1071: The Battle of Manzikert, the first battle of the Byzantine-Seljuq Wars, occurs. A 20,000-strong Byzantine army under the Byzantine Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes (including the 500 Frankish and Norman mercenaries under Roussel de Bailleul - commonly known as Frangopulos, some Oghuz and Pecheneg mercenaries and a contingent of Bulgarian, Georgian and Armenian troops led by the Armenian General Nicephoros Basilaces) was defeated by some 20-30,000 Seljuqs under their Sultan, Muhammad bin Da'ud Chaghri, commonly known as Alp Arslan (=Heroic lion). The Byzantine Emperor was captured alive. Alp Arslan, treated him with generosity, and terms of peace having been agreed to, dismissed him, loaded with presents and respectfully attended by a military guard. This famous conversation is recorded to have taken place after Romanos IV was brought as a prisoner before the Sultan:
-Alp Arslan: What would you do if I was brought before you as a prisoner?
-Romanos: Perhaps kill you, or exhibit you in the streets of Constantinople.
-Alp Arslan: My punishment is far heavier. I forgive you, and set you free.
The decisive defeat of the Byzantine army and the capture of the Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes played an important role in undermining Byzantine authority in Anatolia and Armenia.
1278: László IV of Hungary and Rudolph I of Holy Roman Empire, with 30,000 troops, defeat the 25–30,000 troops under Přemysl (=the Ploughman, the mythical ancestor of the Přemyslid dynasty) Ottokar II of Bohemia in the Battle of Marchfield near Dürnkrut in (then) Moravia.
Ottokar's camp was plundered, he himself was found slain at the battlefield.
1303: Allahudeen Khilji, the Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate, of Khalaj (Turco-Afghan) origin, leads a huge army and captures Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India.
1346: During the Hundred Years' War, the Battle of Crécy occurs. An Anglo-Welsh army of 9,000 to 10,000 troops, commanded by Edward III of England defeated an allied force of 35,000 to 100,000 troops comprised French, Genoese mercenaries, Basques from the Kingdom of Navarre, Czechs from the Kingdom of Bohemia and Majorcans from the Kingdom of Majorca, under the French King Philip VI. The combination of new weapons and tactics have caused many historians to consider this battle the beginning of the end of classic chivalry. The English losses were given as a few hundred while the French had lost their ally, the King of Bohemia (Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, nome de guerre the Black Prince, took the King's feathers and motto, Ich Dien (=I serve) as his own and this can be seen today in the Prince of Wales' crest), 11 princes, an Archbishop, about 1,200 knights and over 8,000 others.
[size=1]King of Bohemia's Crest[/size]
WWI-1914: The Battle of Tannenberg begins. It was fought by the Russian First and Second Armies (General Aleksandr Vassilievich Samsonov)and the German Eighth Army (Generalfeldmarschall Paul von Hindenburg) and ended on the 30th August. The battle resulted in the almost complete destruction of the Russian Second Army. The Russians lost 78,000 killed or wounded; 92,000 made prisoners.
WWI-1914: Following Mons, the British Expeditionary Force fights a rear-guard action at the Battle of Le Cateau. Le Cateau was an artilleryman's battle, demonstrating the devastating results which modern quick-firing artillery using airbursting shrapnel shells could have on infantry advancing in the open.
WWI-1914: The German colony of Togoland in West Africa, surrendered to the Entente forces who had invaded it unopposed on 6 August.
1922: During the Greek Campaign to Minor Asia, the Turkish Büyük Taarruz (Great Offensive) begins. The major Greek defence positions of Afyonkarahisar held by the Greek A' Corps were overrun within a few hours.
1941: German losses on Eastern Front reach 440,000, more than in the entire war before the beginning of Operation Barbarossa on 22nd June.
1942: The Massacre of Chortkiv, Western Ukraine occurs. At 2:30 am in the morning the German Schutzpolizei started driving Chortkiv's Jews out of their houses, split them in groups of 120, packed them into freight cars and deported 2,000 local Jews to the Belzec death camp. Five hundred Jewish sick and children were murdered on the spot.
1957: Soviet Union announces the first successful long flight, of 6,000 km/3,728 miles, of the R-7 Semyorka, the world's first true ICBM (= Intercontinental Ballistic Missile).
1966: SWAPO (South West Africa People's Organization) guerrilla forces launched an attack against a unit of the South African Police, and South African Air Force, at Omugulugwombashe, Namibia. It was the first armed battle in the Namibian War of Independence.