TORDESILHAS, TREATY OF [Tordesillas, Treaty of] , 1494, agreement signed at Tordesillas, Spain, by which Spain and Portugal divided the non-Christian world into two zones of influence. In principle the treaty followed the papal bull issued in 1493 by Pope Alexander VI, which fixed the demarcation line along a circle passing 100 leagues W of the Cape Verde Islands and through the two poles. This division gave the entire New World to Spain and Africa and India to Portugal. However, the Treaty of Tordesillas shifted the demarcation line to a circle passing 370 leagues W of the Cape Verde Islands and thus gave Portugal a claim to Brazil. There was little geographic knowledge at the time the treaty was signed, and it remains controversial whether the Portuguese then knew of the existence of Brazil.
LUSO-BRAZILIAN ADVANCE IN SOUTH AMERICA
Fighting France, England and Holland in the 17th century Amazon
The Conquest of Northern Brazil and Amazon
YEAR - Event
Jerónimo de Albuquerque leads a Portuguese to expel the French from Maranháo (Aug). The expedition includes Portuguese, plus Tremembé and Ceará Potiguar trained in European warfare. Facing them is François de Rasilly with 400 Frenchmen and 2,000 Tupinambá. The smaller Portuguese force builds a fort facing the French settlement. The French invest the camp, but on 19 Nov the Portuguese storm out of their defenses and overwhelm the enemy. More than 90 Frenchmen are killed along with 400 of their Indians. As a result the Tupinambá switch allegiance to the Portuguese.
The Portuguese find the bearded descendents of the Colonists of 1535 still with the Gé-speaking Tapuia tribes of the interior.
Fort St Louis still has a European garrison of 200, however the Portuguese at Maranháo receive powerful reinforcements from Pernambuco. La Ravardière surrenders the fort and the French vacate Brasil forever (Nov).
Francisco Caldeira de Castelo Branco takes 150 men in three ships 650 km along the coast the the most southern mouth of the Amazon, the Pará river (Dec).
Amazon / Pará
Francisco Caldeira de Castelo Branco builds a fort on the site that will become Belém do Pará ('Bethlehem of the Pará river'). As it happens the site of this settlement violates the treaty of Tordesillas, being on the Spanish side of the line.
Bento Maciel Parente leads an expedition up the Pindaré hunting Guajajara.
Francisco de Azevedo explores the Turiaçu and Gurupi rivers.
A Dutch ship is captured on the Amazon, however, the Dutch soon build forts at Orange and Nassau near the mouth of the Xingu.
The settlers in Belém send 4 whites and 30 Indians across country to Maranháo to ask for reinforcements (Mar). Pedro Teixeira, who will later become an famous Amazon explorer, is one of the party. The expedition suffers hunger, thirst, and Indian hostility but make it to their destination and Belém is reinforced.
The Tupinambá, offended by some Portuguese ransoming in their villages, kill the intruders and besiege Belém.
Manoel Preto leads the first bandeira against the Jesuit missions in Spanish Guairá
Convinced that the Portuguese are intending to enslave them, the Tupinambá of the Maranháo mainland (but not the Island) storm the fort at Tapuitapera (or Cumá) and killed the 30 white defenders. 14 more whites are killed on the Pará.
Mathias de Albuquerque (the Governor's son) leads 50 soldiers and 200 Indians pursue the Cumá Tupinambá into the forest. The Indians launch an unsuccessful attack on his stockade (3 Feb) and are crushed.
Other Pará Tupinambá join the war against the intruders at Belém. Diogo Botelho destroys one of the largest villages (Cuju), but the Indians are reinforced by the tribes of the Guamá river.
Amazon / Pará
Late in the year Mathias de Albuquerque lands on the Gurupi with 50 soldiers and 600 Tapuia. Most Tupinambá flee, but one groups is caught and slaughtered.
A Tupinambá frontal assault on Belém fails in the face of cannon and arquebus fire (7 Jan). The Tupinambá chief 'Old Woman's Hair' is killed in the assault, and the tribesmen melt away into the forest.
The new governor, Jerónimo Fragoso de Albuquerque, leads a force of 100 soldiers and hundreds of Indians against the Tupinambá. Iguapé, the main village of the Tupinambá is stormed, and other villages along the Guanapus and Carapi rivers burnt.
The governor authorises Bento Maciel Parente to march overland from Pernambuco to attack the Tupinambá in the rear. Parente spends most of the year devastating the Tupinambá lands from Tapuitapera near São Luis de Maranháo to Belém with his force of 80 soldiers and 600 Indians.
Manoel Preto leads another bandeira against the Jesuit missions in Spanish Guairá.
Captain Roger North takes 120 English and Irish colonists to the Amazon. They land 16 men under Bernard O'Brien 385 km up the Amazon, and then sail on to settle a further 285 km up stream. William White explores another 130 km in a pinnace.
Subsequently O'Brien befriends the local Indians, explores parts of the Amazon basin, and prevents the Dutch from settling near him.
The peaceful Tupinambá of Maranháo island are devastated by smallpox.
1623 - 1624
A long expedition against the Jesuit missions in Spanish Guairá - again under Manoel Preto - nets a thousand Christian Carijó slaves.
Bento Maciel Parente leads 70 soldiers and over a thousand Indians in native canoes against the Dutch and Irish/English colonists. Indian allies of the Dutch and English harass the approaching force, but don't prevent the Portuguese landing near the Irish fort. The Irish/English flee into the forest, and Parente sails on to Fort Orange on the east bank of the lower Xingu. The garrison of 14 Dutchmen are tricked into surrendering. The Portuguese paddle on, defeat a force of Indians allied to the Dutch, and reach Fort Nassau 67 km up the Xingu. Once again the fort surrenders without a fight. Later a Dutch ship is run around and the crew and passengers massacred.
Bernard O'Brien returns to Europe on a Dutch ship, leaving Philip Purcell in charge of his fort.
The Dutch destroy the Portuguese base near Gurupá.
The Portuguese retaliate for their loss the previous year and destroy another Dutch fort, English plantations and O'Brien's fort.
Bento Maciel Parente becomes governor of Pará. Parente sends his son on a ransoming expedition up the Amazon, one of many such expeditions at this time. Later based on flimsy evidence of intended rebellion Parente seizes and executes 24 Indian leaders, and as a result of the uproar is removed from office (Oct).
The King awards two old soldiers (Miguel Ayres Maldonado and José de Castilho Pinto) the lands of the Waitacá in recognition of past service. They explore for awhile and leave with good reports of the Waitacá plains.
1628 - 1629
Yet another bandeira - this time under António Rapôso Tavares - sets out for the Jesuit Missions of Spanish Guairá (Aug 1628). The bandeira is huge - 69 whites, 900 mamelucos and 2,000 Indians - big enough to be divided into four companies. The bandeirantes spend four months camped outside a mission village; they leave the mission along, but enslave any Indians they encounter. Eventually the bandeirantes march into the mission of San Antonio, enslave the 4,000 Indians living there and destroy the village (30 Jan 1629). A similar fate is meted out to the missions at San Miguel and Jesús-Maria.
Bernard O'Brien is back in the Amazon financed by the Dutch (Apr). He builds a fort at Toherego (or Tauregue) on the Manacapuru. When Pedro da Silva turns up with 200 Portuguese soldiers and 7,000 Indian auxiliaries, O'Brien defeats him with 42 whites and 10,000 friendly Indians. O'Brien is wounded in the fight, and his Indians flee, but the Europeans fight on and win.
Pedro Teixeira launches a surprise attack at night against the Irish fort with 120 Portuguese and 1,600 Indians. O'Brien rushes back from the interior with 16 whites and many thousands of Indians. With four English and Dutch ships threatening to remove him and his Catholic settlers from the area, O'Brien surrenders to the Portuguese. The Portuguese betray the Irish into slavery and imprisonment.
Pedro Teixeira goes on toe take the English and Dutch settlements on Tucujus.
Afonso Rodrigues Adorno - one of Caramuru's descendants - takes his 200 bowmen and suppresses a Santidade near his estage at Cachoeira ('Rapids') on the Paraguaçu.
Miguel Ayres Maldonado and José de Castilho Pinto return to explore the plains of the Waitacá. At some later time they are persuaded to sell their rights and the Jesuits and colonists move in; the Waitacá are subdued.
Thomas Hixson builds a fort near Macapá on the Filipe river with 200 Englishmen.
The bandeirante André Fernandes destroys two Jesuit missions in Spanish Guairá.
Jacomé Raimundo de Noronha, with a few whites and many canoes of Indians, defeat the English on the Filipe (1 Mar).
The Paulista Paulo do Amaral destroys yet another Jesuit mission in Spanish Guairá. Subsequently the Jesuits abandon the remaining two missions in Guairá.
With the missionaries gone from Spanish Guairá. the Paulistas attack the towns of Villa Rica and Ciudad Real. After a brief defense the Spanish abandon the towns and hence the province.
King Philip sends Governor Coelho de Carvalho on a ransoming expedition up the Amazon.
Bento Maciel Parente becomes hereditary donatory of the captaincy of Cabo do Norte, and then Governor of Maranháo. Ironically Cabo do Norte lay entirely on the Spanish side of the Line of Toresillas, yet a Spanish King awards it to a Portuguese.
A small group of Spanish soldiers and Franciscan friars arrives on the Pará; they have come down stream from Quito. Inspired by the Spaniards tales of docile tribes up river, Captain Pedro Teixeira leads 70 soldiers and 1,100 Indians up river (28 Oct). After eight months the expedition makes it to Quito where they are held by the authorities.
Captain Pedro Teixeira starts his descent of the Amazon from Quito (16 Feb). On their journey the Portuguese discover the descendents of the Tupinambá who escaped from Pernambuco after the Portuguese conquest (probably in 1571); the Indians had traveled 5,600 km across the continent and then back to end up on the Amazon. Teixeira's expedition also encounters the ransoming force of Bento Marciel (the younger) against the Tapajós. [*******#22229c]http://www.balagan.org.uk/war/1492/b...First_Colonies[/COLOR]
Here's a pick of the late LtGen Vernon Walters who was Gen Mark Clark's liasion to the Brazilian Army in Italy during WW2, and later was military attache to Brazil. I had the opportunity to drive him around a few times when I was a young enlisted man:
Brazil looks like it has a nice past with the Army. Largest South American Army today.
Portuguese Seaborne Empire 16th Century
The First World War was fought in the 17th Century in Europe, Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania between Portuguese and Dutch Colonial Empires
Naval Assault in Arzila, North Africa, 1471
Landing troops on the beach
The Golden Knight is King Afonso V, O Africano
Ancestors of the first Brazilian Colonists took part in the action
Angola - The Dutch Interregnum, 1641-48
During the first half of the 1600s, when Portugal became involved in a succession of European religious and dynastic wars at the insistence of its ally, Spain, the Portuguese colonies were subjected to attacks by Spain's enemies. Holland, one of Spain's most potent enemies, raided and harassed the Portuguese territories in Angola. The Dutch also began pursuing alliances with Africans, including the king of Kongo and Nzinga of Matamba, who, angered by their treatment at the hands of the Portuguese, welcomed the opportunity to deal with another European power. When it rebelled against Spain in 1640, Portugal hoped to establish good relations with the Dutch. Instead, the Dutch saw an opportunity to expand their own colonial holdings and in 1641 captured Luanda and Benguela, forcing the Portuguese governor to flee with his fellow refugees inland to Massangano. The Portuguese were unable to dislodge the Dutch from their coastal beachhead. As the Dutch occupation cut off the supply of slaves to Brazil, that colony's economy suffered. In response, Brazilian colonists raised money and organized forces to launch an expedition aimed at unseating the Dutch from Angola. In May 1648, the Dutch garrison in Luanda surrendered to the Brazilian detachment, and the Dutch eventually relinquished their other Angolan conquests. According to some historians, after the retaking of Luanda, Angola became a de facto colony of Brazil, so driven was the South American colony's sugar-growing economy by its need for slaves. (Mongabay - Country Studies)
[SIZE=4]The First Brazilian to lead a Brazilian Expeditionary Force outside Brazil[/SIZE]
Salvador Correa de Sá
SA, Salvador Correa de, Brazilian governor, born in Rio Janeiro in 1594; died in Lisbon, 1 January, 1688. He was a grandson of the first governor of Rio Janeiro after its separation from Bahia in 1573, and his father, Martin de Sa, also held that office after it became again a dependency of the general government of Bahia till 1608. Young Salvador entered the public service in 1612, protecting a convoy of thirty vessels from Pernambuco to Europe against Dutch privateers. He was afterward sent to Brazil to prepare an auxiliary force of 500 men and three armed ships to assist the fleet that had been sent under Fadrique de Toledo against the Dutch invaders, and, after saving the province of Espirito Santo from an attack by Dutch corsairs, he aided in the recapture of Bahia in 1625. He returned in 1632 to Lisbon, but was sent in 1634 as admiral of the south to suppress a rebellion of the Calequi Indians in Paraguay, whom he defeated in 1635. He was appointed captain-general of Rio Janeiro in 1637, and as such recognized in 1640 the Prince of Braganza as King John IV., and, when the Jesuits of the south refused to acknowledge the new sovereign, Sa left his uncle, Duarte Correa de Sa, in charge of the government, and sailed on 29 March for Sao Paulo, where he soon restored order. In March, 1644, he was appointed general of the feet, to protect the Brazilian coast against the Dutch, and co-operated with Joao Fernandes Vieira in the attack on Recife. He was appointed in 1645 to establish a government in Angola, and sailed on 12 May for Africa, finishing the conquest of the Congo kingdom by the capitulation of Fort Sao Miguel, 15 August, 1648. In 1658 he was again appointed governor of southern Brazil, and took charge in September, 1659, but, after quelling an insurrection in Nictheroy in October, 1660, he handed the government over to his successor in June of that year, and sailed for Lisbon. When Alphonso VI. was deposed, 23 September, 1667, Sa, whose son had been the favorite of that monarch, was banished to Africa for ten years; but, resolving to finish his days in a Jesuit convent, he obtained, by the influence of the general of the order, permission to live in retirement in his palace of Lisbon, where he died nearly a centenarian. Edited Appletons Encyclopedia