69: During the Year of the Four Emperors (in 69 AD, four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession - Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasi**** - following Nero's suicide), the Second Battle of Bedriacum occurs. Legions III Gallica, VIII Augusta, VII Claudia, VII Galbiana and XIII Gemina under Marcus Antonius Primus, the commander of the Danube armies, loyal to Titus Flavius Vespasi****, defeated the Legions XXI Rapax, V Alaudæ, I Italica and XXII Primigenia, loyal to Emperor Aulus Vitellius Germanicus, near the village of Bedriacum (modern-day Calvatone), about 35 km (20 miles) from the town of Cremona in northern Italy. Following his victory, Antonius attacked Cremona itself, which surrendered. Antonius continued to Rome, where Vitellius was taken prisoner and shortly afterwards killed. The way was thus cleared for Vespasi**** to ascend the throne near the end of the year.
[size=1]Titus Flavius Vespasi****[/size]
1360: The Treaty of Brétigny signed by King Edward III of England and King John II (the Good) of France, ended the first phase of the Hundred Years' War. In 1369, on the pretext that Edward III had failed to observe the terms of the treaty of Brétigny, the king of France declared war once again.
1648: The signing of the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 at Münster and Osnabrück ended the Thirty Years' War and Eighty Years' War and was one of the foundations upon which modern Europe was built. It also guaranteed the future of the prince-bishop and the diocese; Münster was to be exclusively Roman Catholic.
[size=1]Europe after the Peace of Westphalia[/size]
1795: With the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Poland is divided between Russia, Prussia and Austria, the Polish state is erased from the map.
1690: During the War of the Grand Alliance (fought from 1688 - 1697 between King Louis XIV of France, and a European-wide coalition, the Grand Alliance, led by the Anglo-Dutch Stadtholder-King William III, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, King Charles II of Spain, Victor Amadeus II of Savoy, and the major and minor princes of the Holy Roman Empire) the Battle of Québec concludes with the exchange of prisoners. A militia army of 2,000 from New France (a territory extended from Newfoundland to the Rocky Mountains and from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico) under Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac et de Palluau, defeated a British army of some 2,300 men comprised British regulars and Massachusetts Bay Colony militia (including 60 natives) under Sir William Phips in a week-long battle. The Anglo-American colonial force failed to seize Québec from the French.
1812: During the French Invasion to Russia, the Battle of Maloyaroslavets occurs. A Russian army of 12,000 infantry, 3,000 cavalry and 84 cannon, under General Dmitry Sergeyevich Dokhturov, surprised the 20,000 French and Italians of Napoleon's stepson, Eugène Rose de Beauharnais, Prince Français, Prince of Venice, Viceroy of the Kingdom of Italy, Hereditary Grand Duke of Frankfurt, 1st Duke of Leuchtenberg and 1st Prince of Eichstätt ad personam, and General Alexis Joseph Delzons. Their Corps was leading Napoleon's army during the Moscow evacuation. Upon arrival of Marshal Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov's Corps numbering some additional 10,000, Beauharnais' Corps turned and continued its retreat Northwards. French casualties were about 5,000, including Delzons killed, while the Russians lost 6,000.
1912: During the First Balkan War, the week-long Battle of Pente-Peghádhia opens. A Greek force of barely 8,000 troops comprised the 15th Infantry Regiment and five independent battalions, supported by 24 field guns, under Lt. Gen. Constantine Sapuntzákes, engaged the 7,000 troops of the Ottoman 23rd Division, with 32 guns, under Esat Pasha, at Pente-Peghádhia, near the Epirotan town of Preveza. Esat Pasha, having set up his headquarters at Pente-Peghádhia, began an attack against the Greek positions with 5 battalions. Due to bad weather and the early onset of snow, the attack petered out to local actions, which ended with the Ottoman withdrawal seven days later. The Greeks suffered 26 dead and 222 wounded. Ottoman casualties are unknown. The battle of Pente-Peghádhia was the first major action on the Greek secondary theatre of operations, in Epirus, during the First Balkan War.
1912: During the First Balkan War, the two-day Battle of Amyntæon concludes. While the Greek 5th Infantry Division (Maj. Gen. Mathiopulos) was advancing northwards, towards Bitola, they were surprised near Veve by an attack of the Ottoman VI Corps (part of the Vardar Army with the 16th, 17th and 18th Nizamiye divisions), which was retreating following the battle of Prilepe with the Serbs. The Greeks, isolated from the rest of Greek army and outnumbered by the now counterattacking Turks, fell back towards Amyntæon, leaving Bitola to be eventually captured by the Serbs. The Greek Division suffered 168 dead, 196 wounded; 10 made prisoners. The battle is an evidence of the consequences of the lack of any coordination between the allies, during the First Balkan War.
WWI-1917: The Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo, commonly known as Battle of Caporetto, ends in Italian failure. Austro-German forces breakthrough at Caporetto on Italian front. The Central Powers' offensive began at approximately 02:00 hours with 15 divisions and 2,213 artillery under Austro-Hungarian Field Marshal Svetozar Boroević von Bojna and German General Otto von Below against the 25 Italian divisions with 2,200 artillery, under Field Marshal Luigi Cadorna and General Luigi Capello. Italian losses were enormous: 11,000 were killed, 20,000 wounded and 265,000 were taken prisoner; morale was so low amongst the Italians, mainly due to Cadorna's harsh disciplinary regime, that most of these surrendered willingly. Furthermore, roughly 3,000 guns, 3,000 machine guns and 2,000 mortars were captured. Austrians and Germans lost ca 20,000 killed or wounded.
1930: A bloodless coup d'état in Brazil ousts Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa, the last President of the First Republic. Getúlio Dornelles Vargas is then installed as "provisional president."
1944: The allies cross the Saar near the Franco-German border. Troops of the French First Army (General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny) capture Mulhouse/Mühlhausen in Alsace, while the French 2nd Armoured Division (General Philippe Leclerc) takes Strasbourg.