1387: During the Italian Wars, the Battle of Castagnaro occurs. The army of Verona led by the famous condottieri, Giovanni Ordelaffi and Ostasio Polentani, was defeated by the Paduan army under the English condottiere John Hawkwood (Italian alias, Giovanni Acuto) and the Lord of Padua, Francesco Novello da Carrara, at Castagnaro about 50 km (31 mi) southeast of Verona. Castagnaro is hailed as Sir John Hawkwood's greatest victory.
[size=1]Engraving representing John Hawkwood[/size]
1845: During the New Zealand Wars, the Hone Heke's Rebellion begins. The conflict is best remembered for the actions of Hone Wiremu Heke Pokai and Te Ruki Kawiti, the Māori chiefs and war leaders in Northern New Zealand, who challenged the authority of the British by cutting down the flagstaff on Flagstaff Hill at Kororareka (now Russell), and taking down the British flag flying.
WWI-1917: The British India Army (I and II Corps under Lt. Gen. Sir Frederick Stanley Maude) after a two-year campaign against the Ottoman 6th Army (Halil Kut Pasha) seizes Baghdad in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq).
[size=1]General Maude enters Baghdad[/size]
1941: The U.S. House of Representatives passes the Lend-Lease Bill by 317 votes to 71, where upon it is immediately signed by U.S. President Roosevelt. Initial priority for war supplies was to be given to the UK and Greece.
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, on the night of 10 - 11 March, two battalions of the Itallian 26th Blackshirt Assault Legion "Alberto da Giussano" (26a Legione CC.NN. d'Assalto "Alberto da Giussano") advanced through the gorge between the hills Proi-Madh and 1030 (Qjafe-Luzhit) attempting to bypass the defenders on 731. Their advance was detected, trapping them between deadly fire coming from the defensive positions on both hills. 250 Blackshirts were killed or wounded and 500 captured despite diversionary attacks to rescue them.
[size=1]Blackshirt Legion collar badges[/size]
1942: General Douglas MacArthur leaves Corregidor and the Philippines for Australia, after being ordered to assume command of the new South-West Pacific area, which in effect meant all Allied forces in the Pacific. MacArthur's last words before leaving were I shall return! Gen. Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV takes over command in the Philippines.
[size=1]Wainwright (left) with MacArthur[/size]
1944: Gen. Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky's 3rd Ukrainian Front opens a fresh offensive towards Kherson in the Crimea. Meanwhile, Marshal Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov's 1st Ukrainian Front drive to the Bug River.
1945: The Red Army advances towards Gotenhafen (present-day Gdynia, Poland, on the south coast of the Baltic Sea), a vital port of embarkation for tens of thousands of refugees from East Prussia.
1945: Operation Tan No. 2, a long-range Kamikaze mission directed at the main Allied naval fleet anchorage at Ulithi atoll in the western Pacific occurs. The Japanese hoped to take the U.S. Pacific fleet by surprise and sink or damage a significant number of the fleet's aircraft carriers or other large ships. One aircraft hit U.S. aircraft carrier USS "Randolph" (CV-15) on the starboard side aft just below the flight deck, killing 27 crewmen and wounding 105. The Japanese lost 13 aircraft destroyed, 60 - 70 killed.
1990: Lithuania declares itself independent from the Soviet Union by signing the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania by all members of the Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR.
1809: During the Swedish Revolt (against the inept and erratic reign of King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden), seven conspirators led by the chief promoter of the revolt, Gen. Carl Johan Adlercreutz, broke into the royal apartments in the palace, seized the king, and imprisoned him and his family in Gripsholm castle; the king's uncle, Duke Karl, was thereupon persuaded to accept the leadership of a provisional government, which was proclaimed the same day; and a diet, hastily summoned, solemnly approved of the revolution.
[size=1]King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden[/size]
1869: During the Titokowarus' War (an armed conflict between the Ngāti Ruanui Māori tribe under chief Riwha Titokowaru, and the New Zealand Government in the South Taranaki region of New Zealand's North Island), a British force under Col. George Stoddart Whitmore, in an attempted assault on the Māori camp of Titokowaru and his Māori force, at Otautu, north of Patea, suffers six colonial soldiers killed and 12 wounded.
1881: Russian Tsar, Aleksandr II Nikolaevich, also known as Alexander the Liberator (due to his Emancipation Reform of 1861; the Emancipation Law freeing serfs, was signed and published by the Tsar on 3 March, 1861) is killed near his palace when a bomb is thrown at him. Alexander, gravely wounded, was carried by sleigh to the Winter Palace in his study where he died; ironically, twenty years before almost to the day, he had signed the Emancipation Edict freeing the serfs in the same room. The perpetrators were members of the Narodnaya Volya (=The People's Will), a leftist organization.
[size=1]The monument to Alexander II in front of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow. His assassination caused a great setback for the reform movement[/size]
1884: During the Mahdist Revolt in Sudan, the Siege of Khartoum opens. A 50,000-strong Mahdist Sudanese army under the Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd'Allah, laid siege to the principal city of Sudan, Khartoum, that was defended by Egyptian forces led by British Maj. Gen. Charles George Gordon. The siege will be lifted on 26 January, 1885 with the fall of the city to the Mahdist Sudanese. The entire garrison of ca 7,000, physically weakened by starvation, offered only patchy resistance and were slaughtered to the last man within a few hours, as were 4,000 of the town's inhabitants, while many others were carried into slavery.
[size=1]The death of General Gordon[/size]
1900: During the Second Boer War, the city of Bloemfontein falls to the British who built a concentration camp nearby to house Boer women and children.
[size=1]The National Women's Memorial, on the outskirts of the city, pays homage to the 26,370 women and children as well as 1,421 old men (including 14,154 black people, though some sources feel that the records are unsatisfactory, and that this number could be as high as 20,000) who died in British concentration camps in various parts of the country[/size]
1921: During the Outer Mongolian Revolution, Mongolia, with the assistance of Russian Lt. Gen. and hero of the Great War, Baron Roman Fyodorovich von Ungern-Sternberg, after the capture of a fortified Chinese base at Choiryn in the south of the country, declares its independence from China.
[size=1]The flag of Independent Mongolia[/size]
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, on this day, the Italian attacks were almost entirely concentrated on 731. A series of Italian attacks on the hill, were once again repelled by the Greeks. During the height of this engagement the Greek 9th coy under 1st Lt Isaac Lavrentides charges into the oncoming attacking Italians.
[size=1]Reservist 1st Lt. Isaac Lavrentides, recepient of the Greek Cross of Valour (in gold)[/size]
1942: The Red Army launches a major attack with the 44th (Col. Gen. Sergei Ivanovich Chernyak) and 51st Armies (Col. Gen. Dmitry Timofeyevich Kozlov) against Heeresgruppe B (=Army Group B) (Generalfeldmarschall Fedor von Bock), from the Kerch peninsula in the eastern Crimea.
[size=1]Monument to the Soviet 51st Army in Sevastopol[/size]
1944: The 4th Ukrainian Front (Col. Gen. Fyodor Ivanovich Tolbulkhin) takes Kherson in the southern Ukraine.
1945: The 2nd Belorussian Front (Marshal Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky) launches an offensive against the Braunsberg pocket to the South of Königsberg.
1954: During the First Indochina War, the Battle of Điện Biên Phủ opens. It was a climactic confrontation between the 10,800 (with more reinforcements totaling nearly 16,000-strong) troops of the French Operational Group North-West (GONO) under Col. Christian Marie Ferdinand de la Croix de Castries, and the 49,000 Viet Minh communist revolutionaries (under Gen. Võ Nguyên Giáp).
1241: The city of Crakow in Poland was destroyed by the Mongols.
1871: The Paris Commune events begin. After the German evacuation of Paris, the city was in a state of high political excitement. The President of the French Republic, Adolphe Thiers, orders evacuation of Paris when French army units instead of suppressing the tumoult, fraternised with National Guards and local Parisians forming the revolutionary Central Committee of the National Guard comprised political activists, ranging from reformist republicans, through various types of socialists, to the Jacobins.
[size=1]Paris barricade, 18 March 1871[/size]
WWI-1915: The Naval Battle of the Dardanelles, occurs. A combined allied fleet of 18 warships from the UK and France under Vice-Admiral Sackville Hamilton Carden, suffered serious casualties when they tried to pass through and close on the Straits' Ottoman forts. Three allied warships were sunk, three more were severely damaged, either from accurate arty fire from the Ottoman defences, or from sea mines (20 - 26 mines were moored at 15 ft (4.6 m) and spaced about 100 yd (91 m) apar by the Ottomans).
[size=1]HMS "Irresistible" (1898) having struck a mine, is sinking[/size]
1921: The Peace of Riga ends the Polono-Soviet War. It was signed by the plenipotentiaries of the Russian Soviet Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Republic and the Second Polish Republic. The Soviet-Polish borders established by the treaty remained in force until WWII.
[size=1]Caricature showing the partition of Belarus between Poland and Russia[/size]
1944: During the Third Battle of Monte Cassino, a New Zealand tank attack on Monte Cassino launched by tanks of the 20th Armoured Brigade, is repulsed, with the loss of all 17 tanks.
1945: Kolberg (present-day Kołobrzeg, Poland) falls to the Polish 1st Army (Gen. Zygmunt Berling), of the 2nd Belorussian Front (Marshal Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky), although the Germans manage to evacuate 80,000 refugees and wounded first. During the fights the Poles suffered 1,013 killed, 142 missing and 2,652 wounded.
1952: During the Korean War, the Greek Sparta Battalion (Lt. Col. Georgios Kumanakos) of the Greek Expeditionary Force, holds Hill 199, near Imjin River, despite repeated attacks conducted by a Chinese regiment to take it.
1969: During the Vietnam War, Operation Menu, the covert bombing campaign conducted by the USAF on the Sihanouk Trail, a logistical supply system in Cambodia used by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and its National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (Viet Cong) allies, begins.
1994: Bosnia's Bosniaks and Croats sign the Washington Agreement, ending warring between the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia and the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and establishing the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
[size=1]The flag and state emblem of the self-proclaimed Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia[/size]
Thanks for the powerfull images and this incredible thread.
1739: During the Perso-Mughal War, the sack of Delhi in India, occurs. An Afshanid-Persian army under Nader Shah Afshar, entered the city of Delhi, the principal city of the Mughal Empire. When a rumour broke out that Nader had been assassinated, some of the Indians attacked and killed Persian troops. Nader reacted by ordering his soldiers to plunder the city. The forces of the Persian Shah looted Delhi, carrying away many treasures, including the famous Peacock Throne and massacred 20 - 30,000 Indian residents. Nader's soldiers also took with them thousands of elephants, horses and camels, loaded with the booty they had collected. The plunder seized from India was so rich that Nader stopped taxation in Persia for a period of three years following his return.
[size=1]The Peacock Throne thereafter served as a symbol of Persian imperial might[/size]
1815: Napoleon, after proceeding through the countryside promising constitutional reform and direct elections to an assembly, to the acclaim of gathered crowds, triumphantly entered Paris, whence Louis XVIII had recently fled. The period known as Napoleon's Hundred Days (les Cent Jours), begins. It will conclude with the Waterloo Campaign.
1833: During the Murniés Insurrection (=a Cretan protest against very heavy taxation imposed by Ottoman authorities turned revolution), 7,000 unarmed Cretans from the villages around Canea in western Crete, assemble and prepare a petition to the UK, France and Russia by which they ask for political autonomy. Mustafa Pasha, the military commander of Crete, sends cavalry which disperses the crowd arresting fifty individuals, who will later be hanged as chief instigators of the revolt.
[size=1]Phrangiós Mastrachás, a Cretan revolutionary, took part in dozens of battles against the Ottomans in the Cretan insurrections of 1833, 1866 and 1868. He was killed in the Battle of Asites on 3 September, 1868 against the Turks. He was 75 years old[/size]
1848: During the German States Revolutions, King Ludwig I of Bavaria abdicates in an attempt to pacify the public, contain the spreading of revolutionary ideas and save the monarchy by offering concessions.
[size=1]Ludwig I of Bavaria[/size]
1914: During the Northern Epirotan War of Independence, the army of Autonomous Northern Epirus takes Korçë.
[size=1]The Seal of the government of Autonomous Northern Epirus; it reads Autonomous Epirus - 1914[/size]
1922: USS "Langley" (CV-1) the United States Navy's first aircraft carrier, converted in 1920 from the collier USS "Jupiter" (AC-3), and also the US Navy's first electrically-propelled ship, is commissioned.
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, Mussolini admits defeat in Albania at a conference with Italian military leaders and presents a document of historical importance: Therein he accepts the failure of his Spring Offensive, and puts the blame on the military officers and the state of the Italian Army.
1942: The Red Army offensive at Kerch in the Crimea, is defeated with heavy losses to the Soviets: 162,282 were left behind, killed and captured.
1945: The U.S. Seventh Army (Lt. Gen. Alexander McCarrell "Sandy" Patch) takes Saarbrücken.
1945: German troops of Heeresgruppe Weichsel (=Army Group Vistula) (Generaloberst Gotthard Heinrici) evacuate their bridgehead across the Oder at Stettin. The Soviets take Braunsberg (present-day Braniewo, Poland), 64 km (40 mi) S of Königsberg.
2003: During the Second Gulf War, coalition forces (148,000 U.S. troops, 45,000 British soldiers, 2,000 Australian soldiers and 194 Polish soldiers from the special forces unit GROM) launched an incursion into Basra Province from their massing point close to the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border.
2006: Over 150 Chadian soldiers are killed in eastern Chad by members of the rebel UFDC. The rebel movement sought to overthrow Chadian president Idriss Déby Itno.
1622: The Jamestown Massacre occurs. Algonquian native Americans kill 347 English settlers around Jamestown, Colony of Virginia, a third of the colony's population.
1849: During the First Italian War of Independence, the Battle of Novara occurs. A 72,380-strong Imperial Austrian army, supported by 156 arty pieces, under the Czech nobleman and Austrian General Johann Josef Wenzel Graf Radetzky von Radetz, defeated the ca 85,000-strong Piedmontese-Sardinian force, under the Polish-born General Wojciech Chrzanowski, who served as C-in-C of the Piedmontese-Sardinian army in 1849. The Piedmontese were driven back to Borgomanero at the foot of the Alps, and the Austrian forces occupied Novara, Vercelli and Trino, with the road to the Piedmontese capital, Turin, lying open to them.
1939: Nazi Germany takes Memelland (present-day Klaipėda Region) from Lithuania.
[size=1]Antanas Smetona (=First President of independent Lithuania) street, is changed to Adolf Hitler st.[/size]
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, a last large scale Italian attack was launched on Goliko mountain (behind Hill 731), defended by the Greek II Infantry Division (Maj. Gen. Georgios Lavdas). The Italians concentrated on a hill named Dhonti (Tooth) where 2,000 artillery shells rained down in a few short hours but the attack fails.
1942: The Second Battle of Sirte; late in the afternoon after an unsuccessful Italian torpedo-aircraft attack, Vice-Admiral Angelo Iachino's squadron engages the British convoy. This protected itself with a smokescreen, but the cruiser HMS "Cleopatra" (33) was damaged. Rear-Admiral Philip Louis Vian, commanding the British escorts, now sent his destroyers in a torpedo attack on the Italian battleship "Littorio". However, by now it was getting dark and so Vice-Admiral Iachino turned away from the British convoy and sailed for home. The British suffered 39 crewmen killed. The Italians suffered no casualties.
1943: The Khatyn Massacre, occurs in Belarus. The Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon nr. 118, reinforced by troops from the SS-Sturmbrigade "Dirlewanger", in reprisal for partisan attacks against German military police, entered the village of Khatyn and massacred 149 people, including 75 children. The village was then looted and burned to the ground.
[size=1]The Memorial to the massacre[/size]
2004: Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Hassan Yassin, co-founder and leader of the Palestinian Sunni Islamist group Hamas, two bodyguards, and nine civilian bystanders are killed in the Gaza ***** when hit by IDF AH-64 Apache fired Hellfire missiles.
1401: During the Timurid-Mamluk War, the Timurid Mongolians under Timur, besieged Damascus. The Mamluk Sultan, An-Nasir Naseer ad-Din Faraj, dispatched a deputation from Cairo, who negotiated with Timur, but after their withdrawal Timur put the city to sack. The city's inhabitants were massacred, except for the artisans, who were deported to Samarkand.
[size=1]Statue of Timur in his birthplace Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan[/size]
1869: The last of Titokowaru's forces surrendered to the New Zealand government, ending his uprising.
1878: RN Corvette, HMS "Eurydice" (1843) was caught in a heavy snow storm off the Isle of Wight, capsized and sank. Only two of the ship's 319 complement survived, most of those who were not carried down with the ship, died of exposure in the freezing waters. One of the witnesses to the disaster was a young Winston Churchill, who was living at Ventnor with his family at the time.
[size=1]Memorial to HMS Eurydice in RN Cemetery, Haslar, Gosport, UK[/size]
1944: The US Fifth Army's (Lt. Gen. Mark Wayne Clark) bridgehead at Anzio is bombarded by German heavy long-range guns and Luftwaffe aircraft using guided bombs, causing severe casualties in men, ships and equipment. Persistent U.S. and British attacks against the Gustav Line at Cassino are repulsed by the German defenders.
1944: In reprisal to the killing of 35 German soldiers in Rome by the Italian resistance, SS Obersturmbannführer Herbert Kappler orders the execution of 335 Italians, at least 255 of whom are civilians. All are shot by German troops in the Fosse Ardeatine caves outside of Rome.
[size=1]American composer William Schuman subtitled his 9th Symphony, Le Fosse Ardeatine in memory of the victims[/size]
1944: Allied POW begin breaking out of infamous Stalag Luft III, a POW Camp for Airmen near the town of Sagan (now Żagań in Poland), 160 km (100 mi) SE of Berlin. Of 76 escapees, 73 were captured. 50 were executed.
[size=1]Memorial to the 50 Airmen executed; the majority were of British, Canadian, Polish, Australian, South African nationality. Two were New Zealanders (Flying Ofc Porokoru Patapu Pohe, Fl. Lt. Arnold G. Christensen), two were Norwegians (Lt. Nils Fuglesang, Sgt. Haldor Espelid), one was Greek (Pilot Ofc Sotirios Skantzikas), one Lithuanian (Fl. Lt. Romualdas Marcinkus), one Belgian (Fl. Lt. Henri A. Picard), one Czechoslovak (Fl. Lt. Bedrich Dvorak), one French (SLt. Bernard W. M. Scheidhauer)[/size]
1945: Field Marshal Montgomery's 21st Army Group attacks across the Rhine, 24 km (15 mi) N of Duisburg in the Wesel area, at the confluence of the Lippe River and the Rhine after 3,500-gun barrage in Operation Plunder. 16,870 paratroopers of the British 6th Airborne Division (Maj. Gen. Eric Bols) and U.S. 17th Airborne Division (Maj. Gen. William Miles "Bud" Miley) land across the river Rhine in Operation Varsity and succeed in linking up with advancing British troops and establishing four bridgeheads. The U.S. Third Army (Gen. George Smith Patton Jr) captures Speyer and Ludwigshafen on the upper Rhine.
[size=1]Private First Class Stuart S. Stryker, E Company, 513th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 17th Airborne Division, MoH recipient (posthumously) during Operation Varsity[/size]
1976: A right-wing coup d'état that overthrew President Isabel Perón takes place in Argentina. A military junta is installed, which is headed by General Jorge Rafael Videla, Admiral Emilio Eduardo Massera and Brigadier Orlando Ramón Agosti. The junta took the official name of National Reorganization Process, and was responsible for the Falkland crisis and the armed confrontation with the UK. Since 2006, a public holiday known as Day of Remembrance for Truth and Justice is held on this day in Argentina, commemorating the victims of the military dictatorship.
[size=1]The junta triumvirate in 1978; from left to right: Admiral Massera, General Videla, Brigadier Agosti[/size]
1980: During the Salvadoran military junta, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of San Salvador, Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez, is assassinated while celebrating Mass at a small chapel located in a hospital called "La Divina Providencia", one day after a sermon where he had called on Salvadoran soldiers, as Christians, to obey God's higher order and to stop carrying out the government's repression and violations of basic human rights. On 24 March 2010, Salvadoran president Mauricio Funes, offered an official state apology for Romero's assassination.
1999: Following the failure of the Rambouillet Conference, Operation Allied Force (or, by the United States, Operation Noble Anvil) begins: NATO commences air bombardment against Yugoslavia, marking the first time NATO has attacked a sovereign country. Over the ten weeks of the conflict, NATO aircraft flew over 38,000 combat missions.
1199: During the suppressing of a revolt instigated by the Viscount of Limoges, Aimar V Boso in France, the King of England Richard I Lionheart, was struck by an arrow in the left shoulder near the neck. The wound swiftly became gangrenous. Although there are numerous variations of the story's details, it is generally agreed that King Richard ordered that the French bowman (a Limousin boy) responsible for the attack, suffer no punishment (and, in fact, that he be paid 100 shillings). Richard died on 6 April in the arms of his mother. He was 42. His death was later referred to by chroniclers as the Lion, who by the Ant was slain.
[size=1]Tomb of Richard I of England at Fontevraud Abbey near Chinon, in Anjou, France. Richard died at Le Château de Châlus Chabrol in Châlus. His entrails were buried at the château while his heart was taken to Rouen and the rest of the body to Fontevraud[/size]
1306: Richard the Bruce was crowned King of Scots by Bishop William de Lamberton at Scone, near Perth, with all formality and solemnity.
[size=1]Statue of King Robert the Bruce of Scots - Stirling, Scotland[/size]
1802: The Treaty of Amiens is signed by France and Great Britain in the city of Amiens that ended hostilities between the two countries. Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte represented France and Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, represented the UK. The consequent Peace of Amiens lasted only one year.
[size=1]Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte (left) and the Marquess Cornwallis[/size]
1865: During the American Civil War, the Battle of Fort Stedman occurs. The Union Army fortification in the siege lines around Petersburg, Virginia, was attacked in a pre-dawn, last-gasp offensive launched by the Confederates directed by Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon. Confederate Batteries X, XI, and XII overpowered the garrisons of Fort Stedman but counterattacks conducted by elements of the II and VI Corps, led by Maj. Gens. John G. Parke and John F. Hartranft captured the entrenched picket lines in their respective fronts, which had been weakened for the assault on Fort Stedman. This was a devastating blow for Gen. Lee's army, setting up the Confederate defeat at Five Forks on 1 April and the fall of Petersburg on 2 - 3 April. The U.S. suffered 950 casualties. The C.S. lost 2,900 killed, wounded, missing or captured.
1924: On the anniversary of Greek Independence, Prime Minister Alexandros Papanastasíu proclaims the Second Hellenic Republic. The issue was submitted to a plebiscite with the voters approving the abolition of the monarchy on 13 April, 1924.
[size=1]The Flag and National Emblem of the Second Hellenic Republic (1924 - 1935)[/size]
1941: Under heavy pressure the Kingdom of Yugoslavia finally signs the Tripartite pact and joins Axis Powers.
[size=1]Yugoslav PM Dragiša Cvetković (left) signs the Tripartite pact with Nazi Germany's Foreign Minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop[/size]
1943: On the anniversary of Greek Independence, Greek partisans temporarily take over Samos Island from the Italian garrison.
1945: The U.S. First Army (Lt. Gen. Courtney Hicks Hodges) breaks out of the Remagen bridgehead. The British Second Army (Lt. Gen. Miles Christopher Dempsey) captures Wesel which has been nearly 97% destroyed by Allied bombing.
1949: Operation Priboi; Soviet mass deportation from the Baltic states that lasted until 28 March, begins. Some 90,000 Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians, labeled as enemies of the people, were deported to inhospitable areas of the Soviet Union.
[size=1]72% of deportees were women and children under the age of 16[/size]
1958: Maiden flight of the Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow.
1971: Operation Searchlight, a planned military pacification carried out by the Pakistan Army started on 25 March, 1971 to curb the Bengali nationalist movement by taking control of the major cities of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) on 26 March, and then eliminating all opposition, political or military, within one month. In an attempt to crush forces seeking independence for East Pakistan, the West Pakistani military regime unleashed a systematic campaign of mass murder and deportations. The killings which began on 25 March, 1971 and sparked the Bangladesh Liberation War led to the deaths of at least 26,000 people, as admitted by Pakistan (by the Hamoodur Rahman Commission) or of up to 3,000,000 Bengalis (as claimed by Bangladesh).
1814: During the Anglo-American War, the Battle of Horseshoe Bend occurs. A 2,700-strong U.S. army and 600 Native American allies, supported by two cannon, under Gen. Andrew Jackson, defeated ca 1,000 warriors of the Creek tribe, under the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, near Dadeville, Alabama, effectively ending the Creek War (part of the Anglo-American War). The battle raged for about five hours. Roughly 550 Creek warriors were killed on the field, while 330 more were killed or drowned while trying to cross the river. The U.S. and allies suffered 276 casualties.
[size=1]The Creek Barricade; a row of posts now marks the site of the log fortifications built by Creek warriors[/size]
1836: During the Texian Revolution, the Goliad Massacre occurs. 314 Texian POW (including Col. James Walker Fannin Jr.) out of 342 captured, were massacred by the Mexican army after direct orders of Gen. Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (commonly known as Antonio López de Santa Anna). The entire Texian force was killed, except for twenty-eight men who feigned death and escaped.
[size=1]The monument to the massacre[/size]
1846: During the Mexicano-American War, the Siege of Fort Texas, the first action of the war, begins. The American garrison of Fort Texas (an unfinished U.S. fort, near Brownsville, Texas) consisted of Major Jacob Brown's 7th Infantry, Captain Loud's arty company of four 18-pounder guns, and Lieutenant Bragg's light artillery company of four cannon, resisted until 9 May the siege laid by a 6,000-strong Mexican force under Gen. Mariano Arista. General Zachary Taylor came to the aid of the fort's defenders, which resulted in General Mariano Arista's order to position his forces on the nearby plains of Palo Alto, thereby lifting the siege. American casualties accounted for two killed, 10 wounded. The fort commander, Maj. Jacob Brown, was killed during the siege and Fort Texas was renamed after him. Mexican leaders reported two killed and two wounded from American artillery fire.
1854: During the Crimean War and following the destruction of the Ottoman naval squadron in the Naval Battle of Sinop on 30 November by the Imperial Russian Navy, the UK declares war on Russia. The UK and France are brought into the conflict.
WWI-1918: The National Council of Bessarabia decided with 86 votes for, 3 against and 36 abstaining, towards the union with the Kingdom of Romania.
1938: During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Battle of Taierzhuang opens. Two infantry divisions of the Japanese Northern China Area Army under Gen. Hisaichi Terauchi, attacked ten divisions of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army under Gen. Li Tsung-jen, in order to conquer Xuzhou, a major city in the East. The Japanese were finally smothered by weight of numbers and compelled to retreat on 7 April, leaving behind many tanks for which they had no fuel and artillery for which they had no shells, with the victorious Chinese pursuing them to the gates of Yishien, where they were finally stopped by a Japanese stonewall defense. The Japanese losses at Taierzhuang were estimated at between 7,000 to 10,000 killed and 20,000 wounded, while the Chinese losses were two or three times as large.
[size=1]House-to-house fighting in Taierzhuang, the small Chinese town that stood between the Japanese and the city of Xuzhou[/size]
1941: A coup in Yugoslavia by Air Force General Dušan Simović and other army officers overthrows the pro-German government. King Petar II Karadjordjević takes control and a new cabinet is formed.
[size=1]King Peter II of Yugoslavia[/size]
1943: A U.S. Navy Squadron comprised one heavy cruiser, one light cruiser and four destroyers, under Rear-Admiral Charles McMorris, intercepted a Japanese convoy escorted by two heavy cruisers, two light cruisers and four destroyers, under Vice-Admiral Boshiro Hosogaya, off Komandorski Islands east of the Kamchatka Peninsula, in the Bering Sea. Both sides suffered damage, with the U.S. force not being as badly damaged by the superior firepower of the Japanese as could have been the case. Admiral Hosogaya, chose to retire without delivering a knockout blow. Despite minimal casualties on both sides, the battle led to a strategic defeat for the Japanese because it ended their attempts to resupply their Aleutian garrisons by surface, leaving only submarines for resupply runs.
[size=1]The USN heavy cruiser, USS "Salt Lake City" (CL/CA-25) suffered the most; she received two direct hits and lost two crewmen[/size]
1945: The allied bridgehead north of Ruhr is now 1,800 km² (700 mi²). 16,257 German prisoners are taken for 6,781 allied casualties in four days. The U.S. Third Army (Gen. George Smith Patton Jr) captures Aschaffenburg in northwest Bavaria.
1945: Bitter street fighting in Danzig as the Soviets, force their way into the city's defences. A German counterattack from the Frankfurt bridgehead toward Küstrin bogs down after only a few miles.
1945: The U.S. Navy begins the pre-invasion bombardment of Okinawa firing more than half a million shells and rockets in a week.
1994: The Eurofighter takes its first flight in Manching, Germany.
845: Ragnar Lodbrok, with an alleged force of 120 Drakkar and 5,000 Viking warriors, landed in what is now France, probably at the Seine estuary, ravaged West Francia and attacked and captured Paris. Ragnar collected a huge ransom (7,000 pounds of silver according to Viking sources) in exchange for leaving.
1809: During the Peninsular War, the Battle of Medellín occurs. A 17,500-strong French army supported by 50 cannon, under Marshal Claude Victor-Perrin, 1st Duc de Belluno, defeated the 23,000-strong, with 30 cannon, Spanish Army of the Extremadura under Gen. Gregorio García de la Cuesta y Fernández de Celis, at Medellín, in the province of Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain. At least 7,500 Spanish troops were killed in the battle with some battalions virtually wiped out. The French took at least 1,850 prisoners and 20 guns. French losses were much lower, between 1,000 and 2,000. The battle saw a successful start to the French conquest of Southern Spain.
1854: During the Crimean War, France declares war on Russia.
[size=1]French Zouaves in the Crimean War[/size]
1860: During the First Taranaki War, the Battle of Waireka occurs. A British colonial force of about 610 men comprised contingents from the RN, the 65th Regiment of Foot, the newly-formed Taranaki Rifle Volunteers and local militias, under Lt. Col. G.F. Murray, engaged about 200 Māori warriors at Whalers Gate, Waireka, near Omata in the western North Island of New Zealand. Māori casualties numbered from 70 - 150. The British suffered 14 killed and wounded.
[size=1]Leading Seaman William Odgers, received the Victoria Cross when a party of officers, sailors and marines from HMS "Niger" (1846) stormed Kaipopo Pā (=Māori hillfort fortified with palisades and defensive terraces), during the Battle of Waireka[/size]
1862: During the American Civil War, the Battle of Glorieta Pass, opened on the 26th, concludes. It was fought at Glorieta Pass in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico, as part of the Confederate New Mexico Campaign. The 1,100 Confederates were led by Lt. Col. William R. Scurry and Maj. Charles L. Pyron while the 1,300 Union forces were led by Col. John P. Slough of the 1st Colorado Infantry, with units under the command of Maj. John M. Chivington. The Federals won the battle and, thereby, stopped Confederate incursions into the Southwest. Glorieta Pass was the turning point of the war in the New Mexico Territory. Union casualties accounted for 142 killed and wounded. The C.S. suffered 189 casualties.
1939: During the Spanish Civil War, with the virtual disintegration of the Republican army, the Nationalists take Madrid. Generalissimo Francisco Franco enters the city.
1941: The three-day Naval Battle of Cape Matapan opens: In an attempt to intercept British convoys sailing to Greece, the Italian Navy puts a force of 1 Battleship, 8 Cruisers and 9 Destroyers, commanded by Vice-Admiral Angelo Iachino, out to sea. However, they are spotted by an RAF flying boat which alerts RN Admiral Andrew Browne Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, who orders the Mediterranean fleet (1 aircraft carrier, 3 battleships, 7 light cruisers and 17 destroyers) to slip anchor and intercept the Italians the next day.
[size=1]Cape Matapan (or Tænaron) in Greece[/size]
1942: Operation Chariot; in occupied France, British naval forces and Commandos, raid the German-occupied port of St. Nazaire. More Victoria Crosses were bestowed more quickly than any other British action in WWII.
1944: The 3rd Ukrainian Front (Gen. Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky) takes Nikolayev (present-day Mikolaiv, Ukraine) on the Black Sea and enters Romanian territory.
1945: The 1st Belorussian Front (Marshal Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov) captures Gotenhafen (present-day Gdynia, Poland) north of Danzig, along with 9,000 prisoners, after a long struggle. Hitler replaces Generaloberst Heinz Wilhelm Guderian with General der Infanterie Hans Krebs, as chief of OKH (Oberkommando des Heeres; Armed Forces High Command).
1945: The British Second Army (Lt. Gen. Miles Christopher Dempsey) begins its drive towards the Elbe as the U.S. First Army (Lt. Gen. Courtney Hicks Hodges) captures Marburg, 96 km (60 mi) NE of Koblenz. The U.S. Third Army (Gen. George Smith Patton Jr) captures Limburg on the Lahn.
[size=1]British Second Army's embroidered patch[/size]
1999: During the Kosovo War, 146 Kosovo Albanians are massacred by Serb paramilitaries in what is known today as the Izbica Massacre. The Izbica killings were cited in the War Crimes Tribunal's Indictment of Slobodan Milosevic.
2003: During Operation Telic, in Iraq, British Lance-Corporal of Horse Matthew Richard "Matty" Hull is killed in a friendly-fire incident when two U.S. A-10 Thunderbolt II aircraft of the Idaho Air National Guard, 190th Fighter Squadron, nearing the end of an operational mission, attacked a four vehicle British reconnaissance patrol of FV107 Scimitar armoured reconnaissance vehicles. As a result of the attack Hull died and five colleagues were injured.
1461: During the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of Towton occurs. Contemporary sources declare that the two armies were huge. According to chroniclers, more than 50,000 soldiers from the Houses of York, under King Edward VI of England, and Lancaster under Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset (on behalf of Henry VI and Queen Margaret), fought for hours amidst a snowstorm on that day, which was a Palm Sunday. The Lancastrian cause suffered an immense blow at Towton; many of their leaders were killed or captured, and King Henry and Queen Margaret were forced to flee north towards Scotland. Yet despite the slaughter (more men died at Towton - ca 30,000 - than in any other battle on British soil), nothing was settled. [IMG]http://i55.*******.com/ie32vo.gif[/IMG]
1632: The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye is signed by France and England. New France (Quebec, Acadia and Cape Breton Island) is returned to France.
1831: The Great Bosnian Uprising against Ottoman rule begins, when Husein-kapetan Gradaščević with 4,000 revolutionaries marched toward Travnik, then capital of the Ottoman province of Bosnia, located in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, 90 km (56 mi) west of Sarajevo.
[size=1]The revolutionary flag of Bosnia[/size]
1847: During the Mexicano-American War, the Mexican city of Veracruz, defended by Brig. Gen. Juan Esteban Morales and his 3,000 men, were forced to surrender to the U.S. force under Gen. Winfield Scott after a 20-day siege.
[size=1]Statue of Winfield Scott at the center of Scott Circle in Washington DC[/size]
1857: The Indian Rebellion, also known as Sepoy Mutiny, begins, when Sepoy (=Soldier) Mangal Pandey of the 34th Regiment of the Bengal Native Infantry (BNI) of the British East India Company, revolts against the British rule in India. His execution in April, will lead to the Indian insurrection of 1857. He is often referred to in India as Shaheed (=Martyr) Mangal Pandey.
1865: During the American Civil War and the final campaign of the war, the Appomatox Campaign, the Battle of Lewis' Farm occurs. The Union V Corps under Maj. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren encountered Maj. Gen. Bushrod Johnson's Confederate brigades. A sharp firefight forced the Confederates back to their entrenchments on the White Oak Road. The U.S. suffered 380 casualties. The C.S. sustained 370 killed or wounded. The campaign culminated in the surrender of Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and the effective end of the American Civil War.
1867: Queen Victoria gives Royal Assent to the British North America Act which will establish the Dominion of Canada on 1 July. Though the Act made Canada a self-governing confederation, the country was far from being entirely independent. The British Empire and its Imperial Parliament in London still retained a number of key political powers that limited the extent to which Canada could be regarded as truly sovereign.
[size=1]The flag of the Dominion of Canada[/size]
1879: During the Anglo-Zulu War, the Battle of Kambula occurs. A 20,000-strong Zulu army under InDuna (=Great Leader; second in command in the Zulu Kingdom after the King) Ntshingwayo kaMahole, attacked the British camp at Kambula, defended by the 2,000 troops of Col. Henry Evelyn Wood. The battle resulted in a decisive Zulu defeat and is considered to be the turning point of the Anglo-Zulu War. The Zulu force suffered ca 1,000 casualties. The British suffered 29 killed, 54 wounded.
1941: During the Naval Battle of Cape Matapan, the Italians spot a British convoy escorted by 4 Cruisers and 4 Destroyers and close in. The RN ships lure the Italians towards the main body of the Mediterranean Fleet which includes 3 battleships and the Aircraft Carrier HMS "Formidable" (67). The Formidable launches aircraft which attack and hit the Italian Battleship RM "Vittorio Veneto" with a torpedo, although it manages to limp back to Taranto. Later, they also hit the Cruiser RM "Pola" which is seriously damaged. The Italians decide to withdraw and detach 2 cruisers and 4 Destroyers to assist the damaged Cruiser Pola. However, the British intercept them and sink Pola and its 2 escort Cruisers RM "Zara" and RM "Fiume" as well as 2 of the escorting Destroyers. British losses total just 2 aircraft. The Italians suffer 2,300 crewmen killed, drowned or wounded. The British lost just a three airmen.
1942: Under the new tactical doctrine of area saturation bombing, introduced by Air Vice Marshal Harris, the RAF launches a heavy incendiary attack (234 bombers) against Lübeck on the Baltic that devastates 265 acres of the old city. The RAF lost 13 aircraft and from one of these the Germans were able to obtain their first specimen of the GEE equipment. In retaliation for the raid on Lübeck, Hitler orders the Luftwaffe to bomb historic British towns and cities.
1945: The U.S. Seventh Army (Lt. Gen. Alexander McCarrell Patch) takes Mannheim and the U.S. Third Army (Gen. George Smith Patton Jr) takes Wiesbaden and Frankfurt.
[size=1]Patton's famous pissing in the Rhine picture. The urine stream was removed by a censor[/size]
1945: The 1st Belorussian Front (Marshal Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov) finally captures the fortress town of Küstrin (present-day Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland) against desperate German resistance. The Soviets seize the oilfields South of Komárom in Hungary, the last source of petroleum for the German war effort.
1945: The 1,115th and last V2 to reach the UK, lands in Kynaston Road, Orpington, Kent, England.
2004: Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia join NATO as full members.
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1854: The Convention of Kanagawa is concluded between U.S. Navy Cdre Matthew Calbraith Perry and the Tokugawa shogunate. The treaty opened the Japanese ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to United States trade and guaranteed the safety of shipwrecked U.S. sailors.
[size=1]Cdre Perry's bust in Shimoda[/size]
1865: During the American Civil War and the final campaign of the war, the Appomatox Campaign, the Battle of White Oak Road occurs. In combination with Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan’s thrust via Dinwiddie Court House, Maj. Gen. Gouverneur Kemble Warren directed his V Corps against the Confederate entrenchments along White Oak Road, hoping to cut Lee’s communications with Pickett at Five Forks. The Union advance was stalled by a crushing counterattack directed by Maj. Gen. Bushrod Johnson, but Warren’s position stabilized and his soldiers closed on the road by day’s end.
The Union suffered 1,870 casualties. The Confederates lost 800 men.
1865: During the American Civil War and the final campaign of the war, the Appomatox Campaign, the Battle of Dinwiddie Court House occurs. Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee's Cavalry and Maj. Gen. George Pickett's infantry division met the Union vanguard N and NW of Dinwiddie Court House and drove it back, collapsing the Union lines into a tight perimeter around the village, and temporarily stalling Sheridan's movement. With Union infantry approaching from the east, Pickett withdrew before daybreak to entrench at the vital road junction at Five Forks. The U.S. suffered 352 casualties. The C.S. sustained 760 killed and wounded.
1866: During the Chincha Islands War (fought between Spain and its former colonies of Peru and Chile over the guano-rich Chincha Islands off the southwest coast of Peru), the Spanish fleet under Adm. Casto Secundino María Méndez Núñez, shelled and burned the Chilean town and port of Valparaíso, and destroyed the Chilean merchant fleet (thirty-three vessels were burned or sunk).
[size=1]The statue of Admiral Méndez Núñez in Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain[/size]
1917: Following the Treaty of the Danish West Indies (1916), by which the U.S. takes possession of the Danish West Indies after paying $25 million in gold to Denmark, U.S. Secretary of State Robert Lansing presents a warrant of $12 million to the Danish Minister Constantin Brun; on the next day, the formal transfer of the islands took place and they are renamed the United States Virgin Islands. Transfer Day (31 March) is a holiday celebrated in the U.S. Virgin Islands.
[size=1]An 1836 plan of Fort Christiansværn, Christiansted, in the Danish West Indies[/size]
1921: The Royal Australian Air Force is formed. It continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps (AFC), which was formed on 22 October 1912.
1936: During the Spanish Civil War, Nationalist Gen. Emilio Mola y Vidal, 1st Duke of Mola starts a new offensive in the north with 50,000 troops against the Basques. In the morning hours the Condor Legion attacks the small town of Durango; during an aerial bombardment some of the first bombs fall into the church during the well attended morning Mass while fighters fly low and machine-gun the fleeing population. 15 nuns are killed. Around 300 people perish in air raids, 2,500 are wounded, practically all of them civilians.
[size=1]Franco and Mola[/size]
1941: Field Marshal Sir John Greer Dill, Chief of the Imperial General Staff visits Yugoslavia secretly and proposes to the Yugoslavs a close military alliance with Britain. Gen. Dušan Simović, the head of the junta that toppled the pro-German Yugoslavian government, was anxious to avoid any "unduly provocative action" (sic) which could cause an immediate German attack as Yugoslavia is not yet ready. On the Greco-Italian front, Albanian Patriot Myslim Peza, attacks with his resistance group a convoy of Italian trucks between Tirana and Elbasan, inflicting heavy losses on the Italians. The Italians retaliate with a mopping-up opperation in Pezë - Peza's hometown - in which the Albanian guerillas suffered lightly while more than 70 Italians were killed in the firefight.
1942: Japanese forces invade and take Christmas Island, then a British possession, without any resistance. The USN submarine, USS "Seawolf" (SS-197) under Lt. Cdr Freddie Warder, struck with two torpedoes the Japanese light cruiser "Naka" which was severely damaged.
[size=1]Lt. Cdr "Fearless Freddie" Warder[/size]
1945: The Germans start pulling out of the Netherlands. The French First Army (Gen. Jean de Lattre de Tassigny) crosses the Rhine for first time since Napoleon. The U.S. Third Army (Gen. George Smith Patton Jr) reaches Siegen 32 km (20 mi) East of the Rhine.
[size=1]French First Army's crest in WWII[/size]
1945: A Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe, is surrendered by Messerschmitt test pilot Hans Fay who defected during a functional check flight rather than fly it to an operational unit, landing at Rhein-Main, Frankfurt, the first Me 262 to fall into allied hands.
1801: During the War of the Second Coalition, the Naval Battle of Copenhagen occurs. A RN fleet under Admiral Hyde Parker defeated a Dano-Norwegian fleet anchored just off Copenhagen, Denmark, commanded by the Danish Admiral Johan Olfert Fischer. Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson led the main attack. The Dano-Norwegian casualties were from 1,600 to 1,800 captured, killed or wounded. British casualties were 264 killed and 689 wounded.
1865: During the American Civil War and the final campaign of the war, the Appomatox Campaign, the Third Battle of Petersburg occurs. It was a decisive Union assault on the Confederate trenches by II, IX, VI and XXIV Corps. A heroic defence of Fort Gregg by a handful of Confederates prevented the Federals from entering the city that night. It ended the Siege of Petersburg, Virginia, and began Gen. Robert E. Lee's retreat to the west, where he hoped to obtain supplies and link up with Gen. Joseph Eggleston Johnston's army in North Carolina. Union casualties accounted for 3,500. Confederate casualties were 4,250.
1865: During the American Civil War and the final campaign of the war, the Appomatox Campaign, the Battle of Sutherland's Station occurs. Maj. Gen. Nelson A. Miles's Union division struck north from White Oak Road meeting elements of four Confederate brigades attempting to defend the South Side Railroad. The Confederate defenders were scattered and driven northwestward. With this victory, the Federals possessed the South Side Railroad, Gen. Robert E. Lee's last supply line into Petersburg. The U.S. suffered 370 killed or wounded. The C.S. lost 600 men.
1942: Axis air forces begin a bombing campaign against La Valetta, the British naval base on Malta.
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1943: The Greek submarine RHNS "Katsónes" (Y-1) under Cdr. Vasileios Laskos, torpedoes and sinks the Italian pilot boat F 77 / Tergeste (212 GRT) off Gytheium, in Laconia, in the southeastern Peloponnese, Greece. On the same day, in an audacious entrance into the bay of Gytheium, torpedoed and sank a German minelayer.
1944: The Soviets announce their entry into Romania and demand the complete surrender of the 18 divisions that comprise the trapped 1. Panzerarmee (Generalfeldmarschall Ewald von Kleist). The Red Army crosses the river Prut, E of Cernovcy in the Ukraine.
[size=1]The entire 1. Panzerarmee was encircled in the Kamenets-Podolski Pocket[/size]
1945: The 3rd Ukrainian Front (Marshal Fyodor Ivanovich Tolbukhin) and Bulgarian forces gain control of the main Hungarian oil production region. The 2nd Ukrainian Front (Marshal Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky) takes the industrial area of Mosonmagyaróvár in Hungary and reaches the Austrian border between the Danube river and the Neusiedl lake.
1945: More than 90,000 Japanese, 12,000 allies and 42,000 - 150,000 civilians will die in 82 days of bitter fighting, in the last major battle of WWII: The Battle of Okinawa begins.
1982: Operation Rosario; 600 Argentine Marines and Buzos Tácticos under the overall command of Lt. Cdr Guillermo Sánchez-Sabarots, mounted amphibious landings of the Falkland Islands. Three Argentines are wounded during the firefight but Lt. Pedro Edgardo Giachino is hit in the femoral artery and later dies, becoming the first casualty of the war. The British garrison will eventually surrender to the overwhelming Argentine forces. The capture of the Falklands by Argentina, marked the beginning of the Falklands War.
2002: Israeli forces surround the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem into which armed Palestinians had retreated. A siege ensues.
1559: The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis is signed between England and France (2 April), and France and Spain (3 April) at Le Cateau-Cambrésis, near Cambrai. The treaty ended the Italian Wars.
1821: During the Greek War of Independence, the Turks under Yusuf Pasha, enter the city of Patras (north-western Peloponnese) sack it and burn it to the ground. Two thirds of its 18,000 inhabitants are killed or enslaved. The British Consul for the Peloponnese, Philip James Green and the French consul François Charles Hugues Laurent Pouqueville, in their written accounts describe the events and the extent of destruction as horrific.
1834: Two of the generals of the Greek War of Independence, Theodoros Kolokotrónes and Demetrios Plaputas stand trial for treason as they opposed the Bavarian-dominated regency during King Otto I's rule (Otto was an underaged Prince of Bavaria when he was elected King of Greece). On 7 June 1834 both will be sentenced to death, but fearing the country was at risk of popular uprising, Otto's regency will pardon them in 1835.
[size=1]General Kolokotrónes, the Lion of Morea[/size]
1865: During the American Civil War and the final campaign of the war, the Appomatox Campaign, the Battle of Namozine Church occurs. It was mainly, a rearguard cavalry action. A brigade of Union cavalry under Col. William Well attacked Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry near Namozine Church. Confederate Gen. Rufus Barringer was captured nearby. The U.S. suffered 95 killed and wounded. The C.S. suffered just 15 wounded; 350 rebels were captured.
1942: The final Japanese offensive on Bataan begins with a five hour artillery and air bombardment which turn Mount Samat - major allied stronghold - into an inferno. After the bombardment, the Japanese launch infantry attacks (65th Brigade and 4th Division) supported by some tanks, and manage penetrations into U.S. - Filipino defensive positions.
1944: A Sacred Band group of thirty Commandos, led by Lt. Col. Andreas Kalinskes, conducted a raid against the High School grounds in the city of Mytilene, Lesbos island, and liberated Greek hostages held by the Germans there. German casualties included six killed. The Greeks suffered no casualty.
1945: The British Second Army (Lt. Gen. Miles Christopher Dempsey) reaches Münster; the U.S. Ninth Army (Lt. Gen. William Hood Simpson) captures Recklinghausen in the Ruhr, while the U.S. First Army (Lt. Gen. Courtney Hicks Hodges) takes Fulda and Kassel.
[size=1]U.S. Paratroopers ride British tanks in drive to Münster[/size]
1945: The Austrian resistance leader and former Wehrmacht Major, Carl Szokoll and Soviet military authorities confer about co-operation on the Russian offensive against Vienna. The 2nd Ukrainian Front (Marshal Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky) advances close to Vienna. Hard fighting continues as the Red Army advances towards Bratislava, Slovakia.
1946: Japanese General Masaharu Homma, responsible for the Death March of Bataan (a forcible transfer of 75,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war that was characterized by wide-ranging physical abuse and murder) is executed in the Philippines as war criminal.
1948: During the Jeju Uprising (a revolt on Jeju island off the south coast of the Korean Peninsula by the communist Workers Party of South Korea) a large demonstration is brutally suppressed by the South Korean military which resulted in the death of between 14,000 and 60,000 individuals and the destruction of many villages on the island.
1975: During the Vietnam War, Operation Babylift, the mass evacuation of children from South Vietnam to the U.S, Australia, France, and Canada at the end of the war, begins. The operation will end on 26 April and over 3,300 infants and children will be evacuated by then (although the actual number has been variously reported).
1982: The UK sends a naval task force to the south Atlantic to reclaim the disputed Falkland Islands from Argentina.
1081: Alexius I Comnenus is crowned Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire in the church of the Holy Wisdom, founding the Comnenœ Dynasty.
[size=1]Alexius' daughter, Anna Comnena, is the writer of the famous Alexiad, in which she describes the political and military history of the Empire during the reign of her father (1081-1118), making it one of the most important sources of information on the Byzantium of the High Middle Ages[/size]
1721: First Lord of the Treasury, Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Leader of the House of Commons, Robert Walpole becomes the first chief minister under the new constitutional framework, starting the office of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, under King George I.
1814: During the War of the Sixth Coalition, his Imperial and Royal Majesty Napoleon I, by the Grace of God and the Constitutions of the Republic, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine, Mediator of the Helvetic Confederation, abdicates in favour of his son; however, the Allies refused to accept this, and Napoleon was forced to abdicate unconditionally on 11 April.
1818: The United States Congress adopts the flag of the United States with 13 red and white *****es and one star for each state (then 20).
1865: During the American Civil War, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, visits Richmond, the captured by the Union capital city of the C.S.A
1913: During the First Balkan War, pilot Emmanuel Argyropulos and his observer Constantine Manos, become the first victims of the Hellenic Aviation Service when their Blériot XI plane crashes during a reconnaisance mission over Thessaloniki.
1944: Heeresgruppe Mitte (=Army Group Centre), under Generalfeldmarschall Ernst Busch launches a counterattack which succeeds in reaching German units surrounded at Kovel in the Pripet swamps of north-western Ukraine, since the 19th March.
[size=1]Waffen SS of the 5. SS-Panzerdivision "Wiking" carry a fallen comrade; Kovel was the site of fierce fighting between the 5th SS Panzer Division "Wiking" and the Red Army[/size]
1944: 28 USAAF B-24 heavy bombers, bombed for two hours at mid-day Bucharest for the first time. More than 5,000 civilians are killed and wounded. Seven allied aircraft were lost from enemy fighters, and 13 bombers were damaged and returned.
1945: The U.S. Third Army (Gen. George Smith Patton Jr) advancing toward Leipzig takes Suhl and Gotha and finally clears Kassel of German resistance. The British Second Army (Lt. Gen. Miles Christopher Dempsey) captures Osnabrück. The French First Army (Gen. Jean de Lattre de Tassigny) enters Karlsruhe.
1945: The 2nd (Marshal Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky) and 3rd (Marshal Fyodor Ivanovich Tolbukhin) Ukrainian Fronts complete the liberation of Hungary. Troops of the 2nd Ukrainian front capture Bratislava, Slovakia. The German forces counterattack in Moravská Ostrava and Nitra.
1945: Ohrdruf concentration camp, a Nazi forced labour and concentration camp located near Weimar, Germany, is liberated by U.S. forces.
[size=1]While on an inspection tour of the newly liberated Ohrdruf concentration camp, Gen. Dwight "Ike" Eisenhower and a party of high ranking U.S. Army officers, including Generals Bradley, Patton, and Eddy, view the charred remains of prisoners that were burned upon a section of railroad track during the evacuation of the camp[/size]
1949: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the UK and the USA, sign the North Atlantic Treaty, creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO).
1975: During the Vietnam War and Operation Babylift, the Tân Sơn Nhứt accident occurs. A Lockheed C-5A Galaxy with 311 passengers and crew, crashed on approach to an emergency landing at Tân Sơn Nhứt Air Base, Vietnam. The death toll included 76 children, 39 civilian employees, 11 Air Force personnel, and 8 nurses from foreign countries. There were 175 survivors. All of the surviving orphans were eventually flown to the United States while the dead ones were cremated and interred at a Catholic cemetery in Pattaya, Thailand.
2007: 15 British Royal Navy personnel held in Iran are released by the Iranian President.