1537: The Honourable Artillery Company was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1537 by King Henry VIII. It is the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior in the Territorial Army.
[size=1]The Regiment's badge; its motto: Arma Pacis Fulcra (=Armed Strength for Peace)[/size]
1580: During the War of the Portuguese Succession (fought from 1580 to 1583 between the two main claimants to the Portuguese throne, António, Prior of Crato, proclaimed initially as King of Portugal, and Philip II of Spain, who eventually succeeded in claiming the crown reining as Philip I of Portugal), the Battle of Alcântara occurs. A 14,800-strong Spanish army (including 1,800 horse) under Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba and the commander of the Duke of Alba's bodyguard, Sancho d'Avila, defeated a 8,500 Portuguese force (500 horse) commanded by António, Prior of Crato and his lieutenant, the Count of Vimioso.
[size=1]Dom Filipe I of Portugal[/size]
1758: During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Zorndorf occurs. 43,000 Russians under Count Wilhelm von Fermor, advanced within 100 km (62 miles) of Berlin in order to join the Austrians of Count Leopold Joseph von Daun. The Prussian King, Frederick II the Great, ahead of his 36,000-strong army, moved and attacked the Russians at Zorndorf, 10 km (6 miles) southeast of Küstrin. The Prussians lost 12,800 men, the Russians lost over 18,000 men. The battle appeared inconclusive, however. Although the Russians kept the battlefield on the following day, Fermor was the first to retreat towards Landsberg. His retreat prevented the Russians from reaching their Austrian allies and allowed Frederick to claim the battle as his victory.
[size=1]Frederick II the Great of Prussia[/size]
1830: The Belgian Revolution begins. After a performance at the Brussels opera, the Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie, riot erupted, quickly followed by uprisings elsewhere in the country against the rule of the Northern Provinces (=Netherlands) over the Southern (=today's Belgium).
[size=1]Daniel Auber's La Muette de Portici (=The Mute Girl of Portici), a sentimental and patriotic opera which led the crowd to pour into the streets after the performance, shouting patriotic slogans[/size]
1898: 700 Greek Christian-Cretans slaughtered and 77 British guards (including the British Consul) killed, in reprisal attacks by Turkish and Turkish-Cretan mobs, for the Cretan Insurrection of 1897 in the city of Heraklion. The Great Powers (United Kingdom, France, Austria-Hungary, Russia, Italy, Germany) decided that Ottoman Turkey could no longer maintain control of the island and intervened.
[size=1]Flag of the Cretan Revolutionaries. The inscription reads Union or Death (Union with Greece)[/size]
1941: Panzergruppe 2 (Generaloberst Guderian), along with the 2. Armee (Generaloberst von Weichs), attack southeast from their positions around Gomel and Bryansk, in an attempt to link up with units of Heeresgruppe Süd (=Army Group South) and encircle Kiev. Panzergruppe 1 (Feldmarshall von Kleist) begins a breakout towards the north from its bridgeheads across the Dnieper, with the aim of linking up with units of Heeresgruppe Mitte (=Army Group Centre) east of Kiev. The German 6. Armee (Feldmarshall von Reichenau) engages the bulk of the Soviet forces gathered around Kiev to stop them from retreating.
1942: The Battle of Milne Bay, Papua, begins. Two thousand Japanese land at Milne Bay, South East of Port Moresby and advance up Kokoda Trail. They are confronted with 9,000 (half non-combat personnel) Australian troops.
1942: Battle of Eastern Solomon's continues with a Japanese destroyer being sunk off Santa Isabel.
1944: French armour reaches Paris (Leclerc's 2e Division Blindée) as the 5,000-strong German garrison surrenders. De Gaulle enters Paris.
1991: The Battle of Vukovar begins. An 87-day siege of the Croatian city by the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), supported by various Serbian paramilitary forces, between 25 August-November 18, 1991.