1543: During the Turko-Portuguese War of 1538 - 1557, the Battle of Wayna Daga occurs. An allied 8000-strong army comprised Ethiopian infantry and Portuguese musketeers, with 600 Ethiopian and Portuguese cavalry, under the overall command of Ethiopian Emperor Gelawdewos, defeated a 15,000-strong Muslim army consisted of forces from the Somali Adal Sultanate and Ottoman Empire, under the Imam and General of Adal, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, at Wayna Daga, East of Lake Tana in Ethiopia. Tradition states that Ahmad was killed by a Portuguese musketeer, who had charged alone into the Muslim lines. Once his soldiers learned of the Imam's death, they fled the battlefield.
1613: Mikhail I Fyodorovich Romanov is elected unanimously as Tsar by a national assembly, beginning the Romanov dynasty of Imperial Russia.
1862: During the American Civil War, the Battle of Valverde occurs. As Confederate Brig. Gen. Henry H. Sibley led his force of 2,590 men across the Rio Grande River and up the east side of the river to the ford at Valverde, New Mexico, in order to capture Fort Craig both to eliminate the Union garrison as a threat to their rear and to capture the supplies in the fort, they were attacked by more than 3,000 men of US Col. E.R.S. Canby. The Confederates halted their retirement at the Old Rio Grande riverbed and Canby ordered a retreat. The Confederates claimed victory but had suffered heavy casualties, losing 230 men killed and wounded out of 2,590 men engaged. The US suffered 202 casualties.
1913: During the First Balkan War, the three-day Battle of Bizani concludes. The Greek Epirus Front Army (three Infantry Divisions) under Crown Prince Constantine, supported by 105 arty pieces, launched on the 19th, the final assault against the Bizani and Kastritsa Fortresses, covering the western and northwestern approaches of the Epirotan capital, Yanya (present-day Ioannina, Epirus, Greece). The fortresses were manned by the Ottoman Yanya Corps (23rd Regular Infantry Division, Yanya Reserve Infantry Division, Yanya Fortified Area Command with ca 35,000 troops) under Mehmet Esat Pasha, supported by 162 arty pieces. Following a two-day bloody encounter, eventually the fortresses of Bizani and Kastritsa were cut off and isolated; Esat Pasha agreed upon the unconditional surrender of Ioannina and the Ottoman garrison to the Greeks. The Greek army inflicted some 2,800 Ottoman casualties, while suffering only 284 of its own. The Greeks captured additional 1,000 officers and 32,000 other ranks prisoners.
[size=1]The Polish national and ethnic Belarusian, Zygmunt Minejka, an alumnus of the Military School of Genoa, Italy, helped Greece in the wars against the Ottoman Empire in 1897 and 1912; he prepared the plans for capturing the city of Ioannina from the Ottomans. He is the great-grandfather of the current Greek PM, George Papandréu[/size]
1943: The 25th Anniversary of the creation of the Red Army is celebrated in all allied countries.
1945: Escort Carrier USS "Bismarck Sea" (CVE-95) (Cpt. J. L. Pratt) was sunk with the loss of 318 men when two Japanese kamikazes hit her on the starboard side under the first 40 mm gun (aft), crashing through the hangar deck and striking the ship's magazines. Bismarck Sea was the last US Navy aircraft carrier to be lost during WWII.
1952: In Dhaka, East Pakistan (today's Bangladesh) police open fire on a procession of students that was demanding the establishment of Bengali as the official language, killing four people and starting a country-wide protest which led to the recognition of Bengali as one of the national languages of Pakistan. The day is later declared as International Mother Language Day by UNESCO.
[size=1]The Monument known as language martyr's memorial, located at Dhaka, Bangladesh[/size]
1973: Libyan Arab Airlines Boeing 727 5A-DAH of the regularly-scheduled Flight 114, was intercepted by two Israeli F-4 Phantom II and shot down over Sinai, killing 108. The Israeli government revealed that Flight 114 had been shot down with the personal authorization of David Elazar, the Israeli Chief of Staff. Israel's Defence Minister Moshe Dayan called it an "error of judgement", and Israel paid compensation to the victims' families.
1974: The last Israeli soldiers leave the west bank of the Suez Canal pursuant to a truce with Egypt.
1495: During the Italian Wars (a series of conflicts arising from dynastic disputes over the Duchy of Milan and the Kingdom of Naples involving the Papal States, most of the city-states of Italy, France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, Scotland as well as the Ottoman Empire) King Charles VIII of France leading a 25,000-men army (including 8,000 Swiss mercenaries), enters Naples to claim the kingdom's throne.
[size=1]The pre-Aragonese flag of the Kingdom of Naples[/size]
1744: During the War of the Austrian Succession, the Naval Battle of Toulon occurs. A combined Franco-Spanish fleet consisted of 27 ships of the line, 3 frigates and 3 smaller warships, led by the Spanish Capitán-General, Don Juan José de Navarro Viana y Búfalo, Marqués de la Victoria, fought off a 39-strong Royal Navy fleet commanded by Admiral Thomas Mathews. The allies suffered 149 crewmen killed, 467 wounded; 5 ships were damaged, 1 ship was sunk. The British sustained at least 142 crewmen killed, 196 - 700 wounded; 10 ships were damaged, 1 ship was sunk. In Britain the battle was regarded as a national disgrace.
1797: During the War of the First Coalition, the three-day Battle of Fishguard begins. A French invading force consisted of 1,400 Frenchmen of the Légion Noire (=Black Legion) under the command of Irish-American Col. William Tate, landed at Carregwastad Point, near the Welsh port of Fishguard but were met by a quickly assembled group of around 500 British reservists, militia and sailors under the command of John Campbell of Cawdor, 1st Baron Cawdor of Castlemartin. Tate was forced into an unconditional surrender by 24 February. The invading force suffered 33 men killed and wounded, 1,800 captured. British casualties were minimal. This was the last invasion of the British mainland by foreign forces.
1821: Greek revolutionary Alexander Ypsilanti accompanied by several other Greek officers in Russian service, crossed the Pruth River (present-day Prut, Ukraine) at Sculeni (present-day Sculeni, Moldova) and entered the Principalities of Moldavia - Wallachia, hoping that a generalised Balkan revolt against the Ottoman Empire, would ultimately lead to a Russian intervention. Since the Ottomans would have to invade and quell the rebellion, the Orthodox Russians would certainly intervene in favour of their fellow Orthodox.
[size=1]Ypsilanti crosses the Pruth - Painting by Peter von Hess[/size]
1841: The Cretan Insurrection of 1841 begins, when the Cretan Aristides Chæretes, exiled by the Ottomans to Greece, returns to his native island in secret and declares Union with Greece. The rebels initially managed to gain control of most of the hinterland but eventually the revolt will be quelled by the Ottomans.
1847: During the Mexicano-American War, the two-day Battle of Buena Vista begins. A 4,750-strong U.S. Army of the Occupation led by Maj. Gen. Zachary Taylor, drove off a much larger Maxican force comprised ~16,000 men under Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna at Buena Vista, a village of the state of Coahuila, in northern Mexico. The battle was the last major battle in northern Mexico. It was Taylor's greatest battle of the war and also his last; he returned to the U.S. to pursue his political career. The Mexican force suffered 5,530 killed, wounded and missing; ca 300 were captured. The U.S. suffered 770 killed, wounded and missing.
1862: During the American Civil War, Jefferson Davis is officially inaugurated for a six-year term as the President of the Confederate States of America in Richmond, Virginia.
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[size=1]The first and last President of the CSA, formed from the states which declared their secession from the United States[/size]
1882: The Principality of Serbia, after its full international recognition at the Treaty of Berlin in 1878, is raised to the level of the Kingdom of Serbia. Prince Milan IV Obrenović is proclaimed King Milan I of Serbia.
1913: During the First Balkan War, the Greek forces under Crown Prince Constantine parade through the flag-covered streets of the city of Ioannina.
[size=1]Greek troops enter the city of Ioannina[/size]
1942: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt directed Gen. Douglas MacArthur to pull out from the Philippines - for Australia - with a brief, one-week stay in Mindanao. At first, according to MacArthur’s biographer Frazier Hunt, the general wanted to refuse the order. His staff convinced him otherwise. Believing one of his primary objectives in Australia was to mount a Philippine counter-offensive, based from Mindanao, MacArthur left the Philippines on 12 March. He thought he would soon return.
1943: Heeresgruppe Mitte (=Army Group Centre) (Generalfeldmarschall Ernst Busch) begins a counterattack in the area between the Dnieper and Donets.
[size=1]Wehrmacht troops on sleds[/size]
1943: The ESEA (=Union of Comrades for National Struggle) a right-wing resistance group, is formed in northern Greece by the Hellenic Army's Lt. Col. Anthony Phosterídes. His group was consisted of Greek Pontian refugees many of whom had personal experience of guerilla warfare in Pontus (a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day northeastern Turkey), against the Turkish army, from 1919 - 1923. The most successful strike against the Bulgarian occupation of eastern Macedonia - Thrace, was given at the bridge of River Nestos in the Battle of Nestos (7 May 1944). 80 insurgents divided into three assault groups attacked a Bulgarian battalion. British sources number about 150 dead and wounded Bulgarian soldiers (amongst them several officers). The insurgents suffered 9 dead and many more wounded.
[size=1]Anthony Phosterídes, nom-de-guerre, Anton Tsaús; his father was a Greek Potnian guerrilla from the village Krinides, in Pontus[/size]
1944: USAAF aircraft of the 446th Bomber Group of the 8th US Air Force, mistakenly bomb the Dutch towns of Nijmegen, Arnhem, Enschede and Deventer. Over 750 people perished in the raid which has caused controversy ever since.
1945: After a heavy four-day battle, the U.S Fifth Army (Maj. Gen. Lucian King Truscott Jr) takes the Upper Reno Valley in northern Italy between Bologna and Florence.
[size=1]Major-General Lucian King Truscott Jr.[/size]
1986: Start of the People Power Revolution, a series of popular non-violent revolutions and prayerful mass street demonstrations in the Philippines.
1994: Aldrich Hazen Ames, a Central Intelligence Agency counter-intelligence officer and analyst, and his wife, were formally charged by the U.S. Department of Justice with spying for the USSR and Russia. Ames could have faced the death penalty because his betrayal had resulted in the deaths of a number of CIA assets. However, he received a sentence of life imprisonment, and his wife received a 5-year prison sentence for conspiracy to commit espionage and tax evasion as part of a plea-bargain by Ames.
Last edited by valtrex; 02-22-2011 at 06:08 AM.
1778: During the American Revolutionary War, the Prussian born Baron, Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand von Steuben, arrives at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania to help train the Continental Army. He wrote the Revolutionary War Drill Manual, the book that served as the standard United States drill manual until the War of 1812. He served as General George Washington's chief of staff in the final years of the war.
1836: During the Texas Revolution, the 13-day Battle of the Alamo begins. The battle served as a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. A Texian force of 182 - 260 men under the co-commanders James "Jim" Bowie and Lt. Col. William Barret Travis, were defeated by a 1,500-strong Mexican army under Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna, at the Alamo Mission, near San Antonio de Béxar (present-day San Antonio, Texas). All but two of the Texian defenders were killed. 400 - 600 Mexicans were killed or wounded.
1854: The Orange Free State, an independent Boer republic in southern Africa is declared.
1903: U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt signed original lease agreement with Cuba for Naval Base Guantánamo Bay.
[size=1]1916 photograph of Guantanamo Bay Naval Base[/size]
WWI-1917: The first of two revolutions in Tsarist Russia, the February Revolution, begins. This revolution appeared to break out spontaneously, without any real leadership or formal planning. Its immediate result was the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, the collapse of Imperial Russia and the end of the Romanov dynasty. Tsarism was replaced by a Russian Provisional Government under Prince Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov. Socialists also formed the Petrograd Soviet, and ruled together with the Constitutional Democrats, in a system known as Dual Power.
WWI-1918: First victory of Red Army over the Germans near Narva and Pskov. Rostov was recaptured by the Soviets from the Don Cossacks. In honour of this victory, the date is celebrated from 1923 onward as Red Army Day; it is renamed Defender of the Fatherland Day after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, and is colloquially known as Men's Day.
1940: Sweden announces that she will not permit British or French troops to cross through her territory on their way to Finland. The Soviet Union announces its final conditions for peace. Finland must hand over the Karelia Isthmus and the shores of Lake Ladoga. It must also grant a 30 year lease on the Hangö Peninsula and sign a mutual assistance treaty, guaranteeing the security of the Gulf of Finland against external threats. In return for all this, the Soviets will withdraw from the Petsamo area.
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, Alexandros Koryzís, the Greek premier formally accepts Britain's offer of troops. On 4 March, the British will send their first convoy of troops and supplies to Greece, under the orders of Lt. Gen. Sir Henry Maitland Wilson. Their forces were four divisions (57,000 soldiers), two of them armoured. They however, will only take part in the battles against the Germans, in April.
[size=1]The Greek premier, Alexandros Koryzís; on 18 April, as German troops marched towards Athens and the city was placed under martial law, he committed suicide[/size]
1944: Maj. Gen. John Porter Lucas is sacked from the Anzio command and is replaced by Maj. Gen. Lucian King Truscott Jr. German counter-attacks drive the Anzio beachhead back further.
1945: The U.S. Ninth Army (Lt. Gen. William Hood Simpson) begins an offensive from its bridgeheads on the Ruhr River. The bloody Battle of the Hürtgen Forest, a series of fierce battles fought between U.S. and German forces in the 130 sq. km (50 sq. mi) area, which became the longest battle on German ground during World War II, and the longest single battle the U.S. Army has ever fought in its history, concludes. It's estimated that 200,000 troops, on both sides, plus replacements, were committed to Hürtgen; by the end there had been U.S. 23,000 battle casualties (plus 9,000 non-battle), 28,000 German casualties. Two divisions, the U.S. 4th Infantry Division (Maj. Gen. Harold W. Blakeley) and the U.S. 9th Infantry Division (Maj. Gen. Louis A. Craig), were so badly mauled that they were withdrawn from the line to recuperate.
1945: U.S. paratroops of the 11th Airborne Division (Maj. Gen. Joseph Swing) with Filipino guerrillas, spring 2,146 detainees from the Los Baños Japanese camp South of Manila in surprise attack, during which 243 Japanese are killed for loss of just two U.S. killed and two injured. U.S. Marines storm Mt. Suribachi on Iwo Jima and raise the U.S. flag.
1945: Capitulation of German garrison of Festung Posen (=Fortress Posen) (present-day Poznań, Poland). The city is liberated by Soviet and Polish forces.
1966: In Syria, Baath party member Salah Jadid leads an intra-party military coup that replaces the previous government of General Amin Hafiz, also a Baathist.
[size=1]Gen. Salah Jadid[/size]
1981: In Spain, Lt. Col. of the Guardia Civil, Antonio Tejero Molina, attempts a coup d'état by capturing the Spanish Congress of Deputies.
1991: In Thailand, General Sunthorn Kongsompong leads a bloodless coup d'état, deposing Prime Minister Chatichai Choonhavan.
2008: A USAF B-2 Spirit stealth heavy bomber, crashed on the runway shortly after takeoff from Andersen Air Force Base in Guam. The incident marks the first operational loss of a B-2 bomber. Both crew members were able to escape the aircraft.
303: Roman Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocleti****, publishes his edict that begins the empire's last, largest, and bloodiest official persecution of Christianity.
1303: During the First War of Scottish Independence, the Battle of Roslin occurs. 3,000 Scotsmen under John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, and 5,000 more led by Sir Simon Fraser of Oliver and Neidpath, Knight Banneret, defeated a similar English force under Sir John Segrave at Roslin in Midlothian, Scotland, to the south of Edinburgh. The English losses were so great and so sudden that Seagrave surrendered himself and the survivors to avoid total annihilation.
1538: The Treaty of Nagyvárad, a secret Peace Pact, is signed by Ferdinand I of the Holy Roman Empire and the King of Hungary János Szapolyai. Ferdinand retained the western parts of the Hungarian Kingdom, and was recognized as heir to the Hungarian throne, Szapolyai was left with the remaining two-thirds of the Kingdom.
[size=1]King of Hungary János Szapolyai[/size]
1739: During the Persian Invasion of India, the Battle of Karnal occurs. Persian Emperor Nader Shah Afshar's army, defeated the army of Muhammad Shah, the Mughal Emperor, in little more than three hours, at Karnal, 110 km (68 mi) N of Delhi, India. Mughal casualties numbered 20,000 - 30,000 killed and wounded. The Persians were estimated to have lost around 2,500 men.
[size=1]The conqueror of Karnal, Nader Shah Afshar[/size]
1821: Greek Revolutionary, Alexander Ypsilanti, from Jassy, Moldavia (today's Jassy, Romania), announces his manifesto Fight for the Faith and Fatherland and calls for the oppressed Orthodox Christians to revolt for their liberation from the Ottoman Empire. The Revolution in the Danubian Principalities is proclaimed.
[size=1]"Fight for Faith and Fatherland! The time has come, O Greeks! Let national phalanxes be formed, let patriotic legions appear and you will see those old giants of despotism fall themselves, before our triumphant banners"[/size]
1826: The Treaty of Yandabo, signed by Gen. Archibald Campbell, 1st Baronet on the British side, and by Governor of Legaing Maha Min Hla Kyaw Htin from the Burmese side, ends the First Anglo-Burmese War. The Burmese ceded to the British almost all of northeastern India and the western Burmese state of Rakhine.
[size=1]Sir Archibald Campbell[/size]
1831: The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, signed by the United States and the Choctaw Nation, becomes the first removal treaty in accordance with the Indian Removal Act. The Choctaws in Mississippi cede land east of the river in exchange for payment and land in the West.
1881: The Treaty of Saint Petersburg is signed in Saint Petersburg, Russia, by the plenipotentiaries of the Russian Empire and the Chinese Empire. It provided for the return to China of the eastern part of the Ili Basin region, occupied by Russia in 1871 during the Muslim Rebellion. The border between the two empires set by Article 7 of the treaty remains the border between Kazakhstan and China until this day.
WWI-1917: The Zimmermann Telegram, a diplomatic proposal from the German Empire to Mexico to make war against the United States while Germany pledges to ensure the return of New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona to Mexico is made known to Walter Hines Page, the U.S. ambassador to the United Kingdom. The proposal was declined by Mexico, but angered Americans and led in part to a U.S. declaration of war in April.
[size=1]Mexican territory in 1917 (dark green), territory promised to Mexico in the Zimmermann telegram (light green), and original Mexican territory (red line)[/size]
WWI-1918: The Manifesto to the Peoples of Estonia, the founding act of the Republic of Estonia, is declared. 24 February, is the Estonian National Day or Estonian Independence Day.
[size=1]"Estonia, within its historical and ethnic boundaries, is declared as of today an Independent Democratic Republic"[/size]
1920: In the Staatliches Hofbräuhaus in München, a brewery in Munich, Bavaria, Germany, before an audience of 2,000, the National Socialist German Workers' Party's (NSDAP) program is proclaimed, by Anton Drexler, Gottfried Feder and Adolf Hitler. The Nazi Party is founded.
1943: Dynamic reaction of 200,000 Athenians against the recruitment of Greek workers for the Reich, announced by Nazi authorities in the German News newspaper. 3 demonstrators were killed and 30 more were wounded in the tumult. Similar if not bigger protests were repeated on 5 March, resulting in the suspension and cancellation of the plan for the recruitment.
1944: Hitler speaks to a closed door meeting of Nazi Party leaders and activists at the Hofbrauhaus in Munich on the occasion of the 24th anniversary of the proclamation of the Party Program in 1920. Hitler refuses Goebbels requests that the speech be broadcast and even prohibits any mention of it in the newspapers.
1944: Merrill’s Marauders (U.S. 5307th Composite Unit under Brig. Gen. Frank Merrill) begins Maj. Gen. Joseph Warren Stilwell’s Sino-American 1,000-mile (1,609 km) advance into northern Burma.
[size=1]Brig. Gen. Frank D. Merrill and Μaj. Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell meet near Naubum, Burma[/size]
1945: A haggard and aged-looking Hitler addresses his Gauleiters and Reichsleiters for what proves to be the last time in the Reich Chancellery in Berlin on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the proclamation of the Nazi Party program. Perhaps sensitive to the likelihood of public scepticism and derision, he refuses to allow the speech to be broadcast or even reported to the public at large.
1945: A German counter attack wipes out the Soviet bridgehead on Hron, the left tributary of the Danube and the second longest river in Slovakia, to the northwest of Budapest.
1991: The Liberation of Kuwait Campaign, the 100-hour ground campaign to retake Kuwait from Iraq after the massive air campaign, opens at 0400 hours on 24 February, when the U.S. 1st Marine (Maj. Gen. James M. Myatt) and 2nd Marine (Maj. Gen. William M. Keys) Divisions crossed into Kuwait; Detachment 11, 1st Light Armored Infantry Battalion, was assigned to escort the follow-on convoy from al-Mishab in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia to al-Wafrah, Kuwait.
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1833: With a Royal Degree, the Greek government abolishes the irregular militias, creates the Hellenic Army, and establishes the Corps of Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers.
1933: The first USN ship to be built solely as an aircraft carrier, the USS "Ranger" (CV-4) is launched.
1941: Operation Abstention; 200 British Commandos from Layforce (=a force of commandos drawn from No. 3, No. 7 Commando, No. 8 (Guards), and No. 11 (Scottish) Commando named after the officer in charge, Col. Robert "Lucky" Laycock) and a 24-Marine detachment of Royal Marines, under the overall command of Maj. Frank Cooper, land on the Italian held, island of Megíste (Castellorizzo) in the Dodecanese. The Italian presence there consisted of 30 soldiers of the signal corps, 10 carabinieri and agents of the Guardia di Finanza in charge of a wireless station. British troops took the garrison by surprise, seizing the radio outpost. Twelve of the Italians were taken prisoners. Yet, before the commandos could overrun them, the Italians sent an alert to Rhodes, the main Italian air and naval base in the Dodecanese. The British held the island just for two days.
1941: Following the large scale pogrom undertaken by the Germans in occupied Amsterdam against Jews (425 Jewish men, age 20-35 were taken hostage and imprisoned in Kamp Schoorl and eventually sent to the Buchenwald and Mauthausen concentration camps) the February Strike begins. It was a general strike organized during World War II in German-occupied Holland, against the anti-Jewish measures and activities by the Nazis. Although ultimately unsuccessful, it was still significant in that it was the first direct action against the Nazi treatment of Jews in Europe.
[size=1]The statue De Dokwerker (the Docker in Amsterdam, commemorating the people who on 25 February 1941 put down their work to protest against the repression against jews[/size]
1945: Turkey declares war against Germany.
[size=1]British PM Winston Churchill with Turkish PM, Mustafa İsmet İnönü in 1943[/size]
1968: 135 unarmed citizens of Ha My village in South Vietnam's Quảng Nam Province are killed and buried en mass by South Korean troops in what would come to be known as the Ha My massacre.
[size=1]Gen. Lee Sae Ho, C-in-C of Korean Forces in Vietnam[/size]
1986: During the Philippine People Power Revolution, President Ferdinand Marcos of the Philippines flees the nation after 20 years of rule; President Marcos and his family were transported by four USN helicopters to Clark Air Base in Angeles City, Pampanga, about 83 km (51 mi) north of Manila, before boarding USAF C-130 planes bound for Andersen Air Force Base in Guam, and finally to Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii where Marcos arrived on 26 February. Corazon Aquino becomes the first Filipino woman president.
[size=1]Commemorative statue of the Revolution[/size]
1991: During the Persian Gulf War, the Saudi city of Dhahran was the scene of the largest loss of life amongst coalition forces. An Iraqi al-Hussein Scud missile hits a U.S. Army barracks in the city, killing 28 American reservists from Pennsylvania.
2009: During the two-day Bangladesh Rifles Revolt, a mutiny staged by a section of the Bangladesh Rifles (BDR), a Bangladeshi paramilitary force mainly associated with guarding the borders of the country, 74 people are killed, including more than 50 army officials, by Bangladesh Rifles paramilitaries, inside their headquarters. The overall number of casualties reached 148 people killed or missing. The mutiny ended as the mutineers surrendered their arms and released the hostages after a series of discussions and negotiations with the government. In January 2011, hundreds were tried in Bangladesh for the mutiny.
1266: During the struggle for power between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire, the Battle of Benevento occurs. An Angevin French army and mercenaries under Charles of Anjou, supported by the Papacy, defeated an Imperial Hohenstaufen army consisted of troops from the Kingdom of Sicily, German and Italian mercenaries and Saracen archers, under Manfred, King of Sicily, near Benevento, present-day Benevento, Campania, Italy. The destruction of Hohestaufen army and the death of Manfred marked the collapse of Hohenstaufen rule in Italy. The remainder of the Kingdom of Sicily was conquered almost without resistance.
[size=1]The conqueror of Benevento, Charles of Anjou - statue in Naples, Italy[/size]
1658: The Treaty of Roskilde is signed by King Frederick III of Denmark - Norway and King Charles X Gustav of Sweden in the Danish city of Roskilde. According to the treaty, four Danish and two Norwegian provinces were ceded to Sweden, while the Danes renounced all anti-Swedish alliances. After the treaty entered into force, Swedish forces continued to campaign in the remainder of Denmark - Norway, but had to withdraw from the Danish isles and Trøndelag in face of a Danish-Norwegian-Dutch alliance.
[size=1]In red: Halland, previously occupied by Sweden for a 30-year period under the terms of the Peace of Brömsebro (1645), was now permanently ceded. In yellow: Skåne and Bohuslän also became Swedish. In purple: Trøndelag and Bornholm provinces, were ceded to Sweden with the treaty of Roskilde; they rebelled and returned to Dano-Norwegian rule in 1660[/size]
1815: Napoleon escapes from Elba. Following the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1814), French Emperor Napoleon I was exiled to Elba after his forced abdication in 1814 and arrived at Portoferraio on 3 May, 1814 to begin his exile there. He was allowed to keep a personal guard of six hundred men. He stayed on Elba for 300 days.
[size=1]Napoleon on Elba[/size]
1822: During the Greek War of Independence, the Battle of Khalandrítsa occurs. Greek revolutionaries under Ioannes Kolokotrónes and his cousin Apostolos, defeated 2,000 Ottomans near Khalandrítsa, about 17 km (10 mi) southwest of Patras in western Peloponnese.
[size=1]Ioannes "Gennæos" Kolokotrónes, the son of one of the leaders of the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire, Marshal Theodoros Kolokotrónes, served as the last Prime Minister under King Otto for 5 months (May - October 1862); he acquired the name Gennæos (=the Brave) for his bravery in battles[/size]
1848: The French Second Republic, the republican government of France that ended with the coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte which initiated the Second Empire, is proclaimed.
1935: Adolf Hitler ordered Hermann Göring to establish the Luftwaffe, breaking the Treaty of Versailles's ban on German military aviation. Germany violated the treaty without sanction from Britain, France, or the League of Nations, and neither they nor the league did anything to oppose this.
1936: The 2-2-6 Incident, an attempted coup d'état in Japan carried out by 1,483 troops of the Imperial Japanese Army begins. Several leading politicians were killed and the center of Tokyo was briefly occupied by the rebelling troops. The attempted coup would end on 4 March, when 20 officers, and 1,528 other ranks surrendered.
1945: Heeresgruppe Kurland (=Army Group Courland) (Generaloberst Heinrich von Vietinghoff ) repulses heavy Red Army attacks in the area of Prekuln (present-day Prekuln, Latvia).
1952: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill announces that his nation has an atomic bomb.
1991: On Baghdad Radio, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein announces the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait.
2003: The Sudan Liberation Movement/Army, a Sudanese rebel group founded by members of three indigenous ethnic groups in Darfur, the Fur, the Zaghawa and the Masalit, publicly claimed credit for an attack on Gulu, the headquarters of Jebel Marra District, Sudan, thus starting the conflict in the Darfur region that has claimed the lives of 300,000 - 350,000 civilians and the displacement of 400,000 - 450,000 more.
1560: The Treaty of Berwick is signed by the representative of Queen Elizabeth I of England, the Duke of Norfolk, and the Scottish Lords of the Congregation (a group of Protestant Scottish nobles who favoured reformation of the church along Protestant principles and a Scottish-English alliance). With the treaty, the French are expelled from Scotland.
1617: The Treaty of Stolbovo is signed by the plenipotentiaries of Tsarist Russia and Sweden. It provided that Sweden gained a province in SW Karelia and the province of Ingria - including the fortress of Nöteborg, known as the key to Finland while Russia renounced all claims to Estonia and Livonia, amongst others. The Swedish King, Gustavus Adolphus is known to have said about this treaty, which granted Sweden natural borders to Russia, I hope it will be hard for the Russians to jump across that creek.
1710: During the Great Northern War, the Battle of Helsingborg occurs. 14,000 Danish invaders under Jørgen Rantzau were decisively defeated by a 14,000-strong Swedish army led by Count Magnus Gustafsson Stenbock, on the Ringstorp heights northwest of Helsingborg, Sweden. The Danes lost over 7,500 men, who had been either killed, wounded, or captured. The Swedish losses amounted to 2,800 dead or wounded. The Danish army left Scania (the southern tip of the Scandinavian peninsula), never to return again.
[size=1]The conqueror of Helsingborg, Count Magnus Stenbock[/size]
1812: During the Argentine War of Independence, Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano raises the Flag of Argentina in the city of Rosario for the first time.
1844: During the Dominican War of Independence, the Dominican rebels seized the Ozama Fortress in the capital Santo Domingo. The Haitian garrison, taken by surprise, retired in disarray. Within two days, all Haitian officials had left Santo Domingo. 27 February is observed in Dominican Republic as the Dominican Independence Day.
[size=1]The flag of La Trinitaria, the secret society that led the Dominican struggle against the Haitian occupation of the country, aimed at establishing a free and independent Dominican Republic, became the first national flag of the Dominican Republic[/size]
1870: A Japanese ensign known as Hinomaru (=Sun-Disc) is adopted as the Japanese National Flag for merchant ships under Proclamation No. 57 of the Meiji Restoration.
1900: During the Second Boer War, the 10-day Battle of Paardeberg concludes. Some 7,000 Transvaalers and Freestaters under the Boer Gen. Pieter Arnoldus Cronjé, resisted for 10 days (18 - 27 February) the British assaults and siege of Paardeberg, laid by Maj. Gen. Sir John French's British 6th Division (15,000 troops). On 27 February, Cronjé surrendered with his remaining force of 4,019 men (and 50 women); around 10% of the Boers' entire army were now prisoners.
[size=1]The surrendner of General Cronjé[/size]
1933: The Reichstag fire occurs, an arson attack on the Reichstag building in Berlin, a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. The day after the fire Hitler asked for and received from President Hindenburg the Reichstag Fire Decree, signed into law by Hindenburg using Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution. The Reichstag Fire Decree suspended most civil liberties in Germany.
1941: Two Italian warships supported by bombers, land 240 Infantrymen and 88 marines on the island of Megíste (Castellorizzo), in the Dodecanese held since the 25th by British Commandos, and with their 3.9-inch guns pound the British positions, killing three commandos and wounding seven. The pressure by air, land and sea made the British commandos' situation untenable. Indeed, when the allied vessels from Alexandria came in on the 28th, the force’s commander, Maj. Frank Cooper, realised that without sustained naval and air support, the withdrawal was unavoidable. The bulk of the land forces was therefore re-embarked, with about 40 left behind, surrounded and later taken prisoner by the Italians.
[size=1]Commando Memorial above Spean Bridge, near Highbridge, Scotland, UK[/size]
1942: The Battle of the Java Sea begins and continues for three days, during which the Allied force comprised 2 heavy cruisers, 3 light cruisersand 9 destroyers, from the UK, the US, Australia and the Netherlands, under the command of the Dutch Rear-Admiral, Karel Willem Frederik Marie Doorman, lose all their cruisers and six destroyers, with 2,300 crewmen killed or drowned, while the Japanese lose just 4 transports and one destroyer damaged. Admiral Doorman was killed during the battle.
1945: SHAEF reports that spectacular gains by the U.S. First (Lt. Gen. Courtney Hicks Hodges) and Ninth (Lt. Gen. William Hood Simpson) Armies on the Cologne Plain have been made.
[size=1]U.S. Army and AAF commanders in SHAEF; back row (left to right): Stearley, Vandenberg, Smith, Weyland, Nugent; front row: Simpson, Patton, Spaatz, Eisenhower, Bradley, Hodges, Gerow[/size]
1973: The American Indian Movement occupies Wounded Knee, South Dakota. The occupation was in response to the 1890 massacre of at least 150 Lakota men, women, and children by the U.S. Seventh Cavalry at a camp near Wounded Knee Creek. During the siege, the American Indians occupied the Sacred Heart Church and the Gildersleeve Trading Post. In the stand-off with FBI agents, there was shooting from both sides. There were two AIM members killed at Wounded Knee and numerous others were wounded.
1976: The formerly Spanish territory of Western Sahara, under the auspices of the Polisario Front declares independence as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
1991: U.S. President George H. W. Bush announces that Kuwait is liberated.
1704: During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Raid on Deerfield occurs. 288 Frenchmen and Abenaki, Pocumtuc, Iroquois and Wyandot Native Americans under the command of Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville attacked the English settlement at Deerfield, Massachusetts just before dawn. The raiders destroyed 17 of the village's 41 homes, and looted many of the others. They killed 44 residents of Deerfield: 10 men, 9 women, and 25 children, 5 garrison soldiers, and 7 more men from the nearby town of Hadley. More than 100 captives were taken.
1864: During the American Civil War, the Kilpatrick-Dahlgren raid began on the 28th, concludes. General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick led 3,500 troopers S from Stevensburg, Virginia aimed at Richmond, the CSA capital. Kilpatrick reached the outskirts of Richmond with CSA General Wade Hampton's cavalry in hot pursuit. Kilpatrick suffered about 335 men killed, captured, or wounded. The raid accomplished little for the Union and the Confederate victory lifted southern morale.
1940: During the Winter War, the Finnish government accepted the Soviet peace terms in principle and was willing to enter into negotiations.
1944: Operation Brewer; The U.S. 1st Cavalry Division (Maj. Gen. William Curtis Chase) lands at Los Negros in the Admiralty Islands, capturing an airfield. MacArthur pays a visit.
[size=1]U.S. Gen. Douglas MacArthur decorates the first man ashore, 2nd Lieutenant Marvin J. Henshaw, with the Distinguished Service Cross[/size]
1944: The Plaka Agreement is signed by the representatives of the three major Greek resistance groups, ELAS (=The Greek People's Liberation Army), EKKA (=National and Social Liberation) and EDES (=The National Republican Greek League) at the village of Plaka, Epirus. Under the Plaka Agreement, British SOE (=The Special Operations Executive) was able (temporarily) to halt the blood feud between the anticommunists EDES and the Communist and leftist EAM-ELAS by directing both groups' energies against the Germans and not against each other.
1573: During the Mughal Empire's expansion into the Indian subcontinent, the Battle of Tukaroi occurs. A large Mughal army under Munim Khan and Raja Todar Mal, the empire's Finance Minister who was also an able warrior, decisively defeated a huge combined army consisted of contingents from the Sultanate of Bengal and Bihar, under Sultan Daud Khan Karrani and his General Gujar Khan, at Tukaroi, between Midnapore and Jalesar, in Western Bengal, India. The fall of Daud's general Gujar Khan brought about the total defeat of Daud who fled from the field. The battle led to the Treaty of Katak in which Daud ceded the whole of Bengal and Bihar.
[size=1]Imperial Emblem of Great Mogul (Mughal)[/size]
1776: During the American Revolutionary War, the Battle of Nassau occurs. It was a naval action and amphibious assault by U.S. forces against the British port of Nassau, Bahamas. A Continental fleet comprised seven warships under Cdre Esek Hopkins, carried 200 marines under the command of Cpt. Samuel Nicholas and attacked with their guns Fort Nassau while made an unopposed landing between noon and 1400 hours. This was the first landing of the United States Marine Corps. Nichols' Marines occupied Nassau without resistance the next morning.
1803: The Colégio Militar, the military school in Lisbon, Portugal, is founded by General António Teixeira Rebelo.
[size=1]The School's bugle call[/size]
1827: During the Greek War of Independence, the two-day Battle of Keratsini begins. 800 Greek revolutionaries under Gen. Georgios Karaiskakes, successfully halted for two days the enemy onslaught carried out by an Ottoman army of ca 6,000 under Reshit Mehmet Pasha (aka Kutahi), at Keratsini, near Piræus. The Turks withdrew from Keratsini the second day, abandoning dozens of casualties. The Greeks suffered 3 killed and 20 wounded.
[size=1]The bust of General Commander in the district of Continental Greece, Georgios Karaiskakes, at the Hellenic Army Academy's Campus[/size]
1857: Following the attempted poisoning of the British Superintendent of Trade, Sir John Bowring and his family in Hong Kong and the execution of the Paris Foreign Missions Society missionary and Catholic cleric Auguste Chapdelaine, in Yaoshan, France and the United Kingdom declare war on China. The Second Opium War officially opens.
[size=1]French Medal of the Chinese Campaign[/size]
1878: The Treaty of San Stefano is signed by Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev and the Russian ambassador to Constantinople, Alexander Ivanovich Nelidov on behalf of the Russian Empire, and Ottoman Foreign Minister Mehmet Esat Safvet Pasha and the Ottoman ambassador to Berlin, Nusret-Sadullah Bey on behalf of the Ottoman Empire. According to the treaty, the autonomous Principality of Bulgaria is established, after 500 years of Ottoman domination. The day the treaty was signed (3 March), is celebrated as Liberation Day in Bulgaria. The enlarged Bulgaria envisioned by the Treaty of San Stefano alarmed neighboring states as well as France and the UK. As a result, it was never implemented, being superseded by the Treaty of Berlin.
[size=1]Great Bulgaria of San Stefano[/size]
1913: During the First Balkan War, the Greek Acheron Detachment (an independent unit consisted of four infantry battalions and one arty battery under Lt. Col. Metsas) takes the city of Sarandë in Albania, home to an ethnic Greek minority and one of the centers of the Greek minority there. The Greek VIII Infantry Division (Crown Prince Constantine) takes Gjirokastër and Delvinë.
WWI-1918: The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, is signed by the plenipotentiaries of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Central Powers. The treaty affirmed the independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Lithuania and marked Russia's exit from the Great War.
[size=1]Caption: Officers from the staff of Field Marshal von Hindenburg meet the delegation of Soviet Russia (amongst them Leon Trotsky)[/size]
1924: The 1400-year-old Islamic caliphate is abolished when Caliph Abdülmecid II, Commander of the Faithful and Shadow of God on Earth and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, is deposed. The last remnant of the old regime gives way to the reformed Turkey of Kemal Atatürk.
[size=1]Halife Abdülmecid Efendi, the last Ottoman Sultan[/size]
1940: During the Winter War, the Soviets launch a massive offensive and bring Viipuri (present-day Vyborg, Russia) under direct attack. This brings home to the Finns the fact that they cannot resist for must longer against the overwhelming force the USSR is now deploying.
1942: Ten Japanese warplanes raid the town of Broome, Western Australia killing at least 88 people. The Japanese also destroyed at least 22 allied aircraft.
1944: German attacks cease at Anzio after loss of 3,500 men and 30 Panzers in four days.
1944: Under pressure from the Western Allies to withdraw all remaining Spanish troops from the Eastern front, the Franco government orders members of the 250. Infanterie-Division (aka Blue Division under Maj. Gen. Emilio Esteban Infantes y Martín), to return home and outlaws service by Spanish citizens with the Axis forces. Nevertheless, 1,500 fanatically anti-Communist Spaniards defy orders and volunteer for service with the Waffen SS, some of them fighting suicidally to the end in the ruins of Berlin. They formed La Legión Española de Voluntarios or Legión Azul (Blue Legion), attached to 28. SS-Freiwilligen-Grenadier-Division Wallonien (SS-Standartenführer Leon Degrelle), commanded by SS-Hauptsturmführer Miguel Ezquerra Sanchez.
[size=1]Miguel Ezquerra Sanchez[/size]
1944: The Order of Nakhimov and Order of Ushakov are instituted in USSR as the highest naval awards.
[size=1]The Order of Nakhimov, 1st and 2nd Class[/size]
[size=1]The Order of Ushakov, 1st and 2nd Class[/size]
1945: During the Battle of Reichswald (part of Operation Veritable) units of the Canadian First Army (Gen. Henry Duncan Graham "Harry" Crerar) break-through the Hochwald defence lines and advance to secure the general line Geldern-Xanten, by capturing Xanten on the lower Rhine. The U.S. First Army (Lt. Gen. Courtney Hicks Hodges) captures Krefeld northwest of Düsseldorf.
[size=1]Henry Duncan Graham Crerar, General Officer Commanding 1st Canadian Army[/size]
1957: During the EOKA (=National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters; a Greek-Cypriot military organisation that fought against British rule on the island) Armed Campaign, 28-year-old Grigoris Pieris Afxentíu (nom-de-guerre Zedros), the second in command in the EOKA hierarchy, was surrounded by British forces outside his secret hideout near the Machæras Monastery after an informant had betrayed his location. At the time, inside the hideout was Afxentíu and four fellow fighters. Realising he was outnumbered, Afxentíu ordered his comrades to surrender but stayed behind to fight to the death. The British asked Afxentíu to surrender his arms but he replied Molon labe. Unable to drive him out and after sustaining casualties, the British forces resolved to pouring petrol into his hideout, burning him alive. In fear of popular uprising, the British buried his scorched body in the yard of the British Central Correctional Facility in Nicosia.
[size=1]Afxentíu had served in the Hellenic Army as 2nd Lt[/size]
1279: During the Northern Crusades, the Battle of Ascheraden occurs. A Lithuanian army under the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Traidenis, defeated an army from the Livonian Order under its Grand Master, Ernst von Rassburg, at Ascheraden (present-day Aizkraukle, Latvia). The Order suffered a great defeat; 71 knights, the Grand Master, and the leader of the knights from Danish Estonia, Eilart Hoberg were killed.
[size=1]The conqueror of Ascheraden, Grand Duke Traidenis[/size]
1770: The Boston Massacre occurs; British troops threatened by a mob, opened fire at them and killed five civilian men. This incident helped spark the rebellion in some of the British American colonies, which culminated in the American Revolutionary War. At a subsequent trial the soldiers were defended by the future U.S. President, John Adams.
1770: During the Orlov Events, Maniots assisted by Russians take Mistra, the capital of the Byzantine Despotate of the Morea. The whole of Laconia falls under Greek control again, after 309 years.
[size=1]Mistra today; the town is named a UNESCO World Heritage Site[/size]
1799: During the French Revolutionary Wars, the Russians under Admiral Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov take the island of Corfu and single-handedly carved out the Greek Septinsular Republic (=a limited self-government, island republic under nominal Ottoman sovereignty). Ushakov cleared the French from Corfu and all the Ionian islands. The Septinsular Republic was the first autonomous Greek state in 346 years.
1824: The British officially declare war on Burma. The First Anglo-Burmese War opens, over the control of northeastern India.
1912: During the Italo-Turkish War (fought between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Italy over the control of Tripolitania, in present-day Libya), Italian forces are the first to use airships for military purposes, employing them for reconnaissance behind Turkish lines. The Italo-Turkish war of 1911-1912 was the first in history in which air attacks were also carried out by dirigible airships.
1913: During the First Balkan War, the Epirus Cavalry Rgt. of the Greek VIII Infantry Division (Crown Prince Constantine) takes Tepelenë in southern Albania. Five arty pieces left behind by the fleeing Turks are captured.
1913: During the First Balkan War, King George I of the Hellenes is assassinated in Thessaloniki by a certain Alexandros Schinas. The king's oldest son, Crown Prince and C-in-C of the Army, Constantine, becomes King Constantine I of the Hellenes. Schinas (who was around 40 at the time) shot King George I in the back from a distance of two paces. His motives remain unclear to this day; according to contemporary journalists, he was an anarchist opposing aristocracy and monarchy.
1933: The National Socialist German Workers' Party receives 43.9% of the vote at the German federal election. Thanks to the success of the Nazi Party and its allies in the poll, its leader and Chancellor of Germany, Adolf Hitler, was able to pass the Enabling Act, which effectively gave him the power of a dictator. President Paul von Hindenburg will sign the bill on 24 March.
[size=1]Hitler's Reichstag speech promoting the bill[/size]
1940: Members of Soviet politburo sign an order for the execution of 25,700 Polish intelligentsia, including 14,700 Polish prisoners of war, known as the Katyń Massacre.
[size=1]Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria's memo to Stalin, proposing execution of Polish officers[/size]
1943: Maiden flight of Gloster Meteor jet aircraft in the United Kingdom.
1944: Ivan Stepanovich Konev's 2nd Ukrainian Front launches an attack towards Uman in the central Ukraine. Uman will fall on 6 March and Konev will immediately launch an offensive towards the Southern Bug and Dnieper rivers.
1945: Advance patrols of the U.S. First Army (Lt. Gen. Courtney Hicks Hodges) reach Cologne. Germany is now conscripting 15 and 16-year-olds into the regular army.
1945: The German 2. Armee (General der Infanterie Walter-Otto Weiß) is cut off in Pomerania as the Soviet 19th Army (Lt. Gen. G.K. Kozlov) reaches the Baltic. Festung Graudenz (present-day Grudziądz, Poland) on the Vistula, surrenders to the 2nd Belorussian Front (Marshal Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky).
1946: Winston Churchill uses the phrase Iron Curtain in his speech at Westminster College, Missouri, to symbolise the ideological fighting and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas.
1965: A Leftist uprising erupts in Bahrain against British colonial presence, led by the Marxist Popular Front for the Liberation of Bahrain and the Marxist-Leninist National Liberation Front - Bahrain, calling for the end of the British presence in the country.
1970: The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons goes into effect after ratification by 43 states worldwide.
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1454: During the Thirteen Years' War, delegates of the Prussian Confederation pledged allegiance to Casimir IV Jagiellon, the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania; they agreed to bring Prussia into the Polish kingdom. The king agrees to commit his forces in aiding the Confederation's struggle for independence from the Teutonic Knights.
[size=1]Casimir IV the Jagiellonian[/size]
1919: During the Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War, a fiercely waged battle begins (it will conclude on the 21st) between elements of the Greek 3rd (Col. Georgios Kondyles), 5/42 Evzonic (Col. Nikolaos Plastiras) and 34th (Col. Petros Karakassones) Infantry Regiments of the Greek Expeditionary Corps in southern Russia, and Red Communist forces in the environs of Odessa.
[size=1]Nikolaos Plastiras is the most highly decorated officer in the history of the Greek armed forces[/size]
1945: The U.S. Third Army (Gen. George Smith Patton Jr) reaches the Rhine, NW of Koblenz, as Cologne falls to U.S. First Army (Lt. Gen. Courtney Hicks Hodges).
1945: Operation Spring Awakening (Frühlingserwachen), the last major German offensive launched during WWII opens when the 2. Panzerarmee (General der Artillerie Maximilian de Angelis) and 6. SS-Panzerarmee (SS-Oberstgruppenführer Josef Dietrich) launch a major counter-attack from Lake Balaton towards Budapest, against the Soviet 3rd Ukrainian Front (Gen. Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky).
[size=1]Regimental colours of the 3rd Ukrainian Front[/size]
1975: The Algiers Accord is signed by the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the Vice-Chairman of the Revolution Command Council of Iraq, Saddam Hussein. It was an agreement between the two countries to settle their border disputes. Less than six years after signing the treaty, Iraq attacked Iran to invade the border lands.
[size=1]Iran's Shah (left), Algeria's President Houari Boumediène (second from left) and Saddam Hussein[/size]
1988: The operation conducted by a Special Air Service (SAS) team tasked with preventing a Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb plot ends in success. Operation Flavius concludes when three Provisional Irish Republican Army volunteers, conspired to detonate a car bomb where a military band assembled for the weekly changing of the guard at the governor’s residence are killed by SAS on the territory of Gibraltar.
238: Roman subjects in Africa revolt against Emperor Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus, commonly known as Maximinus Thrax and proclaim the aged governor of the province, Marcus Antonius Gordi**** Sem****i****, and his son, Marcus Antonius Gordi**** Sem****i**** Rom**** Afric****, as co-emperors. The senate in Rome switched allegiance, gave both Gordi**** and his son the title of Augustus, and set about rousing the provinces in support of the pair. Maximinus, wintering at Sirmium immediately assembled his army and advanced on Rome, the Pannonian legions leading the way.
[size=1]The standard of X Gemina, one of the Pannonian Legions; the other three were XIV Gemina, I Adiutrix and II Adiutrix[/size]
962: Byzantine General Nicephorus Phocas captures Chandax (present-day Herakleion), the principal city in Crete, from the Arabs, after two years of siege and inflicting some 40,000 casualties. The Arabs resist tenaciously, but are forced to yield to the overwhelming force of the Byzantines. After this event, Crete is liberated and comes again under Byzantine rule.
1799: During the French Revolutionary Wars, the French Armée d'Orient (=Army of the Orient) under Napoleon Bonaparte, capture Jaffa from the Ottomans. Napoleon ordered that a large part of the Ottoman prisoners (according to some sources around 2,440, according to others 4,100), many of them Albanians in the service of the Ottoman Sultan (perhaps as much as 2,000), be shot or stabbed to death with bayonets.
1814: During the War of the Sixth Coalition, the Battle of Craonne occurs. A 37,000-stong French Army under Emperor Napoleon I defeated a 85,000-strong Russo-Prussian army under the Prussian Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Fürst von Wahlstatt, at Craonne, in northern France. Craonne cost Blucher 5,000 casualties, while Napoleon lost some 5,400.
[size=1]Napoleon surveys the Craonne battlefield - statue in Craonne, on the north bank of the Aisne[/size]
1822: During the Greek War of Independence, 300 revolutionaries under Nikolaos Kasomúles, attempt to capture from the Turks the fort at Kolindros in Pieria. With this act the Greek Revolution spreads to the area north of Thessaly, around Olympus mountain.
[size=1]The statue of Kasomúles in his hometown, Siatista, W. Macedonia[/size]
1827: During the Cisplatine War (fought from 1825 - 1828 between Argentina and Brazil over the fate of Banda Oriental - an area approximately consistent with present-day Uruguay), the Brazilian Marines attempted to take Carmen de Patagones, a temporary Argentine naval base on the north bank of the Río Negro, near the Atlantic Ocean, but they were repelled by local militias and armed civilian bands. 7 March is still commemorated with a festival in the city of Carmen de Patagones.
[size=1]The monument to the battle[/size]
1914: Prince William of Wied, Prince of Albania, of the House of Wied-Neuwied, arrives in Albania with Princess consort, Sophie of Schönburg-Waldenburg, to begin his reign as Mbret (=King) Vidit I of Albania. With Albania in a state of civil war from July 1914 (when peasants from central Albania, mostly Muslims, revolted demanding return of Albania under suzerainty of sultan of Ottoman Empire), Greek army occupying the south of the country and encouraging the formation of a provisional government of North Epirus, and the breaking out of the Great War, he will reign just for 214 days, until 3 September, when his regime collapsed and left for Venice, Italy.
1936: In violation of the Treaty of Versailles, 19 German infantry battalions and a handful of planes entered the Rhineland at dawn of 7 March. They reached the river Rhine by 1100 hours and then 3 battalions crossed to the west bank of the Rhine. Despite mobilisation on the Franco-German border, the French did not intervene. Heinz Guderian, a German general interviewed by French officers after WWII, claimed: If you French had intervened in the Rhineland in 1936 we should have been sunk and Hitler would have fallen.
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, Georgios Vlakhos, editor of the prominent Kathimerini Greek daily newspaper, publishes his famous article titled, Open Letter to Hitler.
1943: The four-day Battle of Phardykampos concludes. The people of Siatista and the surrounding region, with the guidance of the local resistance chapter attack a convoy of Italian occupation troops at Phardykampos near Siatista, Macedonia. They capture 598 prisoners and huge war material and inflict 174 casualties. For a more thorough presentation, please check here.
1945: The U.S. 9th Armored Division (Maj. Gen. John W. Leonard) makes a surprise dash across the undestroyed Rhine bridge at Remagen, the Ludendorff Bridge, establishing a crucial bridgehead on the East bank. The 14th Tank Battalion (Lt. Col. Leonard E. Engeman), task force from Combat Command B (Brig. Gen. William M. Hoge) of the 9th Armored Division was the first unit that crossed the only Rhine bridge Germans had failed to blow in their frantic withdrawal.
1948: The Dodecanese, the island chain composed of 12 larger plus 150 smaller islands and islets in the Aegean Sea, off the southwest coast of Turkey, inhabited by Greek speaking populations since 1400 BC, formally unites with Greece, ending 740 years of foreign rule over the islands.
1951: During the Korean War, Operation Ripper, an offensive launched by the U.S. I Corps (Lt. Gen. Frank W. Milburn), IX Corps (Lt. Gen. John B. Coulter), X Corps (Lt. Gen. Edward Mallory "Ned" Almond), and the ROK III Corps (Lt. Gen. Paik Sun-yup) intended to destroy as much of the Chinese communist People's Volunteer Army and North Korean military around Seoul, begins. In the month-long battle, units from Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Greece and the UK also participated. Eventually the UN will drive the Communists back to the 38th Parallel and retake Seoul.
1965: During the American Civil Rights Movement, the first of three marches from Selma to Montgomery took place in Selma, Alabama; 600 civil rights marchers were attacked by state and local police with billy clubs and tear gas, an incident known today as Bloody Sunday.
1722: During the Afghano-Persian War, the Battle of Gulnabad occurs. A Hotaki Pashtun army of Afghanistan under Shah Mahmud Hotaki, defeated a Persian Safanid army under Soltan Hossein, at Gulnabad (present-day Gonabad, Razavi Khorasan, Iran). The battle resulted in Afghanistan, winning and controlling much of Persia. Persian Soltan Hossein was taken captive during the battle.
1782: 96 Christian Lenape Native Americans, are massacred at Gnadenhutten, the Moravian missionary village in Ohio, by colonial American militia from Pennsylvania. The militia collected the remains of the Lenape and buried them in a mound on the southern side of the village. Before burning the villages, they had looted, gathering plunder which they needed 80 horses to carry furs for trade, pewter, tea sets, clothing, everything the people held.
[size=1]The memorial to the massacre[/size]
1862: During the American Civil War, the three-day Battle of Pea Ridge ends. 11,000 Union troops of the Army of the Southwest under Gen. Samuel Ryan Curtis defeated 16,000 attacking Confederate troops of the Army of the West, led by Generals Earl Van Dorn, Sterling Price, and Ben McCulloch. Following a fierce opening assault from the rear that almost overwhelmed Curtis’ forces, the outnumbered Union troops rallied. After a desperate struggle with severe losses on both sides, Union forces counterattacked on 8 March. The Confederates were forced to retreat, thus thwarting their hopes of regaining control of Arkansas. The U.S. suffered 1,384 casualties while the C.S. sustained ca 2,000 killed and wounded.
1940: During the Winter War, heavy fighting is reported at the outskirts to Viipuri (today's Vyborg, Russia), as the Red Army continues its attempt to capture the city. This prompts the Finns to seek an immediate armistice, which the Soviets refuse. Therefore the Finnish delegation in Moscow is instructed to sue for peace.
1945: The British XXX Corps (Lt. Gen. Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks) and Canadian 1st Army (Gen. Henry Duncan Graham "Harry" Crerar) involved in Operation Blockbuster, enter Xanten on the Rhine after several days of heavy fighting. Further to the south, U.S. troops enter Bonn.
1945: Beginning of Operation Crossword a series of secret negotiations at Bern, Switzerland, between representatives of the American OSS (Allen Welsh Dulles) and the German High Command in Italy (Generaloberst Heinrich Gottfried Otto Richard von Vietinghoff and SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS Karl Wolff) for an early surrender of German forces in Italy.
[size=1]From left to right: Vietinghoff, Wolff and Dulles[/size]
1963: The Syrian Ba'ath party's military committee succeeded in persuading Nasserist and independent officers to make common cause with it, and they successfully carried out a military coup. A National Revolutionary Command Council took control of Syria and assigned itself legislative power; it appointed Salah al-Din al-Bitar as head of a National Front government.
Last edited by valtrex; 03-08-2011 at 05:33 AM.
1009: In the Annales Quedlinburgenses (Chronicles of Quedlinburg) of the Imperial Abbey of Quedlinburg in Saxony-Anhalt, the first known mention of the name of Lithuania is recorded. The Chronicle recorded a Latinised Slavic form of the name Lietuva: Litua. It was mentioned in a narrative describing the mission of Bruno, the future saint, to pagan lands, and his death by martyrdom. In 1009, Bruno and his entourage reached the borderlands of Rus and Lithuania. There he succeeded in converting the pagan ruler Netimeras and his people to Christianity, but was martyred by some of Netimeras’s clansmen who refused to be baptised.
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1230: During the Bulgaro-Byzantine Wars, the Battle of Klokotnitsa occurs. A Bulgarian army under the Tsar and sovereign of the Bulgarians, Ivan Asen II, defeated a Byzantine army of the Despotate of Epirus (=one of the Byzantine Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire that emerged in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204) under Theodore Comnenus Ducas, at Klokotnitsa, in southern Bulgaria near Haskovo. To mark the victory, the Bulgarian tsar had an inscription carved in one of the marble columns of the church "Holy Forty Martyrs" in the capital of the Secong Bulgarian Empire, Great Tarnovo. The text of this inscription is the most accurate evidence of the outcome and the aftermath of the battle. Bulgaria became the biggest medieval country on the Balkan peninsula, stretching from the Black Sea, to the Aegean Sea and the Adriatic Sea, and the power of the Despotate of Epirus faded.
1811: During the Hispano-American Wars of Independence, the Battle of Tacuarí occurs. A 1,100-strong revolutionary force under the command of Argentine General Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano, usually referred to as Manuel Belgrano, were defeated by the 2,000 Spanish and Paraguayan troops under Col. Manuel Atanasio Cabañas, by the Tacuarí river, in Southern Paraguay. Although the revolutionaries suffered a serious defeat, Paraguayans started to seriously consider independence from Spain, even without joining the United Provinces (modern Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay and the Brazilian historic region of Eastern Missions). Eventually, the Paraguayans will declare their independence from Spain on 17 May.
[size=1]The Tambor de Tacuarí (Tacuarí Drummer) Band of the Argentine 1st Regiment of Patricians, was established together with the Regiment in 1806; this military band serves as the regiment's musical support service, acting as one of Argentina's most celebrated military bands. It's the only band in the nation to have a child musician among its ranks as a snare drummer, in memory of the young 12-year old drummer Pedrito Ríos, who was killed in the Battle of Tacuarí[/size]
1847: During the Mexicano-American War, the 20-day Siege of Veracruz opens. The siege began with the first large-scale amphibious assault conducted by U.S. military; more specifically, by two regular and one volunteer divisions of the U.S. Expeditionary Force under the overall command of Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott. General Scott's entire army was brought ashore without a single man lost.
1862: During the American Civil War, the Naval Battle of Hampton Roads occurs. From her berth at Norfolk, the Confederate ironclad, CSS "Virginia" (Lt. Catesby R. Jones) initiated the first engagement of ironclads in history when after she sank USS "Cumberland" and ran USS "Congress" aground, she fought the Union ironclad, USS "Monitor" (Lt. John Worden), off Sewell's Point, near the mouth of Hampton Roads, Virginia. The two ships fought each other to a standstill, but Virginia retired.
1925: The first RAF operation conducted independently of the British Army or Royal Navy begins when RAF aircraft of No. 2 (Indian) Wing, under Wing Commander Richard Charles Montagu Pink, carried out an air-to-ground bombardment and strafing against the mountain strongholds of Masood tribesmen in South Waziristan, a mountainous region of northwest Pakistan, bordering Afghanistan, an action known also as Pink's War. The campaign's commander, Wing Commander Pink, received speedy promotion to Group Captain.
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, the Italians launch Operation Spring (Primavera) the last attempt of the war to defeat the Greek forces that had already advanced deep into Albanian territory. The Italian offensive was concentrated along a 5-km (3-mile) front, against which they threw the entire XIX Corpo d'Armata (19th Army Corps) consisted of seven divisions under Gen. Gastone Gambara. The Greek line was defended by six infantry divisions under the overall command of Lt. Gen. Ioannes Pitsikas, but its central sector, held by the men of the I Infantry Division (Maj. Gen. Vasilios Vrakhnós) with 6 frontline battalions and 3 in reserve, absorbed intense pressure. The Italian attack began at 0600 hours while Mussolini observed the battlefield. Within the next two-three hours, tens of thousands of artillery shells hit the Greek positions. 190 planes also bombed the Greek entrenchments. At 0800 hours, the Italians launch a primary attack and at 0900 hours the main effort begins against Hill 731 and Hill 717. Despite the intense Greek artillery fire, Italian troops managed to reach the steep slopes of both heights (elements of the 59 Mountain Infantry Division Cagliari commanded by Maj. Gen. Antonio Scuero). The Greeks counter-attacked the oncoming Italians with fixed bayonets, under the cover of dense smoke. By late afternoon, the Italians had launched four attacks, all repulsed by the Greeks. Hill 717, (731's watch-dog according to a Greek officer), was finally captured and held firmly by the Italians, despite a series of Greek atempts to recapture it. A new Italian attack was launched against Hills 1308 (Trebeshin) and 1030 (Qjafe-Luzhit), to no avail. At the same time, a diversionary Italian assault on Hills 709 and 710 was also repelled by the Greeks.
[size=1]From left to right: Mussolini observing the battlefield; C-in-C of Italian XIX. Army Corps, Gen. Gambara and C-in-C of Greek I Division, Maj. Gen. Vrakhnós[/size]
1944: Japanese troops counter-attack American forces on Hill 700 in Bougainville, an island of the North Solomons, in a battle that would last five days. The Japanese onslaught did not wane until 13 March, when Hill 700, which had been partially overrun by the Japanese, was retaken by U.S. 37th Infantry Division's forces (Maj. Gen. Robert S. Beightler).
1945: In an attempt to break the Japanese morale and wear away resistance to surrender, the USAAF begins the firebombing of Japans major city's with a raid by 334 B-29 Superfortress bombers on Tokyo, saturating the city's crowded downtown residential district. 16 and a half acres of Tokyo are burnt out and 100,000 people killed in a single night. The attacks by the USAAF continue against Tokyo for 10 days, before switching to Nagoya, Osaka and Kobe.
1956: As a reaction to Nikita Khrushchev's de-Stalinization policy, thousands of Georgians protesting Khrushchev's denunciation of Stalin, turned the protest into an uncontrollable mass demonstration and rioting which paralysed Tbilisi. The Soviet military suppressed the demostrations by firing upon the students picketing the government buildings. Various estimates put the number of casualties from 106 - 800. Hundreds were wounded and injured. Over 200 were arrested in the ensuing reprisals and many were subsequently deported to labor camps in Siberia.
1991: Massive demonstrations are held against Slobodan Milošević in Belgrade, organised by Vuk Drašković's Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO). Two people (a policeman and a protester) are killed and tanks are deployed in the streets. Additionally, 203 protesters were injured and further 108 were arrested.
241 BC: During the First Punic War, the Naval Battle of Aegates Islands occurs. A 200-strong Roman Republican fleet of quinqueremes, under Gaius Lutatius Catulus, decisively defeated a Carthaginian fleet of about 250 warships under Hanno (or Hanno II the Great according to historians), near the Aegates, off the western coast of Sicily. About half of the Carthaginian fleet was either destroyed or captured. The rest were saved only by an abrupt change in the direction of the wind, allowing them to flee from the Romans. The Roman victory forced an end to the protracted conflict, to the advantage of Rome.
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298: Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximi****, concludes his campaign in North Africa; he successfully combats Berber incursions in Mauretania, and makes a triumphal entry into Carthage. Inscriptions there record the people's gratitude to Maximian, hailing him as redditor lucis æternæ (=restorer of the eternal light).
[size=1]3rd c. Roman North Africa[/size]
1607: Susenyos, the founder of the Gondar line of the Ethiopian Solomonic dynasty, defeats the combined armies of Yaqob and the Archbishop of Axum and of All Ethiopia, of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Abun Petros II, at the Battle of Gol in Gojjam, making him Emperor of Ethiopia. According to some sources, Abun Petros was amongst the casualties.
1804: In St. Louis, Missouri, a formal ceremony is conducted to transfer ownership of the 828,800-square mile (2,147,000-square km) of the territory of Louisiana, from France to the United States.
1814: During the War of the Sixth Coalition, the two-day Battle of Laon ends. 37,000 Frenchmen under Emperor Napoleon I, were defeated by the combined, 90,000-strong, Prusso-Russian army of Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Fürst von Wahlstatt, near Laon, in Picardy, France. Napoleon lost about 6,500 men, while the allies suffered 4,000 killed and wounded. This setback did not by itself spell the end for Napoleon.
[size=1]Napoleon and staff are retuning from Soissons after the Battle of Laon[/size]
1821: Alexander Ypsilanti, forms the Sacred Company, which is consisted of Greek students of European universities and the Greek School in Odessa.
[size=1]Sacred Band's regimental colours; on the obverse bears the Cross with laurels and the inscription in Greek: By this sign, thou shalt Conquer. On the reverse depicts the Phœnix, the mythical bird that dies in flames and is reborn from its ashes, with the inscription: From my ashes I am reborn[/size]
1831: La Légion Étrangère (=The French Foreign Legion) is established by the King of the French, Louis Philippe I, to support his war in Algeria. In late 1831, the first Legionnaires landed in Algeria, the country that would be the Legion's homeland for 130 years and shape its character.
1861: El Hadj Umar ibn Sa'id Tall, the Toucouleur Senegalese military commander and conqueror, seizes the city of Ségou in south-central Mali, the principal city of the Bamana Empire of Mali, thus destroying it.
[size=1]The Toucouleur Empire (1848 - 1890)[/size]
1864: During the American Civil War, the 72-day Red River Campaign, an unsuccessful Union effort (30,000 troops under Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Prentice Banks) to seize control of the important cotton-growing states of Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas begins. The failure of the Red River Campaign ended any significant trans-Mississippi Union operations, and the Confederates, under General Edmund Kirby-Smith, succeeded in holding the area until the end of the war.
1905: The Insurrection of Therisso, a village in Crete, breaks out against the government of Crete, then an autonomous state under Ottoman suzerainty. The revolt was led by the Cretan politician Eleutherios Venizelos (the future Prime Minister of Greece) that led to a quasi civil war on the island, when Prince George, the High Commissioner, declared Martial Law. The insurrection led to the ousting of Prince George, who was replaced by the veteran Greek politician, Andreas Zaimes and the drafting of a new Cretan Constitution. The Therisso revolt established Venizelos’ fame in Crete and also in continental Greece; he would go on to serve as Prime Minister of Crete from April to September 1910. In October 1910, King George I invited him to become Prime Minister of Greece, an office he would hold seven times between 1910 and 1933.
1941: During the Greco-Italian War, the Italian 47th Infantry Division Bari (Maj. Gen. Ernesto Zaccone), attempts to break the Greek defensive line at Hill 1308 (Trebeshin) while simultaneously launching three consecutive attacks on Hill 731. The Greeks hold their positions with heavy toll: The I Infantry Division (Maj. Gen. Vasilios Vrakhnós) suffers 181 casualties.
1945: Generalfeldmarschall Albert Kesselring replaces Generalfeldmarschall Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt as C-in-C of German forces in the West. German troops evacuate Wesel on the lower Rhine. The U.S. Third Army (Gen. George Smith Patton Jr) captures Bonn.
1945: The 2nd Belorussian Front (Marshal Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky) captures Zoppot (modern Sopot, Poland), during its attack towards Danzig. The Kriegsmarine evacuates 25,000 civilian refugees from the besieged Baltic fortress of Kolberg in Pomerania.
[size=1]Memorial to the Armia Krajowa, the dominant Polish resistance movement, in Sopot; Polish resistance was very active in the city and the region[/size]
1952: Three months before general elections in Cuba, Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar, with army backing, staged a coup and seized power. He ousted outgoing President Carlos Prío Socarrás, canceled the elections and assumed control of the government as "provisional president". Shortly after the coup, the United States government recognized his regime.
1959: About 300,000 Tibetans surrounded the Dalai Lama's palace to prevent him from leaving or being removed. The huge crowd had gathered in response to a rumor that the Chinese communists were planning to arrest the Dalai Lama when he went to a cultural performance at the PLA's headquarters. This marked the beginning of the Tibetan uprising in Lhasa.
1980: Formation of the Sciathán Fianóglach an Airm, the Irish Defence Forces' Army Ranger Wing (special forces).