants, taking no notice whatever of the officers' orders to halt and lie down. These attack methods of the Bulgarian infantry were in the highest degree responsible for the enormous losses the army had to suffer in this war".
The loss of Adrianople delivered the final decisive blow on the Ottoman army and brought to a close the First Balkan War. The Ottomans suffered ~7,000 killed or wounded; 65,000 Ottoman troops made prisoners, including 15 general officers, 2,000 senior and subaltern officers; 16 Ottoman standards captured. The allies sustained ca 10,300 killed or wounded (7,955 Bulgarians, 2,370 Serbs).
WWI-1917: The First Battle of Gaza is fought in and around the Mediterranean town of Gaza on the coast of Ottoman Palestine, between the 16,000-strong British Empire's Egyptian Expeditionary Force comprised British and Anzac contingents, under Lt. Gen. Archibald James Murray, and the 15,000 troops of the Ottoman First Expeditionary Force under the German General, Friedrich Freiherr Kreß von Kressenstein. The Allies lost 467 killed, 2,900 wounded, 500 captured. The Ottomans suffered 2,447 killed, wounded or missing. In itself the engagement was a severe blow to the British Army. There was not a single private in the British infantry, or a trooper in the mounted brigades, who did not believe that failure was due to staff bungling.
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, at sunrise, Greeks troops attacked and seized Hill 717. When they reached the top, they discovered abandoned positions. The Italian Spring Offensive was finally over. During the 17-day battle for Hill 731, Greek I Infantry Division's (Maj. Gen. Vasilios Vrakhnós) casualties were 2,645 killed or wounded. The Thessalian defenders of 731 did not yield even an inch of ground that they were defending. I Infantry Division is thereafter named the Iron Division. The overall Greek casualties in Italian Spring offensive were 5,300 killed or wounded. The Italians sustained from 11,800 - 15,000 casualties and obtained only small conquests like Himarë, the area of Mali Harza and mount Trebeshin near Berat. With the German intervention and the subsequent capitulation of Greece in April 1941, the sector around Height 731 was proclaimed a sacred area by the Italians and a monument was erected by them, due to the heavy casualties they suffered.
[size=1]Hill 731 after the battle[/size]
1945: The U.S. Third Army (Gen. George Smith Patton Jr) establishes contact with U.S. Seventh Army (Lt. Gen. Alexander McCarrell "Sandy" Patch) on the East side of the Rhine, near Worms.
[size=1]Third Army's Commanding General, George S. Patton, shakes hands with General Patch, CO of Seventh Army[/size]
1971: East Pakistan declares its independence from Pakistan to form People's Republic of Bangladesh and the Bangladesh Liberation War begins as army units directed by West Pakistan launched a military operation in East Pakistan against Bengali civilians, students, intelligentsia, and armed personnel who were demanding separation of the East from West Pakistan. Bengali military, paramilitary, and civilians formed the Mukti Bahini (=Freedom Fighters) and used guerrilla warfare tactics to fight against the West Pakistan army. India played an important role as it helped East Pakistan both economically and militarilly. As a result, West Pakistan attacked India and what is known as the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, broke out (3 - 16 December, 1971).
1976: The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, comes into force when twenty-two governments deposited their instruments of ratification.
[size=1]Light Green: Signed and ratified; Green: Acceded or succeeded; Grey: Unrecognized state, abiding by treaty; Yellow: Only signed; Red: Non signatory[/size]
1979: The Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel is signed by the Egyptian President Muhammad Anwar al-Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, and witnessed by U.S. President Jimmy Carter, in Washington D.C. The agreement notably made Egypt the first Arab country to officially recognize Israel.
2010: 46 ROK Navy crewmen die as the South Korean warship ROKS "Cheonan" (PCC-772) sinks, after an attack by North Korea. An investigation conducted by an international team of experts from South Korea, USA, UK, Australia, and Sweden concluded that "Cheonan" was sunk by a torpedo launched by a North Korean Yeono class miniature submarine.
1814: During the Anglo-American War, the Battle of Horseshoe Bend occurs. A 2,700-strong U.S. army and 600 Native American allies, supported by two cannon, under Gen. Andrew Jackson, defeated ca 1,000 warriors of the Creek tribe, under the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, near Dadeville, Alabama, effectively ending the Creek War (part of the Anglo-American War). The battle raged for about five hours. Roughly 550 Creek warriors were killed on the field, while 330 more were killed or drowned while trying to cross the river. The U.S. and allies suffered 276 casualties.
[size=1]The Creek Barricade; a row of posts now marks the site of the log fortifications built by Creek warriors[/size]
1836: During the Texian Revolution, the Goliad Massacre occurs. 314 Texian POW (including Col. James Walker Fannin Jr.) out of 342 captured, were massacred by the Mexican army after direct orders of Gen. Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (commonly known as Antonio López de Santa Anna). The entire Texian force was killed, except for twenty-eight men who feigned death and escaped.
[size=1]The monument to the massacre[/size]
1846: During the Mexicano-American War, the Siege of Fort Texas, the first action of the war, begins. The American garrison of Fort Texas (an unfinished U.S. fort, near Brownsville, Texas) consisted of Major Jacob Brown's 7th Infantry, Captain Loud's arty company of four 18-pounder guns, and Lieutenant Bragg's light artillery company of four cannon, resisted until 9 May the siege laid by a 6,000-strong Mexican force under Gen. Mariano Arista. General Zachary Taylor came to the aid of the fort's defenders, which resulted in General Mariano Arista's order to position his forces on the nearby plains of Palo Alto, thereby lifting the siege. American casualties accounted for two killed, 10 wounded. The fort commander, Maj. Jacob Brown, was killed during the siege and Fort Texas was renamed after him. Mexican leaders reported two killed and two wounded from American artillery fire.
1854: During the Crimean War and following the destruction of the Ottoman naval squadron in the Naval Battle of Sinop on 30 November by the Imperial Russian Navy, the UK declares war on Russia. The UK and France are brought into the conflict.
WWI-1918: The National Council of Bessarabia decided with 86 votes for, 3 against and 36 abstaining, towards the union with the Kingdom of Romania.
1938: During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Battle of Taierzhuang opens. Two infantry divisions of the Japanese Northern China Area Army under Gen. Hisaichi Terauchi, attacked ten divisions of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army under Gen. Li Tsung-jen, in order to conquer Xuzhou, a major city in the East. The Japanese were finally smothered by weight of numbers and compelled to retreat on 7 April, leaving behind many tanks for which they had no fuel and artillery for which they had no shells, with the victorious Chinese pursuing them to the gates of Yishien, where they were finally stopped by a Japanese stonewall defense. The Japanese losses at Taierzhuang were estimated at between 7,000 to 10,000 killed and 20,000 wounded, while the Chinese losses were two or three times as large.
[size=1]House-to-house fighting in Taierzhuang, the small Chinese town that stood between the Japanese and the city of Xuzhou[/size]
1941: A coup in Yugoslavia by Air Force General Duan Simović and other army officers overthrows the pro-German government. King Petar II Karadjordjević takes control and a new cabinet is formed.
[size=1]King Peter II of Yugoslavia[/size]
1943: A U.S. Navy Squadron comprised one heavy cruiser, one light cruiser and four destroyers, under Rear-Admiral Charles McMorris, intercepted a Japanese convoy escorted by two heavy cruisers, two light cruisers and four destroyers, under Vice-Admiral Boshiro Hosogaya, off Komandorski Islands east of the Kamchatka Peninsula, in the Bering Sea. Both sides suffered damage, with the U.S. force not being as badly damaged by the superior firepower of the Japanese as could have been the case. Admiral Hosogaya, chose to retire without delivering a knockout blow. Despite minimal casualties on both sides, the battle led to a strategic defeat for the Japanese because it ended their attempts to resupply their Aleutian garrisons by surface, leaving only submarines for resupply runs.
[size=1]The USN heavy cruiser, USS "Salt Lake City" (CL/CA-25) suffered the most; she received two direct hits and lost two crewmen[/size]
1945: The allied bridgehead north of Ruhr is now 1,800 km˛ (700 mi˛). 16,257 German prisoners are taken for 6,781 allied casualties in four days. The U.S. Third Army (Gen. George Smith Patton Jr) captures Aschaffenburg in northwest Bavaria.
1945: Bitter street fighting in Danzig as the Soviets, force their way into the city's defences. A German counterattack from the Frankfurt bridgehead toward Küstrin bogs down after only a few miles.
1945: The U.S. Navy begins the pre-invasion bombardment of Okinawa firing more than half a million shells and rockets in a week.
1994: The Eurofighter takes its first flight in Manching, Germany.