A warrior people fighting Arabs and Muslims in Iberia
Língua Portuguesa, Língua de Guerra
Portuguese against Castillian
Tupis, Brazilian Indians
Guararapes - First National Battle
Dutch Wars in Brazil 1624-1654
In April 18th 1648, around 4,500 Dutch soldiers and five artillery pieces marched south, coming from Recife. On their way south, they eliminate a small defensive outpost on the village of Barreta. The few survivors regroup at the village of Arraial Novo do Bom Jesus, headquarters of the Resistência Pernambucana, where they report the incident.
Commanders of the resistence call for a march of 2,000 combatents towards the Guararapes ("Drums" in native language) Hills against an enemy better equipped and in superior numbers.
The terrain was damp, mostly swamp, and did not allow for the classical in-line formation of europeans armies. Forced into a narrow front, the Dutch's advantages have been almost nulled out.
The Brazilian forces are divided in five terços commanded by Barreto de Menezes, Fernandes Vieira, Antonio Felipe Camarão and Henrique Dias. Vidal de Negreiros is the commander of the fifth terço kept in reserve.
Barreto de Menezes concentrate his efforts on the space between the East face and the main swamp. In the center, Fernandes Vieira's terço has the mission to penetrate as deep possible into the enemy's formation. On the right flank, Felipe Camarão would use the long experience of the natives in fighting in the swamped terrain. Henrique Dias would use the "terço dos negros" (black's terço) to keep the Dutch from advancing and then avoiding the spear head advance from being flanked.
Limited by the lack of space for maneuver, Von Schkoppe concentrate most of his forces on the space between the east face and the main swamp. Three of his battalions are face-to-face against the terços of Vieira and Camarão, while two others of his batallions would try to flank the advancing forces and would be contained by the terço of Dias. Two Dutch batallions would not be allowed to manouver and would stay back, out of action.
The closed space also would not allow the use of firearms in its full potential and maximized the use of native weapons and the short sword. Lopes Santiago, a possible eye witness of that event, gives his gruesome account of that encounter: "(...) and as they run away, our soldiers would follow them with their swords with cuts and slashes, cutting legs, arms, heads, some killing, others wounding badly, laying on the field bodies without arms, trunks without heads (...) holding their sword on the middle of those squadrons, piles of enemies, giving spokes to some and to others death, showing the sword, tinted in blood."
The Second Battle of Guararapes
by Thaddeus Blanchette
This battle took place in 1649 in northeastern Brazil between the Dutch occupiers of the capitania of Pernambuco and the Luso-Brazilian rebel army. The Brazilian victory here set the stage for the final liberation of Pernambuco from the greedy claws of the dastardly Dutch.
DUTCH WEST INDIAN COMPANY
The Dutch had some 4000 troops (including 400 black and indian auxililaries, 300 marines and 6 cannon). They were mainly central European mercenaries armed in typical Dutch colonial fashion. Many of the troops were recently arrived however, and unaclimated to Brazil's tropical conditions (indeed, 'Pernambuco' is a corruption of 'Fornaboco', or 'the mouth of Hell'). They were described by various contemporaries as 'pale and sickly' and 'dressed in heavy, European clothes and boots'. The Dutch were armed in 'the most modern European fashion' and carried 'many standards of blue and orange mixed'.
Of the regular infantry, 1/5th were armed with pikes and some, apparently, armed with blades (this in an attempt to imitate the successful tactics of the Luso-Brazilians at the First Battle of Guarararpes). The tapuia indians allies were not at all thrilled to be part of this expedition and in fact ran away as soon as the battle started. For this, they are rated as I. Given the closed nature of the terrain and the fact that at no time did the Brazilians seem battered by artillery, Iâve arbitrarily decided that the Dutch canons were probably nothing more than 3 lb regimental guns. Pikes are downgraded to I due to the general state of the Dutch army and the fact that apparently many of them had shortened their weapons before the battle. One could also downgrade the shot to I if balance seems to be a problem. The Dutch were some sick puppies at this point in the war...
The ocean is almost a league away off to the east, so no Dutch ships could take part in the battle.
THE LUSO-BRAZILIAN REBEL ARMY
This group was divided into three major commands: a 'terco' (tercio) of blacks and mixed-race Brazilians under the black general Henrique Dias; more Brazilians and indians organized into a terco and several 'companhias de emboscada' (ambush companies) under the indian leader Camarao (it is important to note that these were considered to be an integral part of the army and not allies); Portuguese regular troops from the terco of Salvador and the colonial elite.
The Luso-Brazilians were very accomplished at fighting in the rough and difficult tropical terrain of colonial Brazil. Their preferred weapons were firearms, swords, spears and bucklers. Tactics consisted of giving a volley from a covering tree-line and them bowling into the enemy line like madmen. They had been fighting a succesful guerrilla war for almost a decade and the troops who made it to Guararapes were seasoned veterans. They wore little if any armor and generally walked barefoot. They are described as being "incredibly lithe and agile" and as "possessed of vast knowledge of the ways of their land". Though the army lacked artillery, 3000 foot soldiers and 200 cavalry took part in the battle.
NW quadrant consists of three hills running from the northeast corner to near the quadrant's southern border at point about 12 inches in from the western table edge. The hills are bare on top, each about 10" N to S and 3" E to W. These are surrounded by forest which peters off to the east and south near the quadrant borders. A road runs N to S along the west edge of the NW quadrant, meeting up with the road in the SW quadrant described below.
SW quadrant is mostly wetlands surrounded by a strip of forest. These run north to about 2-4 inches from the northern quadrant border, where they peter out. They also run from the western table edge in about 12 inches. In the clear space between the swamp and the NW quadrant, a road runs from the table edge east to the NE quadrant crossroads. Another crossroads is in the quadrant's NW corner where this road meets up with the one running down from the NW quadrant.
NE quadrant is clear with perhaps a few canebrakes scattered here and there. A 1 inch thick line of palm trees and dunes runs along the eastern table edge: the ocean is just beyond this line. A road runs in from the middle of the quadrant's northern edge and runs SW to the middle of the table where it forms a crossroads w/the roads running in from the SE and SW quadrants.
SE is mostly salt marsh running in from the SE corner to a depth of about 14 inches. The rest is clear. A road runs north from the southern table edge along the quadrant's western border. It meets up with the other roads at the NE quadrant crossroads.
The Dutch expected their adversaries to come down the coastal roads and had thus formed in a line running south along the southwesternmost hill, then turning east to run along the northern edge of the eastern swamp. The artillery was stationed with the eastern wing of the army. Unfortunately for them, the Luso-Brazilians had stolen a march and passed through the Guararapes hills to the west via a little known network of trails. They came boiling out of the western swamp and woods and hit the Dutch army in the rear and flank. After several hours of bitter hand-to-hand fighting (including several Portuguese cavalry charges), the Dutch retreated north along the road back to Recife, leaving their guns and 1,500 casualties on the field.
The Guararapes battle is considered the first military initiative based on the sense of a Brazilian Nation. The troops were a mix of Natives, Africans and Portuguese (the basis of the Brazilian nationality) and was funded and organized locally, i.e. independent from a Portuguese kingdom that was already in sharp decline at the time.
This date and place historically define the beginnings of the Brazilian Army
TORDESILHAS, TREATY OF [Tordesillas, Treaty of] , 1494, agreement signed at Tordesillas, Spain, by which Spain and Portugal divided the non-Christian world into two zones of influence. In principle the treaty followed the papal bull issued in 1493 by Pope Alexander VI, which fixed the demarcation line along a circle passing 100 leagues W of the Cape Verde Islands and through the two poles. This division gave the entire New World to Spain and Africa and India to Portugal. However, the Treaty of Tordesillas shifted the demarcation line to a circle passing 370 leagues W of the Cape Verde Islands and thus gave Portugal a claim to Brazil. There was little geographic knowledge at the time the treaty was signed, and it remains controversial whether the Portuguese then knew of the existence of Brazil.
LUSO-BRAZILIAN ADVANCE IN SOUTH AMERICA
Fighting France, England and Holland in the 17th century Amazon
The Conquest of Northern Brazil and Amazon
YEAR - Event
Jerónimo de Albuquerque leads a Portuguese to expel the French from Maranháo (Aug). The expedition includes Portuguese, plus Tremembé and Ceará Potiguar trained in European warfare. Facing them is François de Rasilly with 400 Frenchmen and 2,000 Tupinambá. The smaller Portuguese force builds a fort facing the French settlement. The French invest the camp, but on 19 Nov the Portuguese storm out of their defenses and overwhelm the enemy. More than 90 Frenchmen are killed along with 400 of their Indians. As a result the Tupinambá switch allegiance to the Portuguese.
The Portuguese find the bearded descendents of the Colonists of 1535 still with the Gé-speaking Tapuia tribes of the interior.
Fort St Louis still has a European garrison of 200, however the Portuguese at Maranháo receive powerful reinforcements from Pernambuco. La Ravardière surrenders the fort and the French vacate Brasil forever (Nov).
Francisco Caldeira de Castelo Branco takes 150 men in three ships 650 km along the coast the the most southern mouth of the Amazon, the Pará river (Dec).
Amazon / Pará
Francisco Caldeira de Castelo Branco builds a fort on the site that will become Belém do Pará ('Bethlehem of the Pará river'). As it happens the site of this settlement violates the treaty of Tordesillas, being on the Spanish side of the line.
Bento Maciel Parente leads an expedition up the Pindaré hunting Guajajara.
Francisco de Azevedo explores the Turiaçu and Gurupi rivers.
A Dutch ship is captured on the Amazon, however, the Dutch soon build forts at Orange and Nassau near the mouth of the Xingu.
The settlers in Belém send 4 whites and 30 Indians across country to Maranháo to ask for reinforcements (Mar). Pedro Teixeira, who will later become an famous Amazon explorer, is one of the party. The expedition suffers hunger, thirst, and Indian hostility but make it to their destination and Belém is reinforced.
The Tupinambá, offended by some Portuguese ransoming in their villages, kill the intruders and besiege Belém.
Manoel Preto leads the first bandeira against the Jesuit missions in Spanish Guairá
Convinced that the Portuguese are intending to enslave them, the Tupinambá of the Maranháo mainland (but not the Island) storm the fort at Tapuitapera (or Cumá) and killed the 30 white defenders. 14 more whites are killed on the Pará.
Mathias de Albuquerque (the Governor's son) leads 50 soldiers and 200 Indians pursue the Cumá Tupinambá into the forest. The Indians launch an unsuccessful attack on his stockade (3 Feb) and are crushed.
Other Pará Tupinambá join the war against the intruders at Belém. Diogo Botelho destroys one of the largest villages (Cuju), but the Indians are reinforced by the tribes of the Guamá river.
Amazon / Pará
Late in the year Mathias de Albuquerque lands on the Gurupi with 50 soldiers and 600 Tapuia. Most Tupinambá flee, but one groups is caught and slaughtered.
A Tupinambá frontal assault on Belém fails in the face of cannon and arquebus fire (7 Jan). The Tupinambá chief 'Old Woman's Hair' is killed in the assault, and the tribesmen melt away into the forest.
The new governor, Jerónimo Fragoso de Albuquerque, leads a force of 100 soldiers and hundreds of Indians against the Tupinambá. Iguapé, the main village of the Tupinambá is stormed, and other villages along the Guanapus and Carapi rivers burnt.
The governor authorises Bento Maciel Parente to march overland from Pernambuco to attack the Tupinambá in the rear. Parente spends most of the year devastating the Tupinambá lands from Tapuitapera near São Luis de Maranháo to Belém with his force of 80 soldiers and 600 Indians.
Manoel Preto leads another bandeira against the Jesuit missions in Spanish Guairá.
Captain Roger North takes 120 English and Irish colonists to the Amazon. They land 16 men under Bernard O'Brien 385 km up the Amazon, and then sail on to settle a further 285 km up stream. William White explores another 130 km in a pinnace.
Subsequently O'Brien befriends the local Indians, explores parts of the Amazon basin, and prevents the Dutch from settling near him.
The peaceful Tupinambá of Maranháo island are devastated by smallpox.
1623 - 1624
A long expedition against the Jesuit missions in Spanish Guairá - again under Manoel Preto - nets a thousand Christian Carijó slaves.
Bento Maciel Parente leads 70 soldiers and over a thousand Indians in native canoes against the Dutch and Irish/English colonists. Indian allies of the Dutch and English harass the approaching force, but don't prevent the Portuguese landing near the Irish fort. The Irish/English flee into the forest, and Parente sails on to Fort Orange on the east bank of the lower Xingu. The garrison of 14 Dutchmen are tricked into surrendering. The Portuguese paddle on, defeat a force of Indians allied to the Dutch, and reach Fort Nassau 67 km up the Xingu. Once again the fort surrenders without a fight. Later a Dutch ship is run around and the crew and passengers massacred.
Bernard O'Brien returns to Europe on a Dutch ship, leaving Philip Purcell in charge of his fort.
The Dutch destroy the Portuguese base near Gurupá.
The Portuguese retaliate for their loss the previous year and destroy another Dutch fort, English plantations and O'Brien's fort.
Bento Maciel Parente becomes governor of Pará. Parente sends his son on a ransoming expedition up the Amazon, one of many such expeditions at this time. Later based on flimsy evidence of intended rebellion Parente seizes and executes 24 Indian leaders, and as a result of the uproar is removed from office (Oct).
The King awards two old soldiers (Miguel Ayres Maldonado and José de Castilho Pinto) the lands of the Waitacá in recognition of past service. They explore for awhile and leave with good reports of the Waitacá plains.
1628 - 1629
Yet another bandeira - this time under António Rapôso Tavares - sets out for the Jesuit Missions of Spanish Guairá (Aug 1628). The bandeira is huge - 69 whites, 900 mamelucos and 2,000 Indians - big enough to be divided into four companies. The bandeirantes spend four months camped outside a mission village; they leave the mission along, but enslave any Indians they encounter. Eventually the bandeirantes march into the mission of San Antonio, enslave the 4,000 Indians living there and destroy the village (30 Jan 1629). A similar fate is meted out to the missions at San Miguel and Jesús-Maria.
Bernard O'Brien is back in the Amazon financed by the Dutch (Apr). He builds a fort at Toherego (or Tauregue) on the Manacapuru. When Pedro da Silva turns up with 200 Portuguese soldiers and 7,000 Indian auxiliaries, O'Brien defeats him with 42 whites and 10,000 friendly Indians. O'Brien is wounded in the fight, and his Indians flee, but the Europeans fight on and win.
Pedro Teixeira launches a surprise attack at night against the Irish fort with 120 Portuguese and 1,600 Indians. O'Brien rushes back from the interior with 16 whites and many thousands of Indians. With four English and Dutch ships threatening to remove him and his Catholic settlers from the area, O'Brien surrenders to the Portuguese. The Portuguese betray the Irish into slavery and imprisonment.
Pedro Teixeira goes on toe take the English and Dutch settlements on Tucujus.
Afonso Rodrigues Adorno - one of Caramuru's descendants - takes his 200 bowmen and suppresses a Santidade near his estage at Cachoeira ('Rapids') on the Paraguaçu.
Miguel Ayres Maldonado and José de Castilho Pinto return to explore the plains of the Waitacá. At some later time they are persuaded to sell their rights and the Jesuits and colonists move in; the Waitacá are subdued.
Thomas Hixson builds a fort near Macapá on the Filipe river with 200 Englishmen.
The bandeirante André Fernandes destroys two Jesuit missions in Spanish Guairá.
Jacomé Raimundo de Noronha, with a few whites and many canoes of Indians, defeat the English on the Filipe (1 Mar).
The Paulista Paulo do Amaral destroys yet another Jesuit mission in Spanish Guairá. Subsequently the Jesuits abandon the remaining two missions in Guairá.
With the missionaries gone from Spanish Guairá. the Paulistas attack the towns of Villa Rica and Ciudad Real. After a brief defense the Spanish abandon the towns and hence the province.
King Philip sends Governor Coelho de Carvalho on a ransoming expedition up the Amazon.
Bento Maciel Parente becomes hereditary donatory of the captaincy of Cabo do Norte, and then Governor of Maranháo. Ironically Cabo do Norte lay entirely on the Spanish side of the Line of Toresillas, yet a Spanish King awards it to a Portuguese.
A small group of Spanish soldiers and Franciscan friars arrives on the Pará; they have come down stream from Quito. Inspired by the Spaniards tales of docile tribes up river, Captain Pedro Teixeira leads 70 soldiers and 1,100 Indians up river (28 Oct). After eight months the expedition makes it to Quito where they are held by the authorities.
Captain Pedro Teixeira starts his descent of the Amazon from Quito (16 Feb). On their journey the Portuguese discover the descendents of the Tupinambá who escaped from Pernambuco after the Portuguese conquest (probably in 1571); the Indians had traveled 5,600 km across the continent and then back to end up on the Amazon. Teixeira's expedition also encounters the ransoming force of Bento Marciel (the younger) against the Tapajós. http://www.balagan.org.uk/war/1492/b...First_Colonies
Here's a pick of the late LtGen Vernon Walters who was Gen Mark Clark's liasion to the Brazilian Army in Italy during WW2, and later was military attache to Brazil. I had the opportunity to drive him around a few times when I was a young enlisted man:
1532 - Armada de Martim Afonso de Souza. Creation of the Vila and Port of São Vicente. 1554 – Tupiniquins Indians, allied of the Portuguese, authorize the Jesuítas to create in Piratininga the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga. 1562 –São Paulo under siege and attacked by enemy Indians. Brazilian Tupi Indians were cannibals and antropófagos. To be captured meaned to be devoured in a ritual ceremony. Tibiriçá, Piratininga Tupi Chief was the leader of the defense of São Paulo. Tibiriçá was declared Founder and Protector of São Paulo. He was buried under the São Paulo Catedral da Sé Cripta and he is one genealogical key figure in Brazil’s Genealogy. 1560-1565 – Seashore’s Wars, Guerras do Litoral, against Tamoios and French Calvinist’s allies 1565 – Portuguese and Tupi assault and offensive in Rio de Janeiro against French and Tamoios 1567 –Portuguese Conquest of Rio de Janeiro after a fierce batlle in Guanabara Bay 1585 - Bandeiras in Tietê River. 1602 – Southern Bandeiras and razzias against the Guaranis Indians in the Southern Seashore, Cananéia, Paraná and Santa Catarina Litoral 1615 - Paraupava, Central Brazil 1628-1632 – Destruction of the big Jesuit Missions in Guairá, nowadays Northeastern Paraná. 60.000 Guaranis captured and enslaved. Destruction of the Spanish localities of Ciudad Real e Ontiveros. 1636 – Assault to Tape, Central Rio Grande do Sul. 1639 – Bandeirantes join the struggle against the Dutch, Nordeste do Brasil. 1641 Mbororé, Uruguai River. Defeat to gunpowered Guaranis and Jesuítas. The Bandeirantes were outnumbered and outgunned. 1647 Taré 1632 -1648 Itatins, Southern Mato Grosso. Destruction of Santiago de Jerez, Spanish locality. 1648-1651. Bandeirante Antonio Raposo Tavares and his group make a 12.000 km trip, From São Paulo, close to the Andes and finally meeting his fellow Portuguese in the Amazonas River, returning from Belém do Pará. 1671 – Bandeiras against the Anicuns. Goiás. 1676 - Amambaí 1683- 1715. Bandeiras against the so called “Barbaric Indians” Northeastern Dry Lands, Caatingas, Cariris Indians. 1694 - Quilombo dos Palmares, Alagoas. Bandeirantes were recruited to exterminate black maroons in a fortress built and surviving since the Dutch Wars, fifty years before. 1695-1700 - Bandeirantes discover gold in Minas Gerais 1708-1709 - Emboabas. Defeat in Minas Gerais. 1718 – Conquest of Mato Grosso. 1722 – Bandeirantes discover gold in Goiás. 1725-1744 – War against the Paiaguás Indians, Mato Grosso. Exceptional fighting people of river pirates, who inflicted great losses to the Portuguese. The Paiaguás and Guaicurus Horsemen were the responsible for the Spanish Defeat in the Paraguai River before. Only the Bandeirantes could defeat both people in the 18th Century. 1740-1741 –War against the Caiapó, Porrudos and Tapirapé Indians, Goiás, Central Brazil. 1754-1756 – Guarani War, Southern Brazil. The Bandeirantes revenge Mbororé 1763 – Conquest of Guaporé 1767-1777 - Iguatemi. Taken by the Spaniards from Paraguai. Reconquered later by the Brazilians. 1720 –1778 – Wars against the Guaicuru, one of the fiercest and most warlike Indians in the Américas, skillful knights with awesome tatoos. Pantanal de Mato Grosso 1801 – Conquest of the Spanish Siete Pueblos de Las Misiones, Uruguai River. The last big acquisition of territory in Southern Brazil. This war is more related to the Southern Wars in Rio Grande do Sul and Colônia do Sacramento between Portugal and Spain.
The Bandeirantes have created the basis and the fundaments of the conquest and colonization of Central-Southern Brazil. São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Mato Grosso were originally Bandeirante Land.
Portuguese Seaborne Empire 16th Century
The First World War was fought in the 17th Century in Europe, Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania between Portuguese and Dutch Colonial Empires http://www.colonialvoyage.com/
Naval Assault in Arzila, North Africa, 1471
Landing troops on the beach
The Golden Knight is King Afonso V, O Africano
Ancestors of the first Brazilian Colonists took part in the action
Angola - The Dutch Interregnum, 1641-48
During the first half of the 1600s, when Portugal became involved in a succession of European religious and dynastic wars at the insistence of its ally, Spain, the Portuguese colonies were subjected to attacks by Spain's enemies. Holland, one of Spain's most potent enemies, raided and harassed the Portuguese territories in Angola. The Dutch also began pursuing alliances with Africans, including the king of Kongo and Nzinga of Matamba, who, angered by their treatment at the hands of the Portuguese, welcomed the opportunity to deal with another European power. When it rebelled against Spain in 1640, Portugal hoped to establish good relations with the Dutch. Instead, the Dutch saw an opportunity to expand their own colonial holdings and in 1641 captured Luanda and Benguela, forcing the Portuguese governor to flee with his fellow refugees inland to Massangano. The Portuguese were unable to dislodge the Dutch from their coastal beachhead. As the Dutch occupation cut off the supply of slaves to Brazil, that colony's economy suffered. In response, Brazilian colonists raised money and organized forces to launch an expedition aimed at unseating the Dutch from Angola. In May 1648, the Dutch garrison in Luanda surrendered to the Brazilian detachment, and the Dutch eventually relinquished their other Angolan conquests. According to some historians, after the retaking of Luanda, Angola became a de facto colony of Brazil, so driven was the South American colony's sugar-growing economy by its need for slaves. (Mongabay - Country Studies)
The First Brazilian to lead a Brazilian Expeditionary Force outside Brazil
Salvador Correa de Sá
SA, Salvador Correa de, Brazilian governor, born in Rio Janeiro in 1594; died in Lisbon, 1 January, 1688. He was a grandson of the first governor of Rio Janeiro after its separation from Bahia in 1573, and his father, Martin de Sa, also held that office after it became again a dependency of the general government of Bahia till 1608. Young Salvador entered the public service in 1612, protecting a convoy of thirty vessels from Pernambuco to Europe against Dutch privateers. He was afterward sent to Brazil to prepare an auxiliary force of 500 men and three armed ships to assist the fleet that had been sent under Fadrique de Toledo against the Dutch invaders, and, after saving the province of Espirito Santo from an attack by Dutch corsairs, he aided in the recapture of Bahia in 1625. He returned in 1632 to Lisbon, but was sent in 1634 as admiral of the south to suppress a rebellion of the Calequi Indians in Paraguay, whom he defeated in 1635. He was appointed captain-general of Rio Janeiro in 1637, and as such recognized in 1640 the Prince of Braganza as King John IV., and, when the Jesuits of the south refused to acknowledge the new sovereign, Sa left his uncle, Duarte Correa de Sa, in charge of the government, and sailed on 29 March for Sao Paulo, where he soon restored order. In March, 1644, he was appointed general of the feet, to protect the Brazilian coast against the Dutch, and co-operated with Joao Fernandes Vieira in the attack on Recife. He was appointed in 1645 to establish a government in Angola, and sailed on 12 May for Africa, finishing the conquest of the Congo kingdom by the capitulation of Fort Sao Miguel, 15 August, 1648. In 1658 he was again appointed governor of southern Brazil, and took charge in September, 1659, but, after quelling an insurrection in Nictheroy in October, 1660, he handed the government over to his successor in June of that year, and sailed for Lisbon. When Alphonso VI. was deposed, 23 September, 1667, Sa, whose son had been the favorite of that monarch, was banished to Africa for ten years; but, resolving to finish his days in a Jesuit convent, he obtained, by the influence of the general of the order, permission to live in retirement in his palace of Lisbon, where he died nearly a centenarian. Edited Appletons Encyclopedia
The 200 Years War (1680-1870) Southern Theater of Operations
In 1680, for example, the population of the Spanish provinces in the Rio de la Plata region totaled some 125,000 people. Of this total, the missions accounted for 67,000 or fifty-four percent of the total.
An example of the involvement of the Guarani militia in international conflict comes from the repeated instances of Spanish attacks against Colonia do Sacramento, the Portuguese outpost established in 1680 in what today is Uruguay. Shortly after the establishment of the outpost, a Spanish force that included Guarani militia captured Colonia, but a 1681 treaty returned the outpost to Portugal. A quarter of a century later, in 1705, the Spanish captured Colonia a second time. Some 4,000 Guarani militia participated in the campaign. Spain returned the outpost of Portugal at the end of the War of Spanish Succession in 1713. Local officials mobilized a force of 1,000 Guarani militia to expel the Portuguese from a new outpost established at modern Montevideo in 1724, and to help construct the fortifications of the Spanish colony at the site named San Felipe y Santiago de Montevideo two years later in 1726. Royal officials also mobilized the militia in response to internal conflicts. In the 1720s and early 1730s there was growing discontent among the colonists in Paraguay, related in part to competition between the settlers and missions in the marketing of yerba mate. In 1732, the government mobilized 6,000 Guarani militiamen to restore order in Paraguay, and then sent to militia to Buenos Aires to fight the Portuguese in the Banda Oriente (Uruguay).
The establishment of Colonia do Sacramento by the Portuguese in 1680 across the Rio de la Plata estuary from Buenos Aires in what today is Uruguay generated considerable concern among Spanish officials, but at the same time the Rio de la Plata region was also a sparsely populated borderland that generated little revenue and in the late seventeenth-century Spain did not have the same financial resources as in the previous century to pay for a potentially expensive colonization initiative that might have also provoked a war. The Portuguese expansion in the region threatened Spanish claims to the Banda Oriente and the territory east of the Uruguay River first occupied by Jesuit missions after 1610. The establishment of missions in Tape (modern Rio Grande do Sul) established Spain’s claim, but the Jesuits evacuated the region in the 1630s as a result of destructive raids by the bandeirantes, slave raiders from Sao Paulo In 1750, Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of Madrid to adjust colonial boundaries. Under the terms of the treaty the Spanish-Portuguese border was to be set at the Uruguay River. The residents of the seven missions located in what was to become Portuguese territory were to relocate to Spanish territory, or else remain under Portuguese rule. Moreover, the missions were to loose lands east of the river used for ranching and farming. Having served the purpose of establishing Spanish territorial claims, the Crown sacrificed the Guarani missions to larger geopolitical objectives. The Guarani leaders of the seven mission communities rejected the plan to relocate from their homes. The members of the cabildos sent a petition to the Spanish governor in Buenos Aires that read in part:
Our fathers, our grandfathers, our brothers have fought under the royal standard, many times against the Portuguese, many times against the savages; who can say how many of them have fallen on the battlefields, or before the walls of the New Colony [Colonia do Sacramento] attacked many times. We ourselves can show our loyalty and valor withy our wounds…How does the Catholic King want to reward those services, expelling us from our lands, houses, fields and legitimate inheritances. We can not believe it. By the royal letters of Felipe V, read to us from the pulpit by his own orders, we were exhorted to never let the Portuguese, yours and our enemies, approach our borders
An armed Guarani force prevented the commission from advancing further, and it retreated back to Montevideo and Colonia do Sacramento respectively Spanish and Portuguese leaders decided to unite their forces to suppress Guarani resistance, and a joint Spanish-Portuguese army of 3,020 soldiers reached Santa Tecla in February of 1756. The Spanish-Portuguese army routed the Guarani militia at the battle of Caibate on February 10, 1756. The Spanish-Portuguese army suffered three deaths and ten wounded, compared to 1,511 Guarani killed and 154 captured. Spain and Portugal later annulled the 1750 treaty, and Spain regained control over the seven missions. Spain and Portugal went to war over the disputed Rio de la Plata borderlands in the 1760s, and only resolved the boundary disputes with the signing of the 1777 Treaty of San Ildefonso. The trans-Uruguay missions remained under Spanish control until occupied by a Portuguese militia force in 1801, but the war disrupted the mission program and particularly the mission economies. Robert Jackson http://www.timsbaja.com/rjackson/020703/sanlorenzomartir.html#_ednref25
1762/1763 - Castilhos, Santa Teresa, São Miguel, Rio Grande, São José. Spanish victorious campaign against Rio Grande do Sul. 1766 São José is retaken by the Luso-Brazilians. 1773 Santa Tecla - Fort created by the Spaniards. Nowadays Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. 1774 Santa Bárbara, Tabaquaí 1775 São Martinho 1776 Santa Tecla, Spanish Fort destroyed. Vila de Rio Grande is reconquered. 1777 Spanish naval offensive against Ilha de Santa Catarina. The biggest Spanish Armada against Brazil (probably the biggest European fleet against any target in the Americas). More than 100 ships and boats, 9.000 troops. The island of Santa Catarina is taken. Colônia do Sacramento is also taken. Major Spanish victory. Santo Ildefonso Treaty appointed the loss of Colônia do Sacramento and the Missions. Ilha de Santa Catarina back to Brazil.
Luso-Brazilians prepare better for the next round in the Napoleonic Wars 1801 – Luso-Brazilians retake the Missions. Important victory redrawing Brazilian southern frontier and revenging the 1777 defeat.
1811/1812 - Portuguese invasion of Banda Oriental 1816-1820 War in Banda Oriental against Artigas. 1816 India Muerta battle. 1817 Ocupation of Montevidéu. 1817 Destructive incursion in the Argentine Missions 1820 Tacuarembó. Major Luso-Brazilian victory. Artigas is definitely defeated. Banda Oriental or Uruguai became Cisplatina Province with another ethnic background and with a different language and political orientation from Brazil.
1822 – Dom Pedro I, Príncipe Regente, leads the process of full independence from Portugal. Empire of Brazil. Dom Pedro I First Emperor. Independence clashes in Cisplatina weakens the Luso-Brazilian garrison there. 1825-1828. Cisplatina Campaign. It was not a popular cause in Rio de Janeiro. 1825 Revolution in Uruguai. Anexation to Argentina. War declared. Rincão das Galinhas, Sarandi 1827 – Carmen del Patagones – Brazilain defeat. 1827 – 8/feb Juncal Brazilian defeat. 8/apr Monte Santiago – Brazilian victory. 1827 - Passo do Rosário. Stalemate. The Platinos call this battle Ituzaingó and they claimed victory but it was an inconclusive battle. Both armies retreated. Abt. 200 Brazilians killed and 150 Platinos Killed. Carlos Maria Alvear, the Argentine commander in Passo do Rosário was born in Santo Angelo, Missiones, nowadays Brazil. Rivadavia, Argentine’s President resigned 15 april 1828 Las Canas – Brazilian victory 1828 Brazil and Argentina broken into internal conflicts. Argentina pledged peace. Missions sacked once again. July 1828, Mercenary Rebellion in Rio de Janeiro. German and Irish mercenaries, hired by the Emperor, riot in Rio de Janeiro. 120 mercenaries killed and complete crackdown of the mercenaries. Blacks and mulattos slaves from Rio de Janeiro helped to fight the foreigners. As in Guararapes, the real last line of defense in Brazil. This event showed the necessity of a 100% National Army. Stalemate at Cisplatina’s war. Montevidéu and Colônia do Sacramento were controlled by Brazilians garrisons, but the country was out of control and full of enemy guerrilhas. Enough for this time. End of the war against Argentina with the independence of Uruguai as a buffer state between Brazil and Argentina. 27 aug 1828 Peace Treaty.
Farroupilha Civil War 1835-1845 – Farrapos War, Civil War in Rio Grande do Sul.
Complete Organization, professionalization and modernization of the Brazilian National Army Campaign Against the Southern Caudilhos. Fall of Oribe in Uruguai, Rosas in Argentina and Solano Lopez in Paraguai. Brazil organized political and military alliances against Southern Dictators 1851- Brazilian invasion of Uruguai.
1852 – Allied forces and Brazilian invasion of Argentina. Battle of Monte Caseros or Morón. Rosas is defeated. 20/ feb/ Brazilian Militar parade in Buenos Aires.
1864/1865 Brazilian Invasion of Uruguai.
Paraguai declared war and invaded Argentina and Brazil. Paraguai had the biggest army at the beggining of the conflict. At the beginning of the war. Paraguayan army – 80.000 Brazilian army – 30.000. Paraguay concentrated the troops and had several forts in Paraguay. Losses at the end of war – Paraguay ca. 300,000 soldiers and civilians. Allieds -90,000 to 100,000 soldiers and civilians
1865 Paraguai offensive against Brazil. Paraguai take Southern Mato Grosso and the Missiones once again in the centre of the Southern Wars. Paraguayan defeat in Uruguaiana. 5,500 prisioners taken. 1866 – Brazilian invasion of Paraguai. 24/may Tuiuti - Biggest Batlle ever ocurred in South America with more than fifty thousand participants. 21.000 Brazilians, 10.000 Argentines, 1200 Uruguaians versus 24.000 Paraguaians. Paraguai had 6.000 killed, 7.000 wounded. Brazil had 3.000 killed and wounded. Argentina 600 and Uruguai 300. September. Curupaiti. Major Allied defeat. 1867 - Attrition war. 1868 – Humaitá, Angostura, Piquisiri, Itororó, Avaí and Lomas Valentines. 1869 – Peribebuí Campo Grande or Acosta Ñu. 1870 – Cerro Cora. Solano Lopez is killed in action, fighting till the end.
name date Allied force Paraguayan force Allied losses Paraguayan losses Riachuelo 11 june 1865 9 ships; 59 guns 8 ships and 6 chatas; 36 guns 1 ship, 247 casualties 3 ships, all chatas, 300-400 casualties Estero Bellaco May 2, 1866
3,500 1,600 2,000-2,300 Tuiuti May 24, 1866 35,000 23,350 4,046 some 12,000 Curuzu Sept. 2, 1866 14,000 2,500 some 800 some 800 Curupaity Sept. 22, 1866 20,000 5,000 5,000 54 Siege of
Humaita from July 22, 1867 to August 5, 1868 45,000 20,000 some 10,000 some 4,100 Itororó December 6, 1868 13,000 5,000 1,800 1,600 Avaí December 11, 1868 17,000 4,000 800 3,000 Lomas Valentinas December 21 and 27, 1868 19,500 on the first day
25,000 on the second 6,000-6,500 more than 3,500 the entire force*
Losses at the end of war – Paraguay ca. 300,000 soldiers and civilians. Allieds -90,000 to 100,000 soldiers and civilians Almost total destruction of Paraguay.
With Brazil, the resolution found for this rapprochement and recognition was more commonly a negative one, since the Brazilians were always regarded as “foreigners”, “enemies” and “invaders”. There were no variants or nuances, the relationship was a uniform one: the Brazilians are always advancing; the Argentines have to raise barriers. History unearthed many examples to justify this relationship. The community of race, people and culture disintegrated rapidly in this case. By contrast, the process of perceiving and placing Paraguay involved more frequent alternations of identification and differentiation. It was possible to find common ground with the Paraguayans by stressing the common Guarani origin, sharing the idea of the “unconquered’, “liberationist” and “localist” character of the two peoples and identifying them both as victims that had supposedly suffered the same oppression and misfortunes. They had been “sisters” in the “dawn of the nation”, and it was even possible, if necessary, to avoid dealing with conflict-ridden issues from the past. History left more scope for negotiation than was possible with the Brazilians. But an asymmetrical relationship can be perceived in the historical argument: the Brazilians were always more powerful and superior, while the Paraguayans appeared to be subsidiary to Argentine History: the independence of Paraguay was supposedly due to the liberating impetus provided by Argentina. While the Misiones towns of the western shore of the Parana were “left” in the hands of Paraguay by Belgrano, at most “lost” to Argentina, the towns on the shores of the Uruguay were “snatched” and “usurped” by the Portuguese. It was fairly evident that the Argentines treated the Paraguayans with the paternalistic superiority of an older sibling, while the Brazilians, although more powerful, continued to behave with the savagery of peoples who had not yet fully attained the state of civilization in the way the Argentines had. But these are just some of the possibilities thrown up by the process of constructing neighbours in the multiple ways of understanding “frontiers” within the context of historiographical localism at the frontier. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001146/114633Eo.pdf
Portuguese Empire bordering the French Empire Brazil bordering the European Union Amapá
1697 – French incursion against Portuguese forces in the region 1715 - Utrecht Treaty. Limits between Brazil and French Guiana in the Oiapoque River 1738 - Portuguese Militar Detachment in Macapá 1764 – Fortaleza de São José de Macapá 1809 - Luso-Brazilian invasion of French Guiana 1809-1817 - Brazilian Military occupation of French Guiana in the Napoleonic Wars. 19th Century - France claims Amapá. 1893 - Golden discovered. Brazilians rush to the area. Open conflict between Brazilian miners and French authorities. France tried to create the Cunani Republic in the disputed area. 1894 - Brazilian Guerilha. 15 may 1895. Combat of Amapá. French Gunboat Bengali with 150 marines attacked the Brazilian village of Amapá and tried to arrest Francisco Xavier da Veiga Cabral (Cabralzinho), leader of the local population. Brazilian tough resistance. French Captain Lunier and many French were killed. In reprisal the French killed more than 30 Brazilian women and children in an infamous civilian massacre. Cabralzinho was recognized as Honorary General and Brazilian National Hero in Rio de Janeiro. Threat of a full war. Swiss Arbitrage decides to give the region to Brazil in 1900.
Infantry Colonel Alvaro de Souza Pinheiro provides a good example of just how the expansion was carried out. Like the rest of Brazil's armed forces, he believes guerrilla warfare is the most effective way of defending and consolidating the Amazon, which he considers an "area of strategic priority."
He maintains that the conquest of the region was "an epic wrought with bloodshed, courage, and determination." As an example, he uses the annexation by Brazil of the state of Acre, finalized in 1904, but started 15 years prior.
The region had been ceded to Bolivia in the 1867 Treaty of Ayacucho, but the profits to be made in rubber drew thousands of Brazilians, in large part from the poverty-stricken northeastern region.
In 1889, the Brazilians living in Acre decided to defy the authority of Bolivia, create an independent territory, and request annexation from Brazil. Bolivia responded by founding the city of Puerto Alonso (today Porto Acre).
In October of 1889, the Brazilians used military force to occupy and expel the Bolivians, and in July of 1899, with the help of the seringueiros(4) and the governor of the state of Amazonas, they proclaimed the Republic of Acre.
In 1901, Bolivia leased the region to The Bolivian Syndicate of New York through the Treaty of Aramayo, but in August of 1902, two thousand Brazilian guerrillas began an insurrection that would defeat Bolivia's troops by 1903. The leader, Plácido de Castro, was then proclaimed governor of the Independent State of Acre.
On January 17th, the Baron of Rio Branco won a diplomatic victory with the signing of the Treaty of Petrópolis, in which Brazil purchased the area from Bolivia for two million sovereigns and paid US$ 110,000 in reparations to The Bolivian Syndicate. Finally, on February 25, 1904, the Independent State of Acre was dissolved and incorporated into Brazil as a Federal territory.(5)
This is only one historic example of how the "march to the West" took place. (Raul Zibechi)
Fernando de Noronha
The first to actually describe the island was Amerigo Vespucci, who travelled with a Portuguese expedition to Brazil in the year 1503. In 1534, the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago was invaded by the English, and from 1556 until 1612, it was held by the French. In 1628, it was occupied by the Dutch, who were displaced two years later by a Spanish-Portuguese military expedition led by Rui Calaza Borges. The Dutch occupied the island once again in 1635, making it a hospital for their troops which occupied Northeastern Brazil (the Brazilian coast between Rio Sao Francisco and Maranhao). The island became known as Pavonia, in honor of Michiel de Pauw, one of the directors of the Dutch West Indies Company. It would remain under Dutch control for nearly twenty years, when it was reconquered by Portugal. Finding it uninhabited and completely abandoned in 1736, the French East Indies Company took the island and renamed it Isle Dauphine. Only from 1737 on, after the expulsion of the French, Fernando de Noronha was definitively occupied by Portugal. This time it was decided to fortify the island. For this purpose, ten forts were built in all strategic points where a possibility of disembarkation existed; nine in the main island and one in the Ilha de São José situated in front of the Saint Anthony harbour. The forts were connected by a network of stone roads. This defence system was planned by the Portuguese militar engineer Diogo da Sylveira Vellozo. Around 1770, the first permanent settlement, Vila dos Remédios, was founded. The village was divided in two units (pátios); in the superior one were the administrative buildings, in the lower one the church and the associated religious buildings. As Brazil became independent, very little changed for Fernando de Noronha. (Wikipedia)
Fernando de Noronha was a fortified island !
Fernando de Noronha was not Malvinas
It is a ...
Surfers Paradise with a ...
Much better atmosphere
Much better climate